Amino acid absorption is coupled to the active transport of sodium.
This makes amino acid absorption ATP-dependent
Bile enzymatically digests fats and related lipids.
Bile is an emulsifying agent, not an enzyme.
The defecation reflex is mediated by a sympathetic spinal cord reflex.
The reflex is parasympathetic.
In addition to gastrin, ACh and histamine regulate the release of HCl from parietal cells.
Gastrin is secreted by G cells, ACh comes from the parasympathetic nerve fibers, and histamine is released by enterochromaffin-like cells. All three stimulate parietal cells.
Portal triads contain a branch of the hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, and bile duct.
Triads have a branch of the hepatic artery, a branch of the hepatic portal vein, and a bile duct.
Protein digestion begins in the oral cavity under the action of salivary peptidase.
Protein digestion begins in the stomach under the action of pepsin.
The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ.
As a retroperitoneal organ, the pancreas adheres to the dorsal abdominal wall, loses its mesentery, and comes to lie posterior to the peritoneum during development
The pyloric sphincter regulates passage of chyme from the stomach into the duodenum.
The pyloric sphincter or valve controls stomach emptying (pylorus = gatekeeper).
The vermiform appendix essentially has no purpose.
The appendix is considered to be a lymphoid structure, and serves as a storehouse of bacteria to recolonize the gut when needed.
Tooth enamel is the hardest substance in the body.
Enamel is the hardest substance in the body, as it is heavily mineralized with calcium salts, and its densely packed hydroxyapatite (mineral) crystals are oriented in force-resisting columns perpendicular to the tooth's surface.
The hepatopancreatic ampulla is composed of the pancreatic duct and the lesser hepatic duct.
The bile duct and the pancreatic duct form the ampulla.
The order of the large intestines is: cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon.
The submucosa is in direct contact with food.
The mucosa is the innermost lining of the digestive tract.
Digested fats are absorbed into intestinal capillaries.
Digested fats are absorbed into lymphatic lacteals.
The submucosal plexus controls the motility of the digestive tract.
The myenteric plexus controls smooth muscle.
An adult has 20 teeth
There are 20 primary teeth, but usually 32 permanent teeth.