APUSH Chapter 32 Flashcards


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1

Warren G. Harding's weaknesses as president included all of the following except a(n)
a.
lack of political experience.
b.
mediocre mind.
c.
inability to detect moral weaknesses in his associates.
d.
unwillingness to hurt people's feelings by saying no.
e.
administrative weakness.

A

2

Match each member of President Harding's cabinet below with his major area of responsibility.

A.
Charles Evans Hughes
1.
taxes and tariffs
B.
Andrew Mellon
2.
naval oil reserves
C.
Herbert Hoover
3.
naval arms limitation
D.
Albert Fall
4.
foreign trade and trade associations
E.
Harry Daugherty
5.
justice and law enforcement

a.
A-5, B-3, C-2, D-4, E-1
b.
A-3, B-1, C-4, D-2, E-5
c.
A-2, B-4, C-3, D-5, E-1
d.
A-4, B-5, C-1, D-3, E-2
e.
A-1, B-2, C-5, D-3, E-4

B

3

Which one of the following members of President Harding's cabinet proved to be incompetent and corrupt?
a.
Herbert Hoover
b.
Calvin Coolidge
c.
Andrew Mellon
d.
Charles Evans Hughes
e.
Albert Fall

E

4

Republican economic policies under Warren G. Harding
a.
sought to continue the same laissez-faire doctrine as had been the practice under William McKinley.
b.
hoped to encourage the government actively to assist business along the path to profits.
c.
sought to regulate the policies of large corporations.
d.
aimed at supporting increased competition in business.
e.
aided small business at the expense of big business.

B

5

During the 1920s, the Supreme Court
a.
often ruled against progressive legislation.
b.
rigorously upheld the antitrust laws.
c.
generally promoted government regulation of the economy.
d.
staunchly defended the rights of organized labor.
e.
upheld laws providing special protection for women.

A

6

____ was/were adversely affected by the demobilization policies adopted by the federal government at the end of World War I.
a.
The cement industry
b.
The railroad industry
c.
The shipping industry
d.
Veterans
e.
Organized labor

E

7

In the Adkins case, the Supreme Court ruled that
a.
federal child labor laws were unconstitutional.
b.
women had the right to sue for equal pay for equal work.
c.
anti-union "right to work" laws were constitutional.
d.
women were no longer entitled to special protection in the workplace because they now had the vote.
e.
federal maternity benefits designed for women did not constitute unequal treatment.

D

8

The great event that essentially crippled organized labor throughout the 1920s was
a.
the Supreme Court's ruling against the union closed shop in the Adkins case.
b.
the deportation of the most effective labor organizers to the Communist Soviet Union.
c.
the split within the American labor movement between the American Federation of Labor and the Socialists.
d.
the federal government's antilabor intervention that broke the 1919 steel strike.
e.
repeal of the Clayton Act guaranteeing unions the right to organize.

D

9

The nonbusiness group that realized the most significant, lasting gains from World War I was
a.
labor.
b.
blacks.
c.
the Ku Klux Klan.
d.
women.
e.
veterans.

E

10

Veterans' organizations like the American Legion successfully lobbied Congress to give them
a.
higher pay for service in military reserve or national guard units

b. special payments for those suffering the effects of shell shock or poison gas.
c.
financial support for college education or job training.
d.
guaranteed medical care in modern, efficient veterans' hospitals.
e.
a bonus insurance policy to compensate them for lost wages during their military service.

E

11

One exception to President Warren G. Harding's policy of isolationism involved the Middle East, where the United States sought to
a.
support a homeland for Jews in Israel.
b.
prevent the League of Nations from establishing British and French protectorates in the region.
c.
stop the Soviet Union from dominating the area.
d.
secure oil-drilling concessions for American companies.
e.
curb the rise of Arab nationalism.

D

12

The primary reason that Warren G. Harding was willing to seize the initiative on the issue of international disarmament was that
a.
he feared renewed war in Europe.
b.
he recognized that Japan and the United States might enter a dangerous arms race.
c.
businesspeople were unwilling to help pay for a larger United States Navy.
d.
he did not want the League of Nations to take the lead on this problem.
e.
American public opinion strongly supported peacemaking efforts.

C

13

The 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact
a.
formally ended World War I for the United States, which had refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles.
b.
set a schedule for German payment of war reparations.
c.
established a battleship ratio for the leading naval powers.
d.
condemned Japan for its unprovoked attack on Manchuria.
e.
officially outlawed war as a solution to international rivalry and conflict.

E

14

The Fordney-McCumber and Hawley-Smoot Tariff laws had the long-term effect of
a.
bringing American farmers out of the agricultural depression of the early 1920s.
b.
encouraging the United States to turn more to Asia than to Europe for imports.
c.
shrinking international trade and making it impossible for Europe to repay American war loans.
d.
lowering the prices Americans paid for domestic manufactured goods.
e.
pressuring the Europeans to lower their own tariff rates in order to retain American trade.

C

15

Which of the following was not a consequence of the American policy of raising tariffs sky-high in the 1920s?
a.
European nations raised their own tariffs.

b.

The postwar chaos in Europe was prolonged.
c.
International economic distress deepened.
d.
American foreign trade declined.
e.
The American economy slipped into recession.

E

16

The Teapot Dome scandal was centered around corrupt deals and bribes involving
a.
naval oil reserves.
b.
veterans' hospitals.
c.
the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
d.
European war debts.
e.
presidential pardons.

A

17

The major political scandal of Harding's administration resulted in the conviction and imprisonment of his secretary of
a.
the treasury.
b.
state.
c.
the navy.
d.
commerce.
e.
the interior.

E

18

Which of the following descriptive attributes is least characteristic of President Coolidge?
a.
Honesty
b.
Frugality
c.
Shyness
d.
Wordiness
e.
Caution

D

19

During Coolidge's presidency, government policy was set largely by the interests and values of
a.
farmers and wage earners.
b.
the business community.
c.
racial and ethnic minorities.
d.
progressive reformers.
e.
conservative New Englanders.

B

20

After the initial shock of the Harding scandals, many Americans reacted by
a.
demanding that all those involved be sent to prison.
b.
excusing some of the wrongdoers on the grounds that "they had gotten away with it."
c.
demanding the impeachment of the president.
d.
suggesting that Harding resign the presidency so that Calvin Coolidge could take control.
e.
calling for a thorough Congressional investigation.

B

21

One of the major problems facing farmers in the 1920s was
a.
overproduction.
b.
the inability to purchase modern farm equipment.
c.
passage of the McNary-Haugen Bill.
d.
the prosecution of cooperatives under antitrust laws.
e.
drought and insects like the boll weevil.

A

22

The advent of the gasoline-powered tractor in the 1920s meant that
a.
productivity went way up but so did debt.
b.
farmers did not need to plow as much land to make the same profit.
c.
farmers would have to spend time training hands on new equipment.
d.
bigger crops could be grown on smaller areas.
e.
None of these

A

23

The McNary-Haugen Bill passed by Congress and twice vetoed by President Coolidge was aimed to assist American farmers by
a.
restricting the amount of crops farmers could plant in order to drive up prices.
b.
having the federal government buy farm surpluses and sell them abroad.
c.
providing federal support for farm co-operatives as a way of eliminating middle men.
d.
providing federal loans for agricultural equipment and seeds.
e.
blocking the import of certain cheaper agricultural commodities from Europe and Latin America.

B

24

Which of the following splits did not affect the Democratic party in 1924?
a.
"Wets" versus "drys"
b.
Immigrants versus old-stock Americans
c.
Urbanites versus suburbanites
d.
Fundamentalists versus Modernists
e.
Northern liberals versus southern conservatives

C

25

Senator Robert La Follette's Progressive party advocated all of the following except
a.
government ownership of railroads.
b.
relief for farmers.
c.
opposition to antilabor injunctions.
d.
opposition to monopolies.
e.
increased power for the Supreme Court.

E

26

In 1924, the Democratic party convention defeated by only one vote a resolution condemning
a.
the Ku Klux Klan.
b.
immigration restrictions.
c.
prohibition.
d.
Fundamentalism.
e.
business monopolies.

A

27

The Progressive party did not do well in the 1924 election because
a.
it could not win the farm vote.
b.
too many people shared in the general prosperity of the time to care about reform.
c.
it was too caught up in internal discord.
d.
the liberal vote was split between it and the Democratic party.
e.
La Follette could not win the Socialists' endorsement.

B

28

In the early 1920s, one glaring exception to America's general indifference to the outside world was its
a.
involvement in the World Court.
b.
armed intervention in the Caribbean and Central America.
c.
involvement in the League of Nations' humanitarian operations.
d.
naval buildup.
e.
continuing attempt to oust the Communists from power in the Soviet Union.

B

29

America's European allies argued that they should not have to repay loans that the United States made to them during World War I because
a.
the United States had owed them about $4 billion before the war.
b.
the amount of money involved was not significant.
c.
they had paid a much heavier price in lost lives, so it was only fair for the United States to write off the debt.
d.
the United States was making so much money from Mexican and Middle Eastern oil that it did not need extra dollars.
e.
Germany was not paying its reparations to them, so they could not afford to pay off the loans.

C

30

As a result of America's insistence that its Allies' war debts be repaid in full, the
a.
French and British demanded enormous reparations payments from Germany.
b.
German mark was ruined by drastic inflation.
c.
Allies borrowed money from Switzerland to repay the loans.
d.
Allies imposed enormously high new taxes on their citizens.
e.
Allies demanded that the United States lower its tariffs.

A

31

America's major foreign-policy problem in the 1920s was addressed by the Dawes Plan, which
a.
ended the big-stick policy of armed intervention in Central America and the Caribbean.
b.
established a ratio of allowable naval strength between the United States, Britain, and Japan.
c.
condemned the Japanese aggression against Manchuria.
d.
aimed to prevent German re-armament.
e.
provided a solution to the tangle of war-debt and war-reparations payments.

E

32

All of the following were political liabilities for Alfred E. Smith except his
a.
Catholic religion.
b.
support for the repeal of prohibition.
c.
big-city background.
d.
failure to win the support of American labor.
e.
radio speaking skill.

D

33

One of Herbert Hoover's chief strengths as a presidential candidate was his
a.
adaptability to the give-and-take of political accommodation.
b.
considerable experience in running for political office.
c.
personal charm and charisma.
d.
ability to face criticism.
e.
talent for administration.

E

34

When elected to the presidency in 1928, Herbert Hoover
a.
was militantly antilabor and against big government.
b.
brought little administrative talent or experience to the job.
c.
understood that his major challenge was to find a solution to the Great Depression.
d.
combined small-town values with wide experience in modern corporate America.
e.
had been a successful governor of California.

D

35

The Federal Farm Board, created by the Agricultural Marketing Act, lent money to farmers primarily to help them to
a.
organize producers' cooperatives.
b.
learn a new and more profitable trade.
c.
open new land to cultivation.
d.
purchase expensive new farm machinery.
e.
take land out of production.

A

36

The mood in the United States just before the stock market crashed in 1929 could best be described as
a.
anxious.
b.
confident.
c.
pessimistic.
d.
fearful.
e.
None of these

B

37

The impact of the Great Depression on American resulted in all of the following except
a.
jobless husbands felt guilt and shame for their families' hardships.
b.
thousands of banks collapsed, taking with them people's life savings.
c.
breadlines and soup kitchens emerged to feed the hungry.
d.
thousands of people lost their homes to foreclosure.
e.
salaries for those who held on to their jobs rose slightly.

E

38

As a result of the Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930
a.
American industry grew more secure.
b.
duties on agricultural products decreased.
c.
American economic isolationism ended.
d.
campaign promises to labor were fulfilled.
e.
the worldwide depression deepened.

E

39

In America, the Great Depression caused
a.
people to blame the economic system, not themselves, for their problems.
b.
a decade-long decline in the birthrate.
c.
an increase of foreign investment because prices were so low.
d.
a shift from Wall Street investment to investment in small, local businesses.
e.
a growing acceptance by business of the need for federal regulation.

B

40

President Herbert Hoover believed that the Great Depression could be ended by doing all of the following except
a.
providing direct aid to the people.
b.
directly assisting businesses and banks.
c.
keeping faith in the efficiency of the industrial system.
d.
continuing to rely on the American tradition of rugged individualism.
e.
lending federal funds to feed farm livestock.

A

41

President Hoover's approach to the Great Depression was to
a.
leave the economy alone to work itself out of trouble.
b.
nationalize major industries.
c.
encourage the states to stimulate spending.
d.
work for the breakup of business monopolies.
e.
offer federal assistance to businesses and banks but not individuals.

E

42

The term "Hoovervilles" refers to
a.
industrial sections of cities where poor workers lived.
b.
shantytowns filled with shacks created by homeless people during the Great Depression.
c.
picket lines erected by the Bonus Army in their protest against Washington D.C.
d.
breadlines and soup kitchens that fed the hungry during the Great Depression.
e.
cities hardest hit by the Great Depression - with the highest unemployment and poverty rates.

B

43

Hoover was criticized for his handling of the Great Depression, but some historians consider this unfair for all of the following reasons except
a.
his measures probably prevented a more serious collapse than the one that occurred.
b.
his expenditures for relief were revolutionary in that day.
c.
his government programs paved the way for the massive spending programs of the New Deal.
d.
his handling of the crisis proved that old notions and programs would no longer work in a major crisis.
e.
his policies enabled local and state governments to act more efficiently to help people in need.

E

44

The Reconstruction Finance Corporation, established by Hoover to deal with the depression, was charged with
a.
providing direct economic assistance to labor.
b.
making loans to businesses, banks, and state and local governments.
c.
outlawing yellow dog (antiunion) contracts.
d.
providing money for construction of dams on the Tennessee River.
e.
lending money for federal public works projects.

B

45

The Bonus Expeditionary Force marched on Washington, D.C., in 1932 to demand
a.
the removal of American troops from Nicaragua.
b.
an expanded American army and navy.
c.
immediate full payment of bonus payments promised to World War I veterans.
d.
punishment for those who had forced unemployed veterans to leave Washington, D.C.
e.
housing and health care assistance for veterans.

C

46

President Hoover's public image was severely damaged by his
a.
decision to abandon the principle of rugged individualism.
b.
construction of Hoovervilles for the homeless.
c.
agreement to provide a federal dole to the unemployed.
d.
refusal to do anything to try to solve the Great Depression.
e.
use of harsh military force to disperse the Bonus Army from Washington.

E

47

In response to the League of Nations' investigation into Japan's invasion and occupation of Manchuria
a.
the United States became an official member of the League.
b.
Japan withdrew its troops.
c.
Americans called for a boycott of Japanese goods.
d.
Japan left the League.
e.
the United States and China moved toward an alliance.

C

48

The 1932 Stimson doctrine
a.
reversed the United States' long-standing interventionist policy in Latin America.
b.
committed the United States to join the League of Nations' effort to impose economic sanctions against Japan for its invasion of Manchuria.
c.
announced the United States' willingness to outlaw war as an instrument of national policy.
d.
declared that the United States would not recognize any territorial acquisition achieved by force of arms.
e.
declared Japan and Germany rogue states.

D

49

In the 1920s, the United States Commerce Department under Herbert Hoover encouraged the creation of trade associations to
a.
force compliance with the existing antitrust laws.
b.
encourage business competition.
c.
promote the standardization of products.
d.
help business to combat labor unionization.
e.
circumvent the antitrust laws.

C, D

50

At the 1921-1922 Washington Conference, the major signatories agreed to
a.
limit the size of their naval forces.
b.
fortify their Far East possessions.
c.
preserve the status quo in the Pacific.
d.
abandon the Open Door policy in China.
e.
prevent Japanese expansion in Asia.

A, C

51

The causes of the Great Depression included
a.
agricultural overproduction and debt.
b.
unequal distribution of wealth.
c.
overextension of credit.
d.
anemic foreign trade.
e.
economic troubles in Europe.

A, B, C, D, E

52

President Hoover supported the following antidepression measures
a.
federal government loans to banks, corporations, and local governments.
b.
the Muscle Shoals Bill.
c.
the public dole system then being used in Britain.
d.
federally financed public works projects.
e.
employment of young people in conservation projects.

A, D