Transcription and Translation Flashcards


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created 1 year ago by staceysavage
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1

transcription

the process of copying a DNA gene into mRNA

takes place in the nucleus

product: mRNA

2

translation

the process of decoding the mRNA codons to build a protein

takes place in at the ribosome in the cytoplasm

3

mRNA

messenger RNA

carries the directions to build a protein

4

tRNA

card image

transfer RNA

carries the amino acid to the right spot on the mRNA during translation

top: amino acid

bottom: anticodon

5

rRNA

ribosomal RNA

makes up the ribosome

6

Differences between RNA And DNA

DNA has deoxyribose, RNA has ribose

DNA contains A,G,T,C, RNA contains A, U,G, C

DNA : double helix, RNA comes in mRNA ,tRNA , rRNA

DNA double stranded, RNA single stranded

7

codon

sequence of 3 nucleotides in mRNA that codes for one amino acid

8

anticodon

section on tRNA that pairs with an mRNA codon

9

mRNA processing

the pre-mRNA has the introns cut out, the exons spliced together and a 5'methyl cap added at one end and a 3' poly A tail at the other

10

RNA polymerase

the enzyme that copies DNA into mRNA

11

mutation

change to the DNA

12

point mutation

when one nucleotide in the sequence is changed, many times it is a substitution

13

frameshift mutation

more dangerous mutation

usually an addition or deletion in the DNA sequence, changes the way the mRNA codons are read.

14

3 Steps to Translation

Initiation: mRNA binds to ribosome

Elongation: amino acids are added to grow the polypeptide chain

Termination: when the ribosome reaches the stop signal

15

genetic overlap

the idea that more than one codon codes for the same amino acid.

16

peptide bond

bond formed between two amino acids