Biopsych ch. 15 Flashcards


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1

What are the cardinal differences between the left and right hemispheres?

The cardinal difference between the left and right hemispheres is that the left hemisphere is for verbal abilities and the right side is for spatial cognition.

This was discovered by split-brain individuals in behavioral tests.

2

Discuss at least two tests that revealed the lateralization of function.

  1. Dichotic Presentation - delivers different sounds to each ear at the same time
  2. Tachistoscope tests: used to study the visual perception of linguistic stimuli and confirm the verbal-spatial division of labor between the hemispheres

3

Distinguished among aphasia, apraxia, agraphia, and alexia

  1. Aphasia - impairment in language ability, to varying degrees, caused by brain injury, especially to the left hemisphere
  2. Agraphia - impairment in writing
  3. Alexia - impairment in reading
  4. Apraxia - motor impairment: difficulty in making sequences of movement

4

How does brain lateralization apply to musical experience?

Auditory areas of the right hemisphere play a major role in the perception of music. Musical perception is impaired by damage to the right hemisphere, and music activates the right hemisphere more than the left

5
  • The sounds that make up a language are called _______, and the system of rules for producing sentences is called _______.
    1. linguists; pragmatics
    2. morphemes; prosody
    3. dichotic; syntax
    4. phonemes; grammar

phonemes; grammar

6
  • Aphasic patients may produce nonsensical or meaningless words called
    1. dyslexias.
    2. neologisms.
    3. confabulations.
    4. paraphasias.

neologisms.

7
  • The _______ hemisphere plays a major role in the perception of music. The _______ hemisphere plays a major role in prosody.
    1. left; right
    2. right; left
    3. right; right
    4. left; left

right; right

8
  • Nonverbal visual stimuli, such as faces or shapes, are recognized more accurately if they are presented to the
    1. precise center of the two visual fields.
    2. left hemisphere.
    3. right visual field.
    4. left visual field.

left visual field.

9
  • The complete loss of the ability to understand language, or to speak, read, or write is called _______ aphasia.
    1. fluent
    2. galactic
    3. pragmatic
    4. global

global

10
  • Apraxia is
    1. an inability to execute a learned sequence of movements.
    2. an inability to write.
    3. sensory impairment.
    4. a loss of speech and language.

an inability to execute a learned sequence of movements.

11
  • Prosopagnosia is the inability to
    1. identify objects by touch.
    2. recognizes faces.
    3. learn the names of objects that are seen.
    4. distinguish different patterns of visual stimuli.

recognizes faces.

12
  • Which region of the cortex is crucial for face recognition?
    1. Planum temporale
    2. Fusiform gyrus
    3. Angular gyrus
    4. Arcuate fasciculus

Fusiform gyrus

13
  • In most split-brain patients, words presented to the left visual field
    1. cannot be repeated verbally.
    2. can be repeated accurately.
    3. can be written down.
    4. can be repeated, but only when clues are provided.

cannot be repeated verbally.

14
  • Split-brain individuals are those who have undergone surgery to _______ as a treatment for _______
    1. fusiform gyrus; prosopagnosia
    2. Broca's area; prosody
    3. planum temporale; astereognosis
    4. the corpus callosum; epilepsy

the corpus callosum; epilepsy