BMED 1106 midterm review Flashcards


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1
  1. What event is thought to have contributed to the evolution of eukaryotes

oxygenation of the atmosphere

2

Which characteristic is shared by prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

DNA based genome

3

Mitochondria most likely evolved by

endosymbiosis

4

which of these protists is believed to have evolved following a secondary endosymbiosis

chlorarachniophytes

5

In 2016, scientists published the genome of Monocercomonoides, and demonstrated that this organism has no detectable mitochondrial genes. However, its genome was arranged in linear chromosomes wrapped around histones which are contained within the nucleus. Monocercomonoides is therefore a(n) _

Eukaryote

6

Which of the following observations about a bacterium would distinguish it from the last eukaryotic common ancestor

lack of membrane bound structure surrounding the genome

7

protists that have a pellicle are surrounded by _________.

proteins

8

Protists with the capabilities to perform photosynthesis and to absorb nutrients from dead organisms are called

saprobes

9

Which of these locomotor organs would likely be the shortest?

cilium

10

Alternation of generations describes which of the following

both haploid and diploid forms are muticellular

11

The amoeba E. histolytica is a pathogen that forms liver abscesses in infected individuals. Its metabolic classification is most likely ______.

anaerobic heterotroph

12

Which protist group exhibits mitochondrial remnants with reduced functionality?

parabasilids

13

Conjugation between two Paramecia produces ________ total daughter cells.

8

14

what is the function of the raphe in diatoms?

locomotion

15

What genus of protists appears to contradict the statement that unicellular restricts cell size

Caulerpa

16

An example of carbon fixation is ____

photosynthesis

17

Which parasitic protist evades the host immune system by altering its surface proteins with each generation

Trypanosoma brucei

18

which of the following is not a way that protists contribute to the food web

they occupy the apex producer niche

19

A marine biologist analyzing water samples notices a protist with a calcium carbonate shell that moves by pseudopodia extension. The protist is likely to be closely related to which species?

ammonia tepida

20

Which polysaccharide is usually found in the cell wall of fungi

chitin

21

Which of these organelles is not found in a fungal cell

chloroplast

22

The wall dividing individual cell in a fungal filament is called a

septum

23

During sexual reproduction, a homothallic mycelium contains

both mating types

24

The life cycles of perfect fungi are most similar to which another organism

haploid dominant green algae

25

The most primitive phylum of fungi is the ___________.

Chytridiomycota

26

Members of which phylum establishes a successful symbiotic relationship with the roots of trees.

glomeromycota

27

Members of which phylum produce a clubshaped structure that contains spores

basidiomycota

28

The fungi that do not reproduce sexually used to be classified as

deuteromycota

29

A scientist discovers a new species of fungus that introduces genetic diversity during reproduction by creating a diploid zygote. This new species cannot belong to which modern phylum of fungi

deuteromycota

30

What term described the close association of fungus with the root of tree

a mycorrhiza

31

why are fungi important decomposers?

they recycle carbon and inorganic minerals by the process of decomposition

32

Consider an ecosystem where all the fungi not involved in mycorrhizae are eliminated. How would this affect nitrogen intake by plants?

nitrogen intake would decrease

33

A fungal infection that affects nails and skin is classified as

systemic mycosis

34

A fungus that climbs up a tree reaching higher elevation to release its spores in the wind and does not receive any nutrients from the tree or contribute to the tree’s welfare is described as a

commensal

35

The targets for anti-fungal drugs are much more limited than antibiotics or anti-viral medications. Why?

human cells are much more similar to fungi than bacteria or viruses

36

Yeast is a facultative anaerobe. This means that alcohol fermentation takes place only if

the atmosphere does not contain oxygen

37

The advantage of yeast cells over bacterial cells to express human proteins is that

yeast cells are eukaryotic and modify proteins similar to human cells

38

Why are fungal insecticides an attractive alternative to chemical pesticides for growing food crops

Human consumption of fungal insecticides would not make a person sick, but ingestion of chemical pesticides can be harmful to humans

39

The first forms of life on Earth were though to be the _________________

prokaryotes

40

Microbial mats _______

all of the above

41

The first organisms that oxygenated the atmosphere were

cyanobacteria

42

Halophiles are organisms that require _______.

a salt concentration of at least 0.2M

43

Many of the first prokaryotes to be cultured in a scientific lab were human or animal pathogens. Why would these species be more readily cultured than non-pathogenic prokaryotes?

most of the necessary culture conditions could be inferred for pathogenic prokaryotes

44

The presence of a membrane-enclosed nucleus is a characteristic of ______________.

eukaryotic cells

45

Which of the following consist of prokaryotic cells

bacteria and archaea

46

The cell wall is ________.

exterior to the cell membrane

47

Organisms most likely to be found in extreme environments are

archaea

48

Prokaryotes stain as gram-positive or gram negative because of differences in the cell

wall

49

Pseudopeptidoglycan is a characteristic of the walls of ________.

Archaean prokaryotic cells

50

The lipopolysaccharide layer (LPS) is a characteristic of the wall of

Gram negative bacteria

51

Which of the following elements is not a micronutrient

boron

52

Prokaryotes that obtain their energy from chemical compounds are called

chemotrophs

53

Ammonification is the process by which __________.

ammonia is releases during the decomposition of nitrogen containing organic compounds

54

Plants use carbon dioxide from the air and are therefore called

producers

55

cyanobacteria harness energy from the sun through photosynthesis and oxidize water to provide electrons for energy generation. Thus, we classify cyanobacteria as

photoautotrophs

56

A disease that is constantly present in a population is called

endemic

57

Which of the statements about biofilms is incorrect

biofilms are considered responsible for diseases such as cystic fibrosis.

58

Which of these statements is true

. an antibiotic is any substance produced by a organism that is antagonistic to the growth of the prokaryotes

59

A person in England arrives at a medical clinic with a fever and swollen lymph nodes shortly after returning from a visit to New Mexico. For which bacteria should the doctor test the patient?

Salmonella enterica

60

In addition to providing yogurt its unique flavor and texture, lactic acid-producing bacteria also provide which additional benefit during food production

breaking down lactose for lactose intolerant individuals

61

Which of these occurs through symbiotic nitrogen fixation

all of the above

62

Synthetic compounds found in an organism but not normally produced or expected to be present in that organism are called _______.

xenobiotics or c. recalcitrant compounds

63

. MRSA has emerged as a serious infectious disease, with the first case of methicillin resistant S. aureus being detected in 1961. Why are medical professional so concerned when antibiotic exist that can kill MSRA

. MSRA could acquire additional antibiotic resistance genes form other bacteria to become a super bug

64

Bioremediation includes _______.

. the use of prokaryotes to clean up pollutants

65

Which statement is true

Viruses are ACELLULAR

66

The viral ______ play(s) a role in attaching a virion to the host cell

BOTH the capsid and the envelope

67

Viruses ______.

VARY in shape

68

The observation that the bacteria genus Chlamydia contains species that can only survive as intracellular parasites supports which viral origin hypothesis

PROGRESSIVE viral origin hypothesis

69

A scientist discovers a new virus with a linear, RNA genome surrounded by a helical capsid. The virus is most likely a member of which family based on structure classification

. Rabies virus

70

Which statement is NOT true of viral replication

A lysogenic cycle kills the host cell

71

Which statement is TRUE of viral replication

during attachment, the virus attaches to specific sites on the cell surface.

72

Which statement is true of reverse transcriptase

It transcribes RNA to make DNA

73

Oncogenic viruses cores can be-

either RNA or DNA

74

Which is true of DNA viruses

they use the host cell’s machinery to produce new copies of their genome.

75

A bacteriophage can infect__________

bacteria

76

People with the CCR5Δ32 mutation of a T-cell surface protein can be exposed to some strains of HIV-1 without becoming sick. What step of the virus life cycle is likely to be inhibited with this mutation?

attachment

77

AN apple grower notices that several of his apple trees with fungi growing on their trunks have developed necrotic ring spots, while other trees in the orchard that lack fungi appear healthy. Hats is the most likely conclusion the farmer can make about the virus infecting his apple trees

The apple trees were infected by horizontal transmission.

78

Which of the following is NOT used to treat active viral disease

antibiotics

79

Vaccines

stimulate an immune response

80

A patient presents at the clinic with an acute viral infection. Assays that analyze the viral lifecycle classify the virus into Group V with a segmented genome. Which virus is the most likely diagnosis for the patient

rabies virus

81

Which of the following is not associated with prions

DNA

82

Which statement is true of viroids

They are single-stranded RNA particles