Sociology exam 2 Flashcards


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1

The sociological definition of social deviance

stresses social context, not individual behavior.

2

Sociologists would consider crime to be a form of deviance

formal

3

If a sociologist considered tattoos a form of deviance, they would categorize it as a type of deviance.

informal

4

Which of the following is an example of informal deviance?

body piercing

5

When a student violates customary norms, s/he is engaging in

informal deviance

6

Which of the following statements about deviance is false?

Most deviant actions are deviant no matter what the circumstances.

7

According to Durkheim deviance is functional because it

Helps members of society know what is considered normal behavior

8

According to Durkheim, why do societies actually need deviance?

in order to recognize normal behavior

9

In the immediate aftermath of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, many Americans publicly demonstrated their patriotism. This is an illustration of Durkheim's belief that

deviance produces social solidarity.

10

According to the text, the example of attitudes toward smoking in the U.S. demonstrates the concept that

perceptions of deviance are influenced by social change.

11

Which of the following questions would a sociologist not be likely to ask about deviance?

Why do some types of people act more deviant than other types of people?

12

How do sociologists define deviance?

As behavior that violates social norms

13

Psychological explanations of deviance emphasize as the underlying cause of deviant behavior, unlike sociological explanations.

individual factors

14

Which of the following questions about deviance is more psychological than sociological?

What is it about this person that causes them to be deviant?

15

Explanations that emphasize the physical or genetic roots of deviant behavior are referred to as by sociologists.

the medicalization of deviance

16

Which of the following is an example of the medicalization of deviance?

alcoholism

17

The primary sociological criticism of the medicalization of deviance is that it

ignores the impact of the social structure in the creation of deviant behavior.

18

Smoking as deviant emerged due to what social reality?

social movements

19

Which of these statements about deviant behavior would be considered true from a sociological perspective?

Deviance may be an adaptation to the social structures in which people live.

20

Functionalist theories of deviance

view deviance as necessary in order to clarify what the norms of society are.

21

Durkheim's research on formed some of the framework for the functionalist understanding of deviance.

suicide

22

A policy maker wants to address drug use with therapy. Which of the following is he or she advocating?

Medicalization of deviance

23

Merton's structural strain theory traces the origins of deviance to

the tension between desired cultural goals and the means of achieving them

24

According to Merton, members of the are most likely to experience the structural strain that produces deviance.

lower class

25

Smoking as deviant emerged due to what social reality?

social movements

26

Social control theory suggests that deviance occurs when:

a person's attachment to social bonds is weakened.

27

Social control theory is based on the assumptions that

there is a common value system and most people feel some impulse toward deviance.

28

Which of these statements about functionalist theory is false?

It explains how social norms first become established in society

29

A criticism of the functional perspective of deviance is that it

does not explain why some people are able to impose their ideas judgments on others.

30

When a wealthy and powerful executive engages in deviance representing his or her organization it is referred to as .

Elite

31

Conflict theorists argue that

The power to define deviance is an important form of social control.

32

A strength of conflict theory in terms of understanding deviance is

its insight into the significance of power relationships.

33

A weakness of conflict theory in terms of understanding deviance is that it

Is less effective explaining forms of deviance other than crime.

34

W. I. Thomas explained deviance as:

a normal response to social conditions.

35

What is the original source of symbolic interactionist theories of deviance?

the perspective of the Chicago School

36

The University of Chicago sociologist who defined deviance as a normal response to the social conditions in which people find themselves is

W. I. Thomas

37

Differential association theory explains deviance by

emphasizing how deviance is culturally transmitted.

38

The perspective that uses a micro approach to deviance includes

symbolic interactionism

39

Which of these statements about deviant identity from a labeling perspective is false?

A deviance identity is nearly impossible to change.

40

The strength of labeling theory is that it

acknowledges that the judgments people make about deviance have powerful effects.

41

What is the sociological relationship between deviance and stigma?

People who are stigmatized are frequently labeled as deviant.

42

A problem with differential association theory is that it

does not explain how people who are not members of deviant cultures become deviants.

43

The perspective that uses a micro approach to deviance includes .

symbolic interactionism

44

From a sociological standpoint, the situation of the rugby team stranded for months in the Andes demonstrates that eating human flesh

may be a rational response to a difficult situation.

45

Anomie, as defined by Durkheim, is frequently referred to as a state of

relative normlessness caused by the breakdown of social influences.

46

Durkheim used the term to refer to the condition existing when social regulation in a society breaks down.

anomie

47

Durkheim referred to suicide associated with excessive regulation of individuals by social forces as

altruistic suicide

48

According to many, the actions of the hijackers involved in the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks are an example of

altruistic suicide

49

Which of the following is an example of egotistic suicide?

elder suicide

50

How do sociologists explain the fact that women have lower rates of suicide than men?

Women are more embedded in relations of care and responsibility.

51

The shooting of students and faculty at Virginia Tech in the spring of 2007 fits the pattern of Durkheim's Suicide.

egoistic

52

Merton's structural strain theory traces the origins of deviance to

the tension between desired cultural goals and the means of achieving them

53

The Ku Klux Klan and Neo-Nazis are both examples of which type of structural strain?

rebellion

54

Merton's structural strain theory traces the origins of deviance to the tensions caused by the gap between cultural goals and the means people have available to achieve those goals. Merton noted that societies are characterized by both culture and social structure.

Robert Merton (1910-2003)

55

A condition wherein a single role brings conflicting expectations is called role

strain

56

Students are expected to spend a lot of time on their studies,

role strain

57

Within a gemeinschaft society, how is social control achieved?

through an internal sense of belonging that member of society share

58

In their study of groups of different sizes, sociologists have found that

primary groups are a major influence and an important source of social control.

59

Social control theory suggests that deviance occurs when:

a person's attachment to social bonds is weakened.

60

According to the social control theory, what is the primary reason that people internalize social norms?

they care what others think of them

61

Social control theory is based on the assumptions that

there is a common value system and most people feel some impulse toward deviance.

62

According to social control theory, deviant behavior occurs

when attachment to society breaks down.

63

The historical persecution of witches is presented in the text as an example of

how dominant groups can exert control by marking some populations as deviant.

64

Conflict theorists argue that

the power to define deviance is an important form of social control.

65

Social Control

the process by which groups and individuals within those groups are brought into conformity with dominant social expectations.

66

Social Control Agents

those who regulate and administer the response to deviance, such as the police or mental health workers.

67

From the perspective of conflict theorists, social institutions

provide for some members of society more than for others

68

Ethnic conflict is most likely within societies and between societies.

gesellschaft / gemeinschaft

69

The fact that women and minorities, as well as members of lower social classes, are not treated equally within bureaucracies is focus of

conflict theory

70

Which perspective is most likely to focus on the fact that individuals experience stress and alienation as a result of being subordinated within a formal organization?

conflict theory

71

Conflict and functionalist theories of deviance share

an emphasis on the social structure in creating deviance.

72

From a conflict perspective, all of the following at true, except,

powerless groups may be labeled deviant for small infractions

73

A significant difference between functionalist and conflict theory is that

functionalism assumes the system works for the good of the whole, and conflict theory does not.

74

According to the conflict perspective, when the elite in society violate norms or laws they are not considered deviant because

they have the resources to hide or mask their behavior.

75

When labeling theory and conflict theory are linked they explain

why members of oppressed groups are more likely to be incarcerated or institutionalized.

76

A weakness of conflict theory is its failure to recognize

that laws protect most people, not just the affluent.

77

40. When teens perceive themselves as deviant because of who they are, they are using which sociological perspective?

symbolic interactionist

78

Social labeling theory focuses on who in society can determine that others are deviant and are able to apply sanctions. This aspect of social labeling theory makes it most associated with .

symbolic interactionism

79

Sociologists using a symbolic interaction perspective argue that a physical disability can become . In this case society devalues the status.

a stigma

80

A is an attribute that is socially devalued and discredited.

stigma

81

According to some sociologists, when some people are stigmatized

it reinforces "normalness" in others.

82

Sociologists using a symbolic interaction perspective argue that a physical disability can become . In this case society devalues the status.

a stigma

83

According to Sutherland's differential association theory, people become criminals when they

are more strongly socialized to break the law than to obey it.

84

Youths raised with parents who are deviant are more likely to be deviant themselves. This is an illustration of

differential association

85

John want to be a sociology major who studies the social cause of crime. He is majoring in

Criminology

86

Which of the following problems are both the Uniform Crime Report and National Crime Victimization Survey subject to?

underreporting

87

Studies of corporate crime find that

the deviant behavior is part of the routine activities of the corporation.

88

Which of the following types of crime is the least likely to be rigorously enforced?

victimless crimes

89

Studies of women's participation in crime indicate that

women's crimes tend to be extensions of their gender roles.

90

crimes are those motivated by various forms of social bias.

Hate

91

What is the pattern of race in prosecution and sentencing for crimes?

African American and Hispanic defendants receive longer sentences than White defendants, regardless of background.

92

Labeling theorists argue that once a person is labeled deviant

it will be difficult for them to reestablish a nondeviant identity.

93

Crimes are those motivated by various forms of social bias.

Hate

94

The FBI views terrorism as:

a violent action to achieve political ends.

95

Georg Simmel is known for his work with:

group size effects

96

The sociologist who introduced the concept of primary groups is

Charles Horton Cooley

97

Which of the following is an example of a primary group?

family

98

Cooley's concept of primary groups

has been elaborated to include a variety of intimate relationships in groups.

99

Which of these statements about primary groups is true?

a. Primary groups have a powerful influence on a person's self identity.

100

are small and intimate; are larger and short-lived.

Primary groups; secondary groups

101

Secondary groups are most likely to take on characteristics of primary groups

in times of high stress or crisis such as natural disasters.

102

Sociologists have found that primary groups

fulfill a person's expressive needs.

103

If Bobby joins a gang, he is joining a .

primary group

104

Which of the following statements is true about the differences between primary and secondary groups?

Secondary groups are less intimate than primary groups.

105

Primary groups provide for an individual's needsÍž secondary groups provide for an individual's

expressive; instrumental

106

Which of the following situations is most likely to result in a secondary group becoming a primary group?

a neighborhood digging out after a blizzard has hit

107

If a students uses musicians as a model for behavior then musicians are their .

reference group

108

Which of the following is true of reference groups?

Reference groups are not "groups" in the sense that they involve interaction.

109

Research on race and reference groups indicates that

positive representations of ethnic and racial groups raises the self-esteem of children of those groups.

110

Which of these statements about reference groups is false?

Reference groups always provide good role models

111

promote a sense of "usÍž" promote a sense of "them."

In-groups; out-groups

112

Considering oneself as part of "people like us" is an example of being part of .

an in-group

113

An out-group is all of these except:

is always a secondary group.

114

According to attribution theory, when an outgroup member's behavior is unclear

it will be interpreted in a negative manner by in-group members.

115

The sociological term for a set of links between individuals or between other social groups is

social network

116

Which of the following is false about the formation of social networks?

Networks are most often formed in very conscious and formal ways.

117

In his classic study of perception and group pressure, Asch found that

even rather gentle pressure was sufficient to cause an astonishing rise in the number of wrong answers.

118

The results of Solomon Asch's classic study of conformity were that

individuals are likely to conform to group pressure, even if the group is objectively incorrect.

119

Applied to a situation like the torture of Iraqi prisoners in American prison Abu Ghraib, Milgram's and Asch's findings would indicate that

the cause of the American soldiers' inhumane treatment of prisoners is partly the structure of the situation and group pressure.

120

Which of the following is a criticism of Travers and Milgram's research?

Only one-third of the documents ever reached the targets.

121

In the now famous Milgram Obedience Studies, the results demonstrated that

there is a significant difference between what people believe they will do and how they actually behave.

122

The implications of Milgram's experiments on obedience to authority are that

it may be possible for any ordinary person to commit atrocities under the right conditions.

123

Applying Milgram's research on conformity to the torture of prisoners by American soldiers that took place at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq demonstrates that

the reasons that prisoners were tortured by soldiers lay within the social structure and the group pressure of the situation.

124

From a sociological standpoint, the most convincing explanation for the occurrence of risky shifts is

deindividuation

125

Despite being warned of danger, NASA scientists proceeded with the launch of the space shuttle Challenger that exploded during launch. Sociological analysis of this situation finds it was caused by

a combination of risky shift and organizational ritualism.

126

Voluntary organizations

have been organized to address a wide variety of issues.

127

The overall purpose of the bureaucratic organization is

to maximize efficiency.

128

Organization ritualism refers to

the way that rules in an organization are followed even if they do not serve the purpose they were originally meant to.

129

The tragic cases of the Challenger and the Colombia are used to illustrate the point that

rigid conformity within an organization can be very dangerous.

130

Which of the following is false in regard to patterns of discrimination within organizations?

Which of the following is false in regard to patterns of discrimination within organizations?

131

The theory of organization that sees participation in an organization as a means of self-actualization is a type of

symbolic interaction theory

132

Sociologists investigating social organization find that

it brings predictability to human behavior

133

Sociologists use the term to describe the order established in social groups at any level.

social organization

134

When a student joins an organization it will provide which of the following?

instrumental needs

135

Formal organizations

are secondary groups that are organized to accomplish complex tasks efficiently.

136

Which of the following is not characteristic of formal organizations?

They are independent of any other organization.

137

The study of formal organizations represents an example of

macroanalysis

138

AARP and the NAACP are examples of organizations.

normative

139

The primary reason that people join normative organizations is

to pursue goals they believe are worthwhile.

140

Voluntary organizations

have been organized to address a wide variety of issues.

141

Which of the following is not an example of a coercive organization?

church

142

Total institutions were described by Goffman as

coercive organizations.

143

Large organizations that individuals join for specific purposes are referred to as organizations.

utilitarian

144

Individuals often join organizations for monetary reasons.

utilitarian

145

Sociologists have found that

all total institutions are coercive organizations.

146

The overall purpose of the bureaucratic organization is

to maximize efficiency.

147

Sociologists have found that the informal structure of an organization

develops largely among those most taken for granted in an organization.

148

Organization ritualism refers to

the way that rules in an organization are followed even if they do not serve the purpose they were originally meant to.

149

Despite being warned of danger, NASA scientists proceeded with the launch of the space shuttle Challenger that exploded during launch. Sociological analysis of this situation finds it was caused by

a combination of risky shift and organizational ritualism.

150

The tragic cases of the Challenger and the Colombia are used to illustrate the point that

rigid conformity within an organization can be very dangerous.

151

Alienation refers to the

psychological separation of a person from an organization

152

Alienation is least common in organizations in which

leaders use democratic methods in decision making.

153

Overall, the primary organizational principle that motivates McDonaldization is

control

154

Which of the following is false in regard to patterns of discrimination within organizations?

In situations where minority employees have the same amount of education as Whites, promotions are given out equally.

155

Rosabeth Moss Kanter's classic study of organizational structure indicated that

the stressful effects of tokenism on women and minorities can have very negative consequences.

156

What are the effects of social class and race on people's roles within an organization?

People of upper and middle class backgrounds are more likely to be promoted than someone with a lower class background, even if they are of the same race.

157

The central focus of is: positive functions contribute to unity and stability of the organization.

functionalist theory

158

The theory of organization that sees participation in an organization as a means of self

actualization is a type of - symbolic interaction theory

159

Which perspective is most likely to focus on the fact that individuals experience stress and alienation as a result of being subordinated within a formal organization?

conflict theory

160

Weber analyzed the class characteristics of bureaucracy, which he referred to as the bureaucracy.

ideal type

161

Which of the following is not characteristic of Weber's "ideal type" bureaucracy?

cooperative structures for accomplishing tasks

162

The informal structure of a bureaucracy

follows the same rules and regulations as the formal structure.

163

Which of the following statements about bureaucracy is false?

The informal culture of bureaucracy works to make all employees feel more connected and included.

164

The focus on how the individual loses their sense of self and is overwhelmed by bureaucracy reflects which perspective?

symbolic interaction theory

165

Sociologists who study the large patterns of social interactions that are vast, complex, and highly differentiated are using

macroanalysis

166

Which of these would interest a sociologist who prefers macroanalysis of social interaction?

how laws governing family leave have affected families in the U.S.

167

If a sociologist is studying groups he or she is using

macro level analysis

168

The study of formal organizations represents an example of

macroanalysis

169

Sociologists use the term to refer to the organized pattern of social relationships and social institutions that together comprise society.

social structure

170

According to the text, social structures

are difficult to see for the untrained observer.

171

Society is a network of:

social structures.

172

Which of these is an example of something a sociologist would consider from the microlevel analysis of social interaction?

day to day life in a sorority house

173

Sociologists distinguish six different types of societies based on

the complexity of their social structure and level of technology.

174

The established position that one occupies within a social structure and that carries with it a degree of prestige is called a(n)

status

175

When the goals are accepted and the means of attaining the goals are made available to the individual via the social structure, Merton called this

conformity

176

Sociologists theorize that rampage shootings are best understood as

the combinations of personality and social structural variables

177

Conflict and functionalist theories of deviance share

an emphasis on the social structure in creating deviance.

178

In a society where mechanical solidarity exists

individuals share the same values, hold the same things sacred, and frequently play the same roles.

179

When a person defines her identity as a mechanic, she is creating her

master or achieved status

180

In a society marked by organic solidarity

individuals play a great variety of different roles and unity is based on role differentiation.

181

The type of social solidarity that exists in the United States and other industrialized societies is solidarity.

organic

182

Which of these is true about gesellschaft societies?

organic

183

Those societies that are gemeinschaft are characterized by

...