Quiz #4 study guide Flashcards

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is a way of ranking and organizing things or people


Social construction of gender

Gender varies from society to society and can change over time.



the rule of the father. control of female and younger male family


Democratic brotherhood

the distribution of citizenship rights to certain sorts of men


Modified patriarchies

societies in which women have been granted formal gender equality but the patriarchal conflation of power with men and masculinity remains a central part of daily life.

•For example, men are considered the generic human.


Formal gender equality

the legal requirement that men and women be treated more or less the same



the favoring of one sex over the other, both ideologically and in practice



the granting of higher status, respect, value, reward, and power to the masculine compared to the feminine



the placing of women into positions that make them subservient to or dependent on men


Male flight

A sensation in which men abandon feminizing arenas of life


Hegemonic masculinity

a type of masculine performance, idealized by the majority, that functions to justify and naturalize gender inequality



a state of collective consent to inequality that is secured by the idea that it is inevitable, natural, or desirable


Exculpatory chauvinism

a phenomenon in which negative characteristics ascribed to men are presented as “natural” and offered as acceptable justifications of men's dominance over women


Hierarchy of masculinity

a rough ranking of men from most to least masculine, with the assumption that more is always better



a loss of masculinity


“Fragile” Masculinity

Anxiety felt by men who believe they are falling short of cultural standards of manhood.


Precarious masculinity

the idea that manhood is more difficult to earn and easier to lose than femininity


Compensatory masculinity

acts undertaken to reassert one's manliness in the face of a threat



extreme conformity to the more aggressive rules of masculinity



a racist preference for light over dark skin


Toxic masculinity

enactments of masculinities that are harmful both to mem who enact them and to the people around them


Patriarchal bargain

a deal in which an individual or group accepts or even legitimates some of the costs of patriarchy in exchange for receiving some of its rewards


Hybrid masculinities

a collection of gender strategies that selectively incorporate symbols, performances, and identities that society associates with women or low-status men


Male privilege

rights that are available to men solely on the basis of their sex

Ex: Being more likely to be hired, promoted, and paid more for work of equal value



the ability to understand and share the feelings of another.

Ex. I can feel the pain you feel, I understand how you feel.



the idea that gender is not an isolated social fact about us but instead intersects with our other social positions and identities.


If both men and women are constrained by a binary system, why is it more women than men find this system unfair

Because it’s a system of hierarchy and not a system of difference. And we live in a culture where we always put down femininity.

cause society is built around men. it always a male-oriented society. Men have become the preferred gender no matter what we do


What is the difference between a patriarchal society and a modified patriarchy? Where does the patriarchal thinking that prevents us from achieving true gender equality come from?

In a patriarchal society, only select adult men or patriarchs have rights. In societies like these, women cannot vote, serve on juries, use birth control, or work after marriage. In a modified patriarchy, we accept that men and women should have equal rights. However, we still follow a classical patriarch.


Three types of inequality that exist in our society are: sexism, androcentrism, and subordination. How are these different? Be prepared to provide an example of each.

Sexism is the favoring of one sex over the other. Example: People are more likely to higher a male over a female even if they both have the exact same skills for a job.

Androcentrism is granting higher status, respect, value, reward, and power to the masculine compared to the feminine. Values people for doing masculinity but only values women for doing feminine things. Example: Women wear pants, but men don't wear skirts.

Subordination is placing women into positions that make them dependent on men. Example: Nursing is not just feminine and female, it also puts nurses into a subordinate relationship with doctors.


In the hierarchy of masculinities, what parts of men’s intersectional identities put them at the top? What parts of their identities put them towards the bottom? Be prepared to provide specific examples.

Values associated with privilege, for example in Western societies a man who is well educated, tall, affluent, white, heterosexual, able-bodied, fit, Christian and native-born will be ranked most high in the hierarchy of masculinities.

Parts of a men's identity that is seen as weak will put them on a low ranking for example having a chubby or fat body, or being emotional.


Why do all men in society not have more power than all women? Why do most men in society have more power than most women?

Male privilege gives men greater access to certain social, political, and cultural benefits, such as higher social status and income levels, positions of authority, and greater control over decision-making.


Define toxic masculinity. Be prepared to offer examples

  • telling boys to “man up” when they feel upset
  • justifying abusive and inappropriate behavior with the phrase “boys will be boys.”
  • Refusing to help with household duties.


How can hypermasculinity cause men to harm others? How can it cause men to harm themselves?

will provoke anxiety and negative affect within the individual and cause them to be aggressive to others

Men are significantly more likely than women to disregard their safety. Example: They are more likely to break seat belt laws, drive dangerously, smoke cigarettes, take sexual risks, and abuse drugs and alcohol.


Why do individuals and/or groups of men make patriarchal bargains? Be prepared to provide example of these bargains

Allow some men to claim a higher status than women and some other men.

Messner described how in his youth he bullied a nonathletic boy while participating in sports himself


Who are men under the surveillance of? Who are women under the surveillance of? How might this difference affect their behavior?



What are “hybrid masculinities”? Do you think hybrid masculinities can lead to a more gender-equal society? Why or why not?

Ex. I argue that a decision to promise refrain from having sex before marriage EX: heterosexual man identifying as a feminist or a LGBTQ ally EX: wearing nail polish.

No, because hybrid masculinities are largely symbolic and do not seek to alter the underlying relationships between men and women