In order to prevent self-digestion of the pancreas, activation of pancreatic proteases occurs in the __________.
The pancreatic duct empties into the duodenum, where activation of proteases occurs. This process occurs to prevent self-digestion of the pancreas.
During deglutition, the bolus passes into the stomach from the esophagus through the __________.
The gastroesophageal sphincter is the junction between stomach (gastro) and esophagus. A loose gastroesophageal sphincter can cause heartburn or acid reflux.
During the intestinal phase of gastric regulation, __________.
the stomach is initially stimulated and later inhibited
The stomach is initially stimulated and later inhibited.
Protective collections of lymphocytes and macrophages are found in __________.
Peyer's patches, which contain lymphocytes and macrophages, increase in number toward the end of the ileum.
What is the main organic molecule digested in the stomach?
The only enzyme produced by the stomach is pepsin, which digests protein.
The propulsive function that occurs in the esophagus is called __________.
Peristalsis occurs as a wave of contraction
Which of the following is a characteristic of the large intestine?
It contains a large number of bacteria.
The large intestine contains a large number of bacteria. E. coli is the primary bacterial species in the colon.
Which regulatory chemical stimulates gastric gland activity and motility?
Gastrin is the major stomach hormone. Both the stomach and the small intestine produce this chemical.
Which sequence below represents the correct layering of the wall of the GI tract, starting from the layer next to the lumen?
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
The mucosa is the layer that lines the lumen. The submucosa is under it.
What substances from different organs would mix together at the hepatopancreatic ampulla?
bile and pancreatic enzymes
Bile and pancreatic enzymes mix at the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
What would be the effect of stripping the small intestines of their villi?
Decreased surface area for absorption would cause weight loss to occur.
Decreased intestinal surface area would lead to decreased absorption, leading to a long list of problems such as malnutrition, dehydration, diarrhea, and electrolyte imbalance
Which of the following products does the stomach produce?
HCl and intrinsic factor
HCl, IF, mucous, and pepsinogen (pepsin) are products of the stomach.
The final product of carbohydrate digestion is __________.
All macromolecules are broken down to their monomers, except fatty acids.
Which of the following cells produce HCl?
Parietal cells make HCl and intrinsic factor.
Which of the following cells produce pepsinogen?
Chief cells are the enzyme-producing cells.
The digestive system in a cadaver is longer than in a living person because, in a cadaver, there is NO __________.
The digestive system in a cadaver is longer than that in a living person because there is no muscle tone in a cadaver.
__________ is the major means of propulsion in the digestive system.
Peristalsis is the major means of propulsion in the digestive system.
The short reflexes in the digestive system are stimulated by __________.
the enteric nerve plexuses
The enteric nerve plexuses stimulate the short reflexes in the digestive system.
Which of the following is the most common cause of peritonitis?
a burst appendix
A burst appendix is the most common cause of peritonitis.
The myxovirus causes __________.
The myxovirus causes mumps.
Halitosis is caused by __________.
increased activity of anaerobic bacterial activity at the back of the tongue
Halitosis is caused by increased activity of anaerobic bacterial activity at the back of the tongue.
Which of the following teeth are most commonly impacted?
Wisdom teeth are the most common teeth to become impacted.
Which of the following conditions is directly associated with an increased risk for heart disease and stroke?
Periodontitis is associated with an increased risk for heart disease or stroke.
The only stomach function that is essential to life is __________.
the secretion of intrinsic factor
The secretion of intrinsic factor is the only stomach function that is essential to life.
Some aspects of the __________ phase of gastric secretion may be considered conditioned reflexes.
Some aspects of the cephalic phase of gastric secretion may be considered conditioned reflexes
Hollow muscular organs, like the stomach, that act as reservoirs exhibit __________.
Hollow muscular organs, like the stomach, that act as reservoirs exhibit plasticity, which is the intrinsic ability of visceral smooth muscle to exhibit the stress-relaxation response.
Many of the early food allergies seen in infants are caused by __________.
absorption of whole proteins
Absorption of whole proteins, which stimulates an immune response, is the cause of many early life food allergies.
Which of the following is a condition that affects the large intestine that is NOT explained by anatomical or biochemical abnormalities?
irritable bowel syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome is not explained by anatomical or biochemical abnormalities.