Genetics: PCB 3063 Mutations Ch 8 McGraw Hill Connect Assignment Flashcards


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1

The term ______ variation refers to differences in specific genes.

Multiple choice question.

aneuploid

allelic

genetic

allelic

2

A cytogeneticist ______.

Multiple choice question.

examines DNA mutations

studies chromosomes microscopically

studies the origins of cells

examines RNA levels

studies chromosomes microscopically

3

Which of the following statements about the chromosome number in humans and fruit flies is true?

Multiple choice question.

Humans have 40 chromosomes, while fruit flies have 20 chromosomes

Humans have 40 chromosomes, while fruit flies have 8 chromosomes

Humans have 46 chromosomes, while fruit flies have 20 chromosomes

Humans have 46 chromosomes, while fruit flies have 8 chromosomes

Humans have 46 chromosomes, while fruit flies have 8 chromosomes

4

Match the chromosome to its appropriate description.

Metacentric

Submetacentric

Acrocentric

Telocentric

Its centromere is at one end

Its centromere is near the middle

Its centromere is slightly off center

Its centromere is significantly off center but not at the end

card image
  • Metacentric Its centromere is near the middle
  • Submetacentric Its centromere is slightly off center
  • Acrocentric Its centromere is significantly off center but not at the end
  • Telocentric Its centromere is at one end

5

The short arm and long arm of a chromosome are designated with ______, respectively.

Multiple choice question.

the letters s and l

the letters p and q

the numbers 2 and 1

the letters q and p

the numbers 1 and 2

the letters p and q

6

Genetic differences within individuals of the same species or between different species is referred to as genetic ____.

variation

7

An organized representation of the chromosomes of a cell is called a ______.

Multiple choice question.

karyotype

phenotype

haplotype

genotype

karyotype

8

A scientist who examines the chromosomal composition of a particular cell is called a(n) ___.

cytogeneticist

9

G banding is a procedure in which chromosomes are ______.

Multiple choice question.

treated with stains to produce dark and light bands dependent on the compaction of their DNA

treated with high heat and DNAses to produce smaller bands whose DNA is easier to sequence

treated with chemicals that hydrolyze the proteins leaving DNA bands that are easier to study microscopically

treated with stains to produce dark and light bands dependent on the compaction of their DNA

10

Normal somatic cells of a human have a total of ____ chromosomes, whereas those of a fruit fly contain a total of ____ chromosomes.

46; 8

11

Select all that apply

The banding pattern of eukaryotic chromosomes is useful for which of the following reasons?

Multiple select question.

To distinguish between chromosomes of the same size

To detect changes in chromosome number

To detect changes in chromosome structure

To assess evolutionary relationships between species

To distinguish between chromosomes of the same size

To detect changes in chromosome structure

To assess evolutionary relationships between species

12

Chromosomes are classified into four types based on their centromere location: 1. ____ (the centromere is near the middle); 2. ____ (the centromere is slightly off center); 3. ____ (the centromere is closer to the end than to the center); and 4. ____ (the centromere is at one end).

card image

Blank 1: Metacentric

Blank 2: Submetacentric

Blank 3: Acrocentric

Blank 4: Telocentric

13
card image

Match the change in chromosome structure to its appropriate description.

Duplication

Deficiency

Inversion

Translocation

The loss of a chromosome segment

The movement of a chromosome segment

The change in direction of a chromosome segment

The addition of a chromosome segment

card image
  • Duplication The addition of a chromosome segment
  • Deficiency The loss of a chromosome segment
  • Inversion The change in direction of a chromosome segment
  • Translocation The movement of a chromosome segment

14

A chromosome typically has a short arm (designated by the letter ____) and a long arm (designated by the letter ____).

p ; q

15

A change in chromosome structure where a portion of the chromosome is missing is called a(n) ____.

deletion, deficiency, or deletions

16

A(n) ____ is a micrograph which displays the chromosomes of a cell, usually in descending order of size.

karyotype or karyogram

17

A change in chromosome structure where a portion of the chromosome is repeated is called a(n) ____.

duplication

18

Which of the following statements is true about a chromosome that has been subjected to the G banding technique?

Multiple choice question.

It has the short arm stained, but not the long arm.

It has the long arm stained, but not the short arm.

It shows alternating patterns of dark and light regions.

It has the centromere and telomere stained, but not other parts.

It shows alternating patterns of dark and light regions.

19

If a segment of DNA changes orientation along the chromosome, a(n) ____ is said to have taken place.

inversion

20

Because they show different banding patterns when stained, chromosomes that have the same ____ and ____ location can be distinguished from each other.

Blank 1: size, length, sizes, or lengths

Blank 2: centromeric or centromere

21

The movement of a DNA segment from one chromosome to another is an example of a(n) ______.

Multiple choice question.

transformation

duplication

translocation

inversion

translocation

22
card image

This diagram depicts the four main types of changes in chromosome structure. A = ____; B = ____; C = ____; and D = ____ (two chromosomes are involved).

A: deletion
B: duplication
C: inversion
D: translocation

23

A deletion is best defined as the loss of ______.

Multiple choice question.

a chromosome segment

an entire chromosome

either the centromere or a telomere

one of the two chromosome arms

a chromosome segment

24
card image

This illustration shows the production of a(n) ______.

Multiple choice question.

terminal deletion

pericentric inversion

reciprocal translocation

paracentric inversion

interstitial deletion

card image

terminal deletion

25

A duplication is best defined as the addition of ______.

Multiple choice question.

either the centromere or a telomere

one of the two chromosome arms

an entire chromosome

a chromosome segment

a chromosome segment

26

Consider a chromosome that has broken in two places to produce three chromosomal fragments. The middle fragment is lost and degraded. The rejoining of the two outer fragments will create a chromosome with a(n) ____ deletion.

interstitial

27

A reversal of the order of genes along a chromosome is termed a(n) ______.

Multiple choice question.

translocation

duplication

inversion

deletion

inversion

28

Individuals with a chromosome 5 that is missing part of its short arm may have a disease called ____-____-____ syndrome.

Blank 1: cri

Blank 2: du

Blank 3: chat

29

A change in chromosome structure in which a segment of DNA becomes attached to another part of the same chromosome or to a different chromosome is called a(n) ____.

translocation

30

Identical or similar DNA sequences that occur multiple times on a chromosome are called ____ sequences.

repetitive

31

Nonallelic homologous recombination between two chromosomes leads to ______.

Multiple choice question.

two chromosomes each carrying a duplication and a deletion but of different genes

a chromosome carrying an inversion and another carrying a translocation

two chromosomes each carrying an inversion and translocation, but of different genes

a chromosome carrying a duplication and another carrying a deletion

a chromosome carrying a duplication and another carrying a deletion

32

Consider a normal chromosome that has broken into two separate pieces, one of which is lost because it lacks a centromere. The resultant chromosome is said to have undergone a(n) ____ deletion.

terminal

33

A chromosome in which the number of copies of a gene increases from one to two is said to have a gene ____.

duplication

34
card image

This figure illustrates a(n) ______.

Multiple choice question.

pericentric inversion

terminal deletion

interstitial deletion

paracentric inversion

reciprocal translocation

card image

interstitial deletion

35

Cri-du-chat syndrome is caused by a ______.

Multiple choice question.

deletion in the short arm of chromosome 5

duplication in the long arm of chromosome 18

deletion in the short arm of chromosome 18

duplication in the long arm of chromosome 5

deletion in the short arm of chromosome 5

36

Which of the following statements about the phenotypic effects of deletions and duplications is true? Assume the changes are of comparable size.

Multiple choice question.

Duplications are less likely to have harmful effects than deletions.

Duplications are more likely to have harmful effects than deletions.

Duplications and deletions tend to have the same level of harmful effects.

Duplications are less likely to have harmful effects than deletions.

37

Transposable elements are examples of ______.

Multiple choice question.

terminal deletions

reciprocal translocations

pericentric inversions

repetitive sequences

repetitive sequences

38

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (type 1A) is caused by a small ______ on the short arm of chromosome 17.

Multiple choice question.

deletion

translocation

inversion

duplication

duplication

39

A misalignment of repetitive sequences on two chromosomes can cause an abnormal crossover to happen. This is called ____ ____ recombination, and it results in one chromatid carrying a duplication and another containing a deletion.

nonallelic homologous

40

A gene family is a set of genes ______.

Multiple choice question.

in different species that are identical to each other

that are shared by a group of unrelated individuals

that are shared by a group of related individuals

in a particular species that are similar to each other

in a particular species that are similar to each other

41
card image

In this figure, the bracket (circled) is used to highlight a gene ______.

Multiple choice question.

inversion

deletion

translocation

duplication

card image

duplication

42

Homologous genes are those ______.

Multiple choice question.

that have identical DNA sequences

derived from a single parent

that share common promoter sequences

derived from a single ancestral gene

derived from a single ancestral gene

43

In a single species, homologous genes are called ____ and collectively make a gene family.

paralogs

44

In general, having only a single copy of a gene is ______ having three copies.

Multiple choice question.

less harmful than

more harmful than

as harmful as

more harmful than

45

The globin gene family in humans is composed of 14 ______ that encode polypeptides whose function is to ______.

Multiple choice question.

orthologs ; contract muscles

orthologs ; bind oxygen

paralogs ; contract muscles

paralogs ; bind oxygen

paralogs ; bind oxygen

46

Which of the following syndromes is caused by a duplication?

Multiple choice question.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

Cri-du-chat syndrome

Edwards syndrome

Tay-Sachs disease

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

47

A collection of two or more genes in a particular species that are similar to each other is known as a gene ____.

family

48

The globin gene family is dispersed on chromosome ______ and chromosome ______.

Multiple choice question.

11 : 16

1 : 2

2 ; 4

X ; Y

11 : 16

49

Two or more genes that are derived from the same ancestral gene are referred to as ____ genes.

homologous

50

____ is specialized to bind and store oxygen in the muscle while ____ is specialized to bind and transport oxygen in the red blood cells.

myoglogin; hemoglobin

51

Paralogs are homologous ______.

Multiple choice question.

genes in different species

genes within the same species

chromosomes within the same species

chromosomes in different species

genes within the same species

52

In humans, the embryonic and fetal forms of hemoglobin have a higher affinity for oxygen than that of adults. This is due to ______.

Multiple choice question.

identical genes that generate a large number of ribosomes needed for globin production before birth

pseudogenes that interfere with gene expression in adults

homologous genes that produce different versions of globins during development

homologous genes that produce different versions of globins during development

53

One of the most important examples of gene families in humans is the ____ gene family, whose protein products play roles in oxygen binding.

globin

54

Copy number variation (CNV) describes DNA segments of at least ______ in size which exhibit copy number differences among members of ______.

Multiple choice question.

100 bp ; the same species

1,000 bp ; the same species

1,000 bp ; different species

100 bp ; different species

1,000 bp ; the same species

55

Select all that apply

Copy number variations may involve which of the following?

Multiple select question.

Duplications

Translocations

Inversions

Deletions

Duplications

Deletions

56
card image

This figure shows the ______ gene family.

Multiple choice question.

tubulin

globin

actin

calmodulin

card image

globin

57
card image

In this figure, the bracket is used to highlight a ______.

Multiple choice question.

terminal duplication

gene triploidy

segmental duplication

gene trisomy

card image

segmental duplication

58

Globin proteins are specialized in their function. For example, ____ is used to bind and store oxygen in muscle cells, while ____ is better suited for red blood cells.

myoglobin; hemoglobin

59

Copy number variations typically account for approximately ______ of the difference in the genomes of two unrelated humans.

Multiple choice question.

10%

0.4%

0.1%

40%

card image

0.4%

60

The hemoglobin in humans exists in how many main types?

Multiple choice question.

Two types: Child and adult

Two types: Before birth and after birth

Three types: Fetal, child, and adult

Three types: Embryonic, fetal, and after birth

Three types: Embryonic, fetal, and after birth

61

True or false: All copy number variations found in humans are known to be associated directly or indirectly with genetic or infectious diseases.

True false question.TrueFalse

False

62

DNA segments of 1000 bp or more in length which exist in differing numbers of copies among individuals within the same species are described by the term ____ ____ ____ (CNV).

copy number variation

63

Select all that apply

Comparative genomic hybridization is a method that can be used to detect what changes in chromosome structure?

Multiple select question.

Translocations

Deletions

Duplications

Inversions

Deletions

Duplications

64
card image

This figures illustrates what phenomenon?

Multiple choice question.

Chromosome nondisjunction

Gene trisomy

Misaligned crossing over

Copy number variation

card image

Copy number variation

65

The process which involves the formation of a double-stranded DNA molecule from single-stranded DNA molecules of two different samples is termed ____.

hybridization

66

Consider a homologous pair of chromosomes of a particular individual, where one homolog carries a single copy of gene A while the other carries two copies of the same gene. The latter chromosome is said to have undergone a(n) ____ ____.

segmental duplication

67
card image

Which of the following is not a step used in the comparative genomic hybridization technique?

Multiple choice question.

the chromosomes are visualized with a fluorescence microscope and the degree of fluorescence is analyzed with a computer

DNA is differentially-labeled using a red and a green fluorescent molecule

DNA is isolated from two different types of cancer cells

the fluorescently-labeled DNA is denatured by heat treatment

a mixture of fluorescently-labeled DNA is allowed to hybridize to metaphase chromosomes obtained from white blood cells

DNA is isolated from two different types of cancer cells

68

Select all that apply

Copy number variations are relatively common in the genomes of which of the following?

Multiple select question.

Plants

Bacteria

Archaea

Viruses

Animals

card image

Plants

Animals

69

In a comparative genomic hybridization experiment, the ratio of green to red fluorescence was 2. This indicates that a particular chromosome carries a(n) ____.

duplication

70

In humans, individuals with a higher copy number of the gene CCL3 produce more ______ protein, and thus tend to be more ______.

Multiple choice question.

calmodulin ; resistant to AIDS

chemokine ; resistant to AIDS

calmodulin ; sensitive to cancer

chemokine ; sensitive to cancer

card image

chemokine ; resistant to AIDS

71

A technique called ____ ____ (CGH) can be used to determine whether a cancer cell has changes in chromosome structure, such as duplications or deletions.

card image

comparative genomic hybridization

72

A chromosomal structural change in which a segment of DNA is rotated 180o is referred to as a(n) ____.

inversion

73

The DNA from one source forms a double-stranded region with the DNA from another source during what process?

Multiple choice question.

Hybridization

Recombination

Translocation

Fusion

Hybridization

74

Inversions are classified into two types. In a(n) ____ inversion, the centromere lies within the inverted region of the chromosome, while in a(n) ____ inversion, the centromere is located outside the inverted region.

pericentric; paracentric

75

List the steps of comparative genomic hybridization in order. Start with the earliest on top.

Isolate DNA from human breast cancer cells and normal breast cells.

Mix together heat-denatured fluorescently labeled DNA and metaphase chromosomes from white blood cells (also denatured).

Label the breast cancer DNA with a green fluorescent molecule and the normal DNA with a red fluorescent molecule.

Allow the fluorescently labeled DNA to hybridize to the metaphase chromosomes.

Visualize the chromosomes with a fluorescence microscope. Analyze the amount of green and red fluorescence along each chromosome with a computer.

card image

1) Isolate DNA from human breast cancer cells and normal breast cells.
2) Label the breast cancer DNA with a green fluorescent molecule and the normal DNA with a red fluorescent molecule.
3) Mix together equal amounts of heat-denatured fluorescently labeled DNA.
4) Allow the fluorescently labeled DNA to hybridize to the metaphase chromosome.
5) Visualize the chromosomes with a fluorescence microscope. Analyze the amount of green and red fluorescence along each chromosome with a computer.

76

Steps of comparative genomic hybridization:

card image

1) Isolate DNA from human breast cancer cells and normal breast cells.
2) Label the breast cancer DNA with a green fluorescent molecule and the normal DNA with a red fluorescent molecule.
3) Mix together equal amounts of heat-denatured fluorescently labeled DNA.
4) Add DNA to a preparation of metaphase chromosomes from white blood cells (which has also been denatured).
5) Allow the fluorescently labeled DNA to hybridize to the metaphase chromosome.
6) Visualize the chromosomes with a fluorescence microscope. Analyze the amount of green and red fluorescence along each chromosome with a computer.

77
card image

The graph shows the ratio of green to red fluorescence along metaphase chromosome 16 of humans. The region of the chromosome that is labeled A carries a(n) ______.

Multiple choice question.

inversion

deletion

translocation

duplication

card image

deletion

78

Hemophilia type A can be caused by an inversion that has disrupted the gene for ______.

Multiple choice question.

hemoglobin alpha

factor Y

factor VIII

hemoglobin beta

factor VIII

a blood-clotting protein

79

A change of phenotype that results from a change in the chromosomal location of a gene is called a(n) ____.

position effect

80

Inversions are classified based on what characteristic?

Multiple choice question.

The type of cell

The type of chromosome

The position of the telomere

The position of the centromere

The position of the centromere

81

The great majority of inversions do not cause phenotypic consequences because ______.

Multiple choice question.

the genes are transferred between homologous chromosomes

inversions occur in chromosome regions that do not contain genes

the total amount of genetic material does not change in a given chromosome

the total amount of genetic material does not change in a given chromosome

82
card image

This figure illustrates the types of chromosomal inversions. The left panel depicts a(n) ____ inversion, and the right panel shows a(n) ____ inversion.

card image

pericentric; paracentric

83

An inversion that has inactivated the gene for the blood clotting protein factor VIII is known to cause the disease ______.

Multiple choice question.

beta thalassemia

hemophilia type A

sickle cell anemia

erythropoietic porphyria

hemophilia type A

84

In humans, about ____% of individuals possess inversions that can be seen by light microscopy.

2

85

A gene has been moved from the short arm of chromosome 1 to the long arm of chromosome 5, thus causing a change in the phenotype associated with that gene. This is an example of a(n) ______ effect.

Multiple choice question.

nondisjunction

aneuploidy

position

position

86

What proportion of inversions cause phenotypic consequences?

Multiple choice question.

The vast majority

About 50% of them

Very few of them

Very few of them

87
card image

An individual with the following chromosomes is best described as a(n) ______.

Multiple choice question.

translocation homozygote

inversion heterozygote

inversion homozygote

translocation heterozygote

card image

inversion heterozygote

88
card image

This figure illustrates what phenomenon?

Multiple choice question.

A translocation loop which occurs in prophase II of meiosis in a translocation heterozygote

An inversion loop which occurs in prophase I of meiosis in an inversion heterozygote

A translocation loop which occurs in prophase I of meiosis in a translocation heterozygote

An inversion loop which occurs in prophase II of meiosis in an inversion heterozygote

card image

An inversion loop which occurs in prophase I of meiosis in an inversion heterozygote

89
card image

This figure shows the outcome of a crossover that occurred during prophase I in an individual carrying a ______ inversion.

Multiple choice question.

pericentric

paracentric

card image

paracentric

90

What percent of the human population contains inversions observable with light microscopy?

Multiple choice question.

About 25%

About 0.1%

About 10%

About 2%

About 2%

91

A piece of a chromosome that has lost its centromere is called a(n) ____ fragment.

acentric

92

A chromosome that possesses two centromeres is called a(n) ____ chromosome.

dicentric

93

An individual that carries one copy of a normal chromosome and one copy that contains an inverted segment is described by the term ____ ____.

inversion heterozygote

94

During meiosis I in an inversion heterozygote, the normal chromosome and inversion chromosome can synapse via the formation of a(n) ____ ____. This allows the homologous genes on both chromosomes to align next to each other, regardless of the size of the inverted segment.

inversion loop

95
card image

This figure represents the outcome of a crossover involving a(n) ______.

Multiple choice question.

simple translocation in a translocation heterozygote

reciprocal translocation in a translocation heterozygote

pericentric inversion in an inversion heterozygote

paracentric inversion in an inversion heterozygote

card image

pericentric inversion in an inversion heterozygote

96

The region of a chromosome that links two centromeres is called a(n) ____ ____.

dicentric bridge

97
card image

Compared to the chromosome on top, the one on the bottom is best described as a(n) ______ fragment.

Multiple choice question.

holocentric

pseudocentric

dicentric

acentric

acentric

98

The ends of a eukaryotic chromosome are called ____.

telomeres

99
card image

This figure shows a(n) ______ chromosome.

Multiple choice question.

dicentric

holocentric

telocentric

acentric

dicentric

100

Chromosome breakage and abnormal re-attachment is one mechanism that causes a(n) ____ ____. Another mechanism involves a crossover between nonhomologous chromosomes.

reciprocal translocation

101

Reciprocal translocations are also called ____translocations, because they do not change the total amount of genetic material.

balanced

102

Individuals with reciprocal translocations are at risk of having offspring with ____ translocations, having chromosomes that carry duplications and/or deletions.

unbalanced

103
card image

The bracket in this figure highlights a dicentric ______.

Multiple choice question.

domain

loop

karyotype

bridge

bridge

104
card image

In this figure, the blue and red chromosomes represent chromosome numbers 14 and 21, respectively. An individual with the circled chromosomes has ____ ____ syndrome.

card image

familial down

105

Telomeres are ______.

Multiple choice question.

sequences of DNA that are rich in protein-encoding genes

repeated sequences of DNA that bind microtubules during mitosis

repeated sequences of DNA that are found at the end of chromosomes

sequences of DNA that initiate replication during interphase

repeated sequences of DNA that are found at the end of chromosomes

106

A _____ translocation occurs when two nonhomologous acrocentric chromosomes lose their short arms and fuse to form a large single chromosome.

Multiple choice question.

Robertsonian

reciprocal

balanced

telocentric

Robertsonian

107

Select all that apply

Which of the following can cause reciprocal translocations to occur?

Multiple select question.

Crossover between nonhomologous chromosomes

Chromosomal breakage and DNA repair

Chromosome loss during meiosis II

Nondisjunction during meiosis I

Crossover between homologous chromosomes

Crossover between nonhomologous chromosomes

Chromosomal breakage and DNA repair

108

Translocations that do not alter the amount of genetic material in an individual are known as ______ translocations.

Multiple choice question.

symmetric

centric

equivalent

balanced

balanced

109
card image

This figure illustrates a structure called a(n) ____ ____.

card image

translocation cross

110

Translocations that involve a change in the total amount of genetic material in an individual are known as ______ translocations.

Multiple choice question.

unbalanced

acentric

disproportionate

asymmetric

unbalanced

111

Individuals with familial Down syndrome carry an abnormal chromosome complement as a result of a translocation. Individuals with this type of Down syndrome would have ______.

Multiple choice question.

two copies of chromosome 21 and a chromosome that is a fusion between chromosome 14 and 21

three entire copies of chromosome 21

a copy of chromosome 21 and a chromosome that is a fusion between chromosome 14 and 21

a copy of chromosome 21 and two copies of a chromosome that is a fusion between chromosome 14 and 21

two copies of chromosome 21 and a chromosome that is a fusion between chromosome 14 and 21

112

Match the type of meiotic segregation of a reciprocal translocation to its correct description.

Instructions

Alternate segregation

Adjacent-1 segregation

Adjacent-2 segregation

Centromeres do not segregate as they should; one daughter cell receives both copies of the centromere on chromosome one, and the other receives both copies of the centromere on chromosome 2; four gametes are genetically unbalanced

Adjacent chromosomes (one of each type of centromere) sort into the same cell; four gametes are genetically unbalanced

Chromosomes on opposite sides of the translocation cross segregate into the same cell; two gametes have normal chromosomes; two have balanced translocations

card image

1. alternate segregation- chromosomes on opposite sides of the translocation cross segregate into the same cell; two gametes have normal chromosomes; two have balanced translocations
2. Adjacent -1 - segregation - Adjacent chromosomes (on of each type of centromere) sort into the same cell; four gametes are genetically unbalanced
3. Adjacent 2-segregation - Centromeres do not segregate as they should; one daughter cell received both copies of the centromere on chromosome one, and the other receives both copies of the centromere on chromosome 2; four gametes are genetically unbalanced

113

A Robertsonian translocation occurs when two ______ chromosomes lose their short arms and fuse to form a large single chromosome.

Multiple choice question.

homologous acrocentric

homologous telocentric

nonhomologous acrocentric

nonhomologous telocentric

nonhomologous acrocentric

114

What change in chromosome structure may lead to semisterility?

Multiple choice question.

Reciprocal translocation

Paracentric inversion

Simple translocation

Pericentric inversion

Reciprocal translocation

115

Chromosome breakage and abnormal re-attachment is one mechanism that causes a(n) ____ ____. Another mechanism involves a crossover between nonhomologous chromosomes.

reciprocal translocation

116

During meiosis I in an individual carrying a reciprocal translocation, the homologous chromosomes synapse with each other via the formation of a structure that contains four pairs of sister chromatids. This unusual structure is called a translocation ______.

Multiple choice question.

domain

loop

bridge

cross

cross

117

A(n) ____ organism is one with a chromosome number that is an exact multiple of a chromosome set.

euploid

118

In an individual with a reciprocal translocation, meiotic segregation can occur in different patterns: _______ segregation gives rise to balanced haploid cells, whereas ________ produces haploid cells with an unbalanced amount of genetic material.

Multiple choice question.

adjacent-1 ; alternate

adjacent-1 ; adjacent-2

alternate ; adjacent-1

adjacent-2 ; adjacent-1

alternate ; adjacent-1

119

An organism that has three sets of chromosomes is called a(n) ____, while one with four sets is called a(n) ____.

triploid; tetraploid

120

In individuals carrying a reciprocal translocation, alternate and adjacent-1 segregation patterns typically occur in equal frequency. Since the gametes produced by adjacent-1 segregation are not viable, this leads to a decrease in the reproductive potential of the individual -- a condition called ____.

semisterility

121

Polyploidy is best defined as the presence of ______.

Multiple choice question.

two or more copies of a chromosome

three or more sets of chromosomes

three or more copies of a chromosome

two or more sets of chromosomes

three or more sets of chromosomes

122
card image

The diploid chromosome number of fruit flies is 8. The condition exhibited in this figure is

card image

trisomy, aneuploidy, or trisomic

123

In a particular plant species, individuals can be diploid, triploid, or tetraploid. All of these organisms are said to be ______.

Multiple choice question.

euploid

polyploid

heteroploid

aneuploid

euploid

124

Changes in the number of individual chromosomes such that the total number of chromosomes is not an exact multiple of a set results in a condition called ____.

aneuploid

125

In organisms that are normally diploid, a trisomic individual is designated

Multiple choice question.

2n - 1.

3n.

2n + 1.

3n - 1.

card image

2n + 1.

126

In Drosophila melanogaster, 2n = 8. A triploid fly would have ______ chromosomes, while a tetraploid fly would contain ______ chromosomes.

Multiple choice question.

12 ; 16

12 ; 24

10 ; 12

16 ; 24

16 ; 32

12 ; 16

127

An organism that has only one copy of a particular chromosome instead of the normal two copies is said to be ____.

monosomic, monosomy, or monosome

128

A(n) ____ organism is one that contains three or more sets of chromosomes.

polyploid

129

Aneuploidy causes an abnormal phenotype due to ______.

Multiple choice question.

an abnormal crossover in altered chromosomes

balance in the gene products

an imbalance of gene products

an imbalance of gene products

130
card image

In fruit flies, 2n = 8. This figure shows the chromosome complement of a(n) ______ fly.

Multiple choice question.

triploid

aneuploid

tetrasomic

trisomic

triploid

131

What percentage of spontaneous abortions are due to changes in chromosome number?

Multiple choice question.

About 1%

About 75%

About 50%

About 25%

About 10%

About 50%

132

______ is the gain or loss of individual chromosomes to or from a complete set.

Multiple choice question.

Euploidy

Autosomy

Heterosomy

Alloploidy

Aneuploidy

Aneuploidy

133

In humans, the most common disorders involving abnormalities in the number of autosomes are trisomies of chromosomes ____, ____, and ____.

13; 18; 21

134

An organism that has three copies of a particular chromosome instead of the normal two copies is said to be

trisomy

135

Spontaneously aborted human embryos have been found to contain every trisomy except that of chromosome ____.

1

136

In organisms that are normally diploid, a monosomic individual is designated ______.

Multiple choice question.

n + 1

2n - 1

1n

n - 1

card image

2n - 1

137

Match the syndrome to its appropriate description.

Trisomy 13

Trisomy 18

Trisomy 21

Down syndrome

Edwards syndrome

Patau syndrome

card image

Trisomy 13: Patau syndrome

Trisomy 18: Edwards syndrome

Trisomy 21: Down syndrome

138

In comparison to a normal diploid cell, a cell that is trisomic would produce up to ______ of the protein product of the gene found in three copies. Therefore, an imbalance occurs between the level of expression of this gene versus the ones that are normally found in pairs.

Multiple choice question.

150%

50%

300%

200%

100%

150%

139

In humans, an individual with Klinefelter syndrome has a sex chromosome composition of ______.

Multiple choice question.

XXY

XXX

XO

XYY

XXY

140

True or false: In humans, about one-fifth of all spontaneous abortions are caused by abnormalities in the number of chromosomes.

True

False

False

141

The three most common autosomal trisomies in humans are those involving what chromosomes?

Multiple select question.

Chromosome 5

Chromosome 21

Chromosome 13

Chromosome 1

Chromosome 18

Chromosome 15

Chromosome 21

Chromosome 13

Chromosome 18

142

Which of the following trisomies is so lethal that it does not allow embryo implantation in the uterus?

Multiple choice question.

Trisomy 3

Trisomy 16

Trisomy 1

Trisomy X

Trisomy 22

Trisomy 1

143

Unlike trisomy for autosomes, trisomy X is often without serious phenotypic consequences. This is due to the fact that the additional X chromosome is converted to an inactive ____ ____ in the somatic cells of the adult.

Barr body

144

Multiple Choice Question

In humans, trisomy 13 is also known as ______, while trisomy 18 is called ______.

Marfan syndrome ; Lejeune syndrome

Patau syndrome ; Edwards syndrome

Lejeune syndrome ; Marfan syndrome

Edwards syndrome ; Patau syndrome

card image

Patau syndrome ; Edwards syndrome

145

Of the following, which is the most likely to have a child with Down syndrome?

Multiple choice question.

A male who was 46 years when he became a father

A female who was 23 years old when she gave birth

A female who was 46 years old when she gave birth

A male who was 23 years when he became a father

A female who was 46 years old when she gave birth

146

A person with 44 autosomes, one X chromosome, and no Y chromosome is said to have ____ syndrome.

turner

147

Nondisjunction occurs when chromosomes do not ______.

Multiple choice question.

replicate properly during interphase

condense efficiently during interphase

recombine efficiently during meiosis

separate properly during meiosis

separate properly during meiosis

148

Individuals with Down syndrome have three copies of chromosome 21. The extra copy is most likely to be due to ____ during meiosis I in the oocyte.

nondisjunction

149

Trisomy X typically does not cause phenotypic abnormalities because ______.

Multiple choice question.

the X chromosome contains genes that are not essential for survival

all additional X chromosomes are converted to Barr bodies

the X chromosome is very small and does not contain a lot of genes

all additional X chromosomes are converted to polar bodies

all additional X chromosomes are converted to Barr bodies

150

Select all that apply

The haplodiploid system of sex determination is used by which of the following?

Multiple select question.

Birds

Ants

Bees

Sharks

Grasshoppers

Ants

Bees

151

Abnormalities in chromosome number in humans rise with an increase in the ____ of either parent.

age

152

Where has polyploidy been discovered?

Multiple choice question.

In both plants and animals

In neither plants nor animals

In plants only

In animals only

In both plants and animals

153

In humans, an individual with Klinefelter syndrome has a sex chromosome composition of ______.

Multiple choice question.

XXY

XO

XXX

XYY

XXY

154

A diploid organism that has some polyploid cells is exhibiting ____.

endopolyploidy

155

The failure of chromosomes to segregate properly during mitosis or meiosis is called ____.

nondisjunction

156

A giant chromosome consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel is known as a(n) ____ chromosome.

polytene

157

The most common cause of trisomy 21 is nondisjunction during ______ in the ______.

Multiple choice question.

meiosis I; mother

meiosis II; father

meiosis II; mother

meiosis I; father

meiosis I; mother

158

In bees, ______.

Multiple choice question.

both males and females are haploid

males are haploid, while females are diploid

females are haploid, while males are diploid

both males and females are diploid

males are haploid, while females are diploid

159

The chromosomes of a polytene chromosome aggregate at a central point called the ____.

chromocenter

160

True or false: Polyploidy is tolerated in plants. However, it is a lethal condition in all animals.

False

161

Polyploidy is commonly found in species of ______.

Multiple choice question.

bacteria

vertebrate animals

plants

invertebrate animals

plants

162

Liver cells of humans may be triploid (3n), tetraploid (4n), or even octaploid (8n). This phenomenon is best described as ______.

Multiple choice question.

polysomy

endopolyploidy

allopolyploidy

polyembryony

endopolyploidy

163

Strawberries exist ______.

Multiple choice question.

as different species: diploid, triploid, or tetraploid

as two species: diploid or triploid

as different species: diploid, tetraploid, or even octaploid

as a single species: tetraploid

as different species: diploid, tetraploid, or even octaploid

164

The polytene chromosomes of Drosophila ______.

Multiple choice question.

arise when chromosomal duplication occurs without cell division

are large chromosomes that play a role in sex determination

arise when cell division occurs without chromosomal duplication

are small chromosomes that can fuse end to end forming a longer chromosome

arise when chromosomal duplication occurs without cell division

165

Which of the following individuals will have the most trouble in producing functional gametes during meiosis?

Multiple choice question.

Triploid with 30 total chromosomes

Tetraploid with 60 total chromosomes

Diploid with 6 total chromosomes

Tetraploid with 48 total chromosomes

Triploid with 30 total chromosomes

166

Polytene chromosomes appear to be bound to each other at the ______.

Multiple choice question.

centromere

chromomere

centrosome

chromocenter

chromocenter

167

In a triploid plant, the probability that meiosis will produce a gamete that is perfectly haploid or diploid is _______, where n is the number of chromosomes in a set. Thus, the high probability of aneuploid gametes makes triploid plants sterile.

Multiple choice question.

(1/2)n+1

(1/2)n

(1/2)n-1

(1/2)2n

(1/2)n-1

168

Which of the following statements about polyploidy is true?

Multiple choice question.

It is equally common in animals and in plants

It is more common in plants than in animals

It is more common in animals than in plants

It is more common in plants than in animals

169

Cultivated wheat, Triticum aestivum, is a ______ that was derived from ______ species of grasses.

Multiple choice question.

hexaploid ; two different triploid

tetraploid ; two different diploid

hexaploid ; three different diploid

tetraploid ; four different haploid

hexaploid ; three different diploid

170

Sterility can be a desirable trait from an agricultural perspective since it may result in a fruit that is ____.

seedless

171

Multiple Choice Question

Polyploid plants that have an odd number of chromosome sets are usually ______, and those with an even number of chromosome sets are usually ______.

Multiple choice question.

sterile ; sterile

sterile ; fertile

fertile ; fertile

fertile ; sterile

sterile ; fertile

172

The term meiotic ____ refers to the failure of chromosomes to separate normally during meiosis. This results in haploid cells that have too many or too few chromosomes.

nondisjunction

173

Select all that apply

When does nondisjunction typically occur (choose all that apply)?

Multiple select question.

Cytokinesis of meiosis I

Telophase of meiosis II

Anaphase of meiosis II

Telophase of meiosis I

Anaphase of meiosis I

Anaphase of meiosis II

Anaphase of meiosis I

174
card image

This figure shows anaphase I of meiosis in a ______ individual containing ______ chromosomes.

Multiple choice question.

triploid; three sets of four

hexaploid; six sets of two

tetraploid; four sets of three

diploid; two sets of six

card image

triploid; three sets of four

175
card image

If a pair of homologous chromosomes undergoes nondisjunction during meiosis I, what will be the chromosome number of the four resulting gametes? Assume meiosis II is normal.

Multiple choice question.

n - 1; n - 1; n; n

n + 1; n - 1; n - 1; n

n + 1; n + 1; n; n

n + 1; n - 1; n; n

n + 1; n + 1; n - 1; n - 1

n + 1; n + 1; n - 1; n - 1

176

The house mouse Mus musculus has a diploid chromosome number of 40. Suppose that the first meiotic division of a germ cell is normal, but a single dyad in one of the two daughter cells undergoes nondisjunction in meiosis II. How many chromosomes would be present in each of the four gametes that result from that meiosis?

Multiple choice question.

20, 20, 21, 19

22, 20, 18, 16

10, 10, 12, 8

21, 21, 19, 19

12, 12, 8, 8

20, 20, 21, 19

177

A triploid plant is advantageous in agriculture because it is often ______.

Multiple choice question.

fertile

disease-resistant

seedless

pest-resistant

seedless

178

If a sperm carrying an extra chromosome fertilizes a normal egg, the zygote that is produced will be ______.

Multiple choice question.

monosomic

tetrasomic

trisomic

disomic

trisomic

179

Improper separation of chromosomes can occur after fertilization in one of the body's somatic cells. This mechanism is referred to as mitotic ____.

nondisjunction

180

Complete nondisjunction during the first meiotic division would result in which of the following gametes at the end of meiosis II?

Multiple choice question.

Four haploid gametes

Two diploid gametes

Four aneuploid gametes

Two diploid gametes and two haploid gametes

Two diploid gametes

181

Nondisjunction occurs during what stage of meiosis?

Multiple choice question.

Anaphase I but not anaphase II

Neither anaphase I nor anaphase II

Anaphase II but not anaphase I

Either anaphase I or anaphase II

Either anaphase I or anaphase II

182

During mitosis of a particular diploid cell, a single chromosome undergoes nondisjunction. What will be the chromosome number in the resulting daughter cells?

Multiple choice question.

n + 1, n - 1

2n, 2n - 1

2n, n

2n + 1, 2n - 1

2n + 1, 2n

2n + 1, 2n - 1

183

The hypothetical organism Sllub adirolfhtuos has a diploid chromosome number of 56. Suppose that one of the chromosome pairs fails to disjoin properly during meiosis I. How many chromosomes will be present in each of the four gametes that result from that meiosis? Assume meiosis II is normal.

Multiple choice question.

12, 12, 16, 16

28, 28, 0, 0

28, 28, 27, 29

27, 27, 29, 29

12, 16, 14, 14

27, 27, 29, 29

184

In a particular cell undergoing meiosis, the first meiotic division is normal, but a chromosome undergoes nondisjunction during meiosis II. What will be the chromosome number of the four resulting gametes?

Multiple choice question.

n + 1; n + 1; n; n

n - 1; n - 1; n; n

n + 1; n - 1; n - 1; n

n + 1; n - 1; n; n

n + 1; n + 1; n - 1; n - 1

card image

n + 1; n - 1; n; n

185

Assume nondisjunction occurs in meiosis II in oogenesis. If the resulting gametes are fertilized by normal sperm, what types of zygotes can be produced?

Multiple choice question.

Trisomic only

Disomic and trisomic

Monosomic and disomic

Monosomic and trisomic

Monosomic, disomic, and trisomic

Monosomic, disomic, and trisomic

186
card image

Consider a cell that is 2n = 4. This figure represents what event?

Multiple choice question.

Nondisjunction during meiosis I

Nondisjunction during mitosis

Chromosome loss during mitosis

card image

Nondisjunction during mitosis

187

In meiosis, if all of the chromosomes fail to separate normally, and end up migrating to one of the two daughter cells, the result is that all four cells are abnormal. This event is known as ____.

complete nondisjunction

188

Mitotic nondisjunction in a diploid cell produces ______.

Multiple choice question.

a trisomic and a disomic daughter cell

two nullisomic daughter cells

a disomic and a nullisomic daughter cell

two monosomic daughter cells

a trisomic and a monosomic daughter cell

a trisomic and a monosomic daughter cell

189

Chromosome loss during mitosis of a diploid cell produces ______.

Multiple choice question.

a trisomic and a nullisomic daughter cell

two monosomic daughter cells

a disomic and a nullisomic daughter cell

two nullisomic daughter cells

a normal and a monosomic daughter cell

a normal and a monosomic daughter cell

190

Mosaics are most likely caused by ______.

Multiple choice question.

nondisjunction during meiosis I

nondisjunction during mitosis

nondisjunction during meiosis II

Robertsonian translocations

nondisjunction during mitosis

191
card image

A cell has a normal diploid chromosome number of 4. The phenomenon shown in this diagram is ______.

Multiple choice question.

nondisjunction during mitosis

nondisjunction during meiosis I

chromosome loss during mitosis

card image

chromosome loss during mitosis

192
card image

This figure best illustrates the condition of ______.

Multiple choice question.

allopolyploidy

autopolyploidy

aneuploidy

endopolyploidy

card image

autopolyploidy

193

Complete nondisjunction during the first meiotic division would result in which of the following gametes at the end of meiosis II?

Multiple choice question.

Four haploid gametes

Two diploid gametes and two haploid gametes

Four aneuploid gametes

Two diploid gametes

Two diploid gametes

194

An allodiploid refers to an organism that has ______.

Multiple choice question.

one set of chromosomes from two different species

two sets of chromosomes from the same species

one subset of cells that is monoploid, and another that is polyploid

one subsets of cells that is euploid, and another that is aneuploid

one set of chromosomes from two different species

195

During mitosis of a particular diploid cell, a chromosome loss event occurs. What will be the chromosome number in the resulting daughter cells?

Multiple choice question.

2n, n

n + 1, n - 1

2n + 1, 2n

2n + 1, 2n - 1

2n, 2n - 1

2n, 2n - 1

196

Nondisjunction events that occur during mitosis, produce a subset of cells that are genetically different from those of the rest of the organism. This condition is called ____.

mosaicism

197
card image

This karyotype depicts the ______ chromosome of an ______.

Multiple choice question.

homologous; autodiploid

homeologous; allodiploid

homeologous; autodiploid

homologous; allodiploid

homeologous; allodiploid

198

An individual that has multiple sets of chromosomes from the same species is best described as a(n) ______.

Multiple choice question.

homopolyploid

endopolyploid

allopolyploid

autopolyploid

autopolyploid

199

Species A and species B are closely related. Both are diploid with A having 2n = 12 and B having 2n = 14. How many chromosomes will an allotetraploid have?

Multiple choice question.

52

28

24

26

26

200

An organism that has one set of chromosomes from two different species is best described as a(n) ______.

Multiple choice question.

heterodiploid

allodiploid

autodiploid

pseudodiploid

allodiploid

201

An allotetraploid possesses which of the following?

Multiple choice question.

Four sets of chromosomes from one species.

Two sets of chromosomes from two different species.

One set of chromosomes from two different species.

One set of chromosomes from four different species.

Two sets of chromosomes from two different species.

202

The drug ____ is often used to promote polyploidy because it binds to the microtubule spindle apparatus and thus disrupts normal chromosome segregation during cell division.

colchicine

203

A male of species A is crossed with a female of species B. The offspring is best described as a(n) ______.

Multiple choice question.

aneuploid

allodiploid

endodiploid

autodiploid

allodiploid

204

Applying colchicine to a diploid plant may cause ____ ____ in a cell, which will form a tetraploid daughter cell. Such a tetraploid cell may continue to divide and produce a segment of the plant with more robust characteristics.

complete/mitotic nondisjunction

205

In a particular plant species, 2n = 12. How many chromosomes will an allotetraploid individual have?

Multiple choice question.

36

72

60

48

24

24

206

An organism that has at least two set of chromosomes from two or more different species is best described as a(n) ______.

Multiple choice question.

allopolyploid

exopolyploid

autopolyploid

heteropolyploid

allopolyploid

207

Which of the following is a commonly used agent for promoting polyploidy?

Multiple choice question.

Calmodulin

Colchicine

Safranin

Eosin

Colchicine

208

What happens when a diploid plant is treated with colchicine?

Multiple choice question.

The drug may cause complete nondisjunction, yielding tetraploid cells.

The drug may induce a lot of spontaneous mutations, causing the plant to die.

The drug may promote chromosomal rearrangements increasing the likelihood of tumors.

The drug may cause complete nondisjunction, yielding tetraploid cells.