Chapter 15, 16, and 17 Flashcards


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The urinary system, reproductive system (male and female)
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1

Ureters

long tubes connecting kidney to bladder

(smooth muscle walls to push urine)

2

Urinary bladder

hollow, muscular sac

(temporary urine reservoir (expands and contracts))

3

urethra

tube connecting bladder to external opening

4

micturition

to make urine

5

end stage renal disease

irreversible, gradual, progressive deterioration of kidney function

6

end stage renal disease signs

progressive weakness, anorexia, diarrhea, pruritus(itching), ployuria

7

chronic renal failure

kidneys are unable to preform day to day activity

8

end stage renal disease

dietary restriction of protein, sodium, and potassium

antiemetics for vomiting/nausea

control hypertension

9

Renal Calaculi

Concentrations of mineral salts (calculi)

Kidney, ureter, bladder, or urethra

10

Renal Calculi signs

may be asymptomatic, ureterolith: intense pain, urinary urgency, Nephroliths: dull back/abdominal pain, Nausea, vomiting, chills, fever, hematuria

11

Renal Calculi risk factors

family or personal history, dehydration, diet (high in protein, sodium, sugar), certain disease and medications, drinking lots of soft drinks

12

renal calculi treatment

remove and prevent, increase fluid intake, small stones may be surgically removed(lithectomy, lithotripsy), if infection, prescribe antibiotics, analgesics: pertaining to without pain (pain medications)

13

urethral blockage

bladder unable to empty properly

14

relaxed pelvic floor

increase abdominal pressure

15

bladder oversensitivity from infections

neurological disorders

16

urinary incontinence

loss of bladder control

17

urinary incontinence treatment

bladder training, double voiding, scheduled urination, fluid management, pelvic floor muscle exercises, medications

18

cystoscopy

examination of the urinary bladder (biopsies, polypectomy, pathological)

19

blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

lab test that determines amount of nitrogen in the blood from urea, indicator of kidney failure

20

urinalysis

urine screening test, physical observation, chemical tests, microscopic evaluation

21

voiding cystourethrography (VCUG)

x-ray of bladder and urethra, preformed before, during, and after voiding using a contrast medium to enhance imaging

22

catheterixation

insertion of catheter into a body cavity/organ, can install substance or remove fluid, urethra into bladder to withdraw urine (very common)

23

hemodualysis

blood is diverted into a dialysis machine for filtering

24

diuretics

treat edema and stimulate urine flow

25

antidiuretic

reduce urination

26

nephro, reno

kidney

27

uretero

ureter

28

cysto, vesico

bladder

29

uro, urino

urine, urinary system

30

urethro

urethra

31

-pexy

fixation

32

-uria

in the urine

33

uremia

too much urea in the blood

34

enuresis

nocturnal urination

35

gynecology

treat disorders of the female reproductive system

36

obstetrics

treat and care for pregnant women and during childbirth (midwives)

37

neonatology

treat newborns

38

urology

treat male reproductive and urinary system and female urinary system

39

ovaries

produce hormones: puberty, menstruation, pregnancy

produce and mature eggs (ova/ovum)

40

fallopian tubes

pathway ovum travels from ovary to uterus

41

uterus

muscular organ that houses embryo from implantation to birth

specialized linings that "shed" under hormonal direction

42

vagina

muscular tube extending from cervix to body exterior

organ of sexual intercourse

passageway for fetus during childbirth

43

clitoris

organ of sexual arousal (erectile tissue highly innervated with sensory nerves)

44

vulva

external genitalia: labia (lips) majora and minora

protection

45

mammary glands

glandular located in breasts

produce milk (lactation): post reproduction

46

testes

secrete hormone (testosterone): develops and maintains maleness

produce sperm

47

epididymis

storage for sperm prior to ejaculation

48

vas deferens (aka ductus deferens)

transports sperm from epididymis to EJ

49

seminal vesicle

produces much of semen

50

ejaculatory duct

transports semen to urethra (which then expels semen from the body)

51

prostate gland

produces fluid to promote sperm movement

muscular contractions aid in ejaculation

52

penis

erectile tissue surrounding urethra

53

gestation

carrying in the womb/uterus

54

parturition

childbirth/act of giving birth

55

ovario

ovary

56

colpo, vagino

vagina

57

hystero, utero

uterus

58

cervico

cervix

59

mammo, masto

breast

60

vulvo, episio

vulva

61

nato

birth

62

lacto

milk

63

gyneco

female

64

andro

man

65

meno

menstruation

66

prostato

prostate

67

balano

glans penis (tip)

68

epididym

epididymis

69

perineo

perineum

70

gonado

gonad (sex gland)

71

vaso

vessel

72

testo

testes

73

spermato, spermo

sperm

74

-para

birth

75

-tocia

labor, childbirth

76

laparoscopy

visual exam of abdominal and pelvic cavities of females with a lighted instrument

77

Hormone replacement therapy

corrects estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone deficiencies

78

Oral contraceptives/birth control pills

synthetic hormones prevent pregnancy

treat menstrual disorders

79

colposcopy

examination of cervix, vagina, vulva with a colpscope

80

breast cancer treatments

lumpectomy

mastectomy

chemotherapy

combinations of surgical removal, radiation, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy

81

breast cancer

associated with ovarian/hormonal function

82

breast cancer risk factors

high fat diet

family history

HRT

83

breast cancer symptoms

early: swelling, tenderness, lump, dimpling, nipple retraction, nipple discharge

advanced: nodularity, redness, edema, breast enlargement or shrinkage

84

ectopic pregnancy

fertilized ovum implants and grows in places other than the uterus (often inside fallopian tube)

85

ectopic pregnancy symptoms

early pregnancy signs

abdominal pain/tenderness

slight vaginal bleeding

if fallopian tubes ruptures: bleeding, severe pain

86

ectopic pregnancy treatment

laparotomy

remove ruptured FT

blood transfusion

87

endometriosis symptoms

abdominal pain

infertility (scar tissue, adhesions)

menorrhagia (heavy periods)

painful intercourse

88

endometriosis diagnosis

pelvic exam

ultrasound

laparoscopy'

89

endometriosis

endometrium grows outside of the uterus

90

vasectomy

male sterilization

bilateral ligation of vas deferens to prevent sperm passage

outpatient surgery

91

testicular torsion

rotation of testicle causes twisting of spermatic cord and reduced blood flow to the testis (age range 12-16)

92

testicular torsion causes

unclear

inherited trait increases risk

vigorous activity, minor injury to testicle

93

testicular torsion symptoms

sudden, intense pain or swelling of the scrotum

abdominal pain

testicle at an unusual angle

painful urination

fever, nausea, vomiting

94

testicular torsion treatment

emergency surgery to try to save the testicle

95

digital rectal exam

exa, of prostate by finger palpation though the anal canal and rectum

detects prostate enlargement

should be done yearly after age 40

96

benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

overproliferation of cells within the prostate

men >50

97

benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms

obstructed urinary flow: dysuria, nocturia, dribbling, urinary frequency, urinary incotinence

hydronephrosis of severe

98

benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment

microwave therapy using heat

vaporization of prostate using electrical current

needle ablation using radio waves

laser surgery

transurethral resection of the prostate