MIDTERM: psychology Flashcards


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1

Which of the following was mentioned as a skill to which psychology students would be exposed?

  1. critical thinking
  2. use of the scientific method
  3. critical evaluation of sources of information
  4. all of the above

...

2

Before psychology became a recognized academic discipline, matters of the mind were undertaken by those in ________.

  1. biology
  2. chemistry
  3. philosophy
  4. physics

...

3

In the scientific method, a hypothesis is a(n) ________.

  1. observation
  2. measurement
  3. test
  4. proposed explanation

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4

Based on your reading, which theorist would have been most likely to agree with this statement: Perceptual phenomena are best understood as a combination of their components.

  1. William James
  2. Max Wertheimer
  3. Carl Rogers
  4. Noam Chomsky

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5

________ is most well-known for proposing his hierarchy of needs.

  1. Noam Chomsky
  2. Carl Rogers
  3. Abraham Maslow
  4. Sigmund Freud

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6

Rogers believed that providing genuineness, empathy, and ________ in the therapeutic environment for his clients was critical to their being able to deal with their problems.

  1. structuralism
  2. functionalism
  3. Gestalt
  4. unconditional positive regard

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7

The operant conditioning chamber (aka ________ box) is a device used to study the principles of operant conditioning.

  1. Skinner
  2. Watson
  3. James
  4. Koffka

...

8

A researcher interested in how changes in the cells of the hippocampus (a structure in the brain related to learning and memory) are related to memory formation would be most likely to identify as a(n) ________ psychologist.

  1. biological
  2. health
  3. clinical
  4. social

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9

An individual’s consistent pattern of thought and behavior is known as a(n) ________.

  1. psychosexual stage
  2. object permanence
  3. personality
  4. perception

...

10

.

In Milgram’s controversial study on obedience, nearly ________ of the participants were willing to administer what appeared to be lethal electrical shocks to another person because they were told to do so by an authority figure.

  1. 1/3
  2. 2/3
  3. 3/4
  4. 4/5

...

11

A researcher interested in what factors make an employee best suited for a given job would most likely identify as a(n) ________ psychologist.

  1. personality
  2. clinical
  3. social
  4. I-O

...

12

If someone wanted to become a psychology professor at a 4-year college, they would probably need a ________ degree in psychology.

  1. bachelor of science
  2. bachelor of art
  3. master’s
  4. PhD

...

13

The ________ places less emphasis on research and more emphasis on application of therapeutic skills.

  1. PhD
  2. PsyD
  3. postdoctoral training program
  4. dissertation

...

14

Which of the following degrees would be the minimum required to teach psychology courses in high school?

  1. PhD
  2. PsyD
  3. master’s degree
  4. bachelor’s degree

...

15

.

One would need at least a(n) ________ degree to serve as a school psychologist.

  1. associate’s
  2. bachelor’s
  3. master’s
  4. doctoral

...

16

Scientific hypotheses are ________ and falsifiable.

  1. observable
  2. original
  3. provable
  4. testable

...

17

________ are defined as observable realities.

  1. behaviors
  2. facts
  3. opinions
  4. theories

...

18

Scientific knowledge is ________.

  1. intuitive
  2. empirical
  3. permanent
  4. subjective

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19

A major criticism of Freud’s early theories involves the fact that his theories ________.

  1. were too limited in scope
  2. were too outrageous
  3. were too broad
  4. were not testable

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20

Sigmund Freud developed his theory of human personality by conducting in-depth interviews over an extended period of time with a few clients. This type of research approach is known as a(n): ________.

  1. archival research
  2. case study
  3. naturalistic observation
  4. survey

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21

.

________ involves observing behavior in individuals in their natural environments.

  1. archival research
  2. case study
  3. naturalistic observation
  4. survey

...

22

The major limitation of case studies is ________.

  1. the superficial nature of the information collected in this approach
  2. the lack of control that the researcher has in this approach
  3. the inability to generalize the findings from this approach to the larger population
  4. the absence of inter-rater reliability

...

23

The benefit of naturalistic observation studies is ________.

  1. the honesty of the data that is collected in a realistic setting
  2. how quick and easy these studies are to perform
  3. the researcher’s capacity to make sure that data is collected as efficiently as possible
  4. the ability to determine cause and effect in this particular approach

...

24

Using existing records to try to answer a research question is known as ________.

  1. naturalistic observation
  2. survey research
  3. longitudinal research
  4. archival research

...

25

________ involves following a group of research participants for an extended period of time.

  1. archival research
  2. longitudinal research
  3. naturalistic observation
  4. cross-sectional research

...

26

A(n) ________ is a list of questions developed by a researcher that can be administered in paper form.

  1. archive
  2. case Study
  3. naturalistic observation
  4. survey

...

27

Longitudinal research is complicated by high rates of ________.

  1. deception
  2. observation
  3. attrition
  4. generalization

...

28

Height and weight are positively correlated. This means that:

  1. There is no relationship between height and weight.
  2. Usually, the taller someone is, the thinner they are.
  3. Usually, the shorter someone is, the heavier they are.
  4. As height increases, typically weight increases.

...

29

Which of the following correlation coefficients indicates the strongest relationship between two variables?

  1. –.90
  2. –.50
  3. +.80
  4. +.25

...

30

Which statement best illustrates a negative correlation between the number of hours spent watching TV the week before an exam and the grade on that exam?

  1. Watching too much television leads to poor exam performance.
  2. Smart students watch less television.
  3. Viewing television interferes with a student’s ability to prepare for the upcoming exam.
  4. Students who watch more television perform more poorly on their exams.

...

31

The correlation coefficient indicates the weakest relationship when ________.

  1. it is closest to 0
  2. it is closest to -1
  3. it is positive
  4. it is negative

...

32

________ means that everyone in the population has the same likelihood of being asked to participate in the study.

  1. operationalizing
  2. placebo effect
  3. random assignment
  4. random sampling

...

33

The ________ is controlled by the experimenter, while the ________ represents the information collected and statistically analyzed by the experimenter.

  1. dependent variable; independent variable
  2. independent variable; dependent variable
  3. placebo effect; experimenter bias
  4. experiment bias; placebo effect

...

34

Researchers must ________ important concepts in their studies so others would have a clear understanding of exactly how those concepts were defined.

  1. randomly assign
  2. randomly select
  3. operationalize
  4. generalize

...

35

Sometimes, researchers will administer a(n) ________ to participants in the control group to control for the effects that participant expectation might have on the experiment.

  1. dependent variable
  2. independent variable
  3. statistical analysis
  4. placebo

...

36

________ is to animal research as ________ is to human research.

  1. informed consent; deception
  2. IACUC; IRB
  3. IRB; IACUC
  4. deception; debriefing

...

37

Researchers might use ________ when providing participants with the full details of the experiment could skew their responses.

  1. informed consent
  2. deception
  3. ethics
  4. debriefing

...

38

A person’s participation in a research project must be ________.

  1. random
  2. rewarded
  3. voluntary
  4. public

...

39

Before participating in an experiment, individuals should read and sign the ________ form.

  1. informed consent
  2. debriefing
  3. IRB
  4. ethics

...

40

A(n) ________ is a sudden, permanent change in a sequence of DNA.

  1. allele
  2. chromosome
  3. epigenetic
  4. mutation

...

41

________ refers to a person’s genetic makeup, while ________ refers to a person’s physical characteristics.

  1. Phenotype; genotype
  2. Genotype; phenotype
  3. DNA; gene
  4. Gene; DNA

...

42

________ is the field of study that focuses on genes and their expression.

  1. Social psychology
  2. Evolutionary psychology
  3. Epigenetics
  4. Behavioral neuroscience

...

43

Humans have ________ pairs of chromosomes.

  1. 15
  2. 23
  3. 46
  4. 78

...

44

The ________ receive(s) incoming signals from other neurons.

  1. soma
  2. terminal buttons
  3. myelin sheath
  4. dendrites

...

45

A(n) ________ facilitates or mimics the activity of a given neurotransmitter system.

  1. axon
  2. SSRI
  3. agonist
  4. antagonist

...

46

Multiple sclerosis involves a breakdown of the ________.

  1. soma
  2. myelin sheath
  3. synaptic vesicles
  4. dendrites

...

47

An action potential involves Na+ moving ________ the cell and K+ moving ________ the cell.

  1. inside; outside
  2. outside; inside
  3. inside; inside
  4. outside; outside

...

48

Our ability to make our legs move as we walk across the room is controlled by the ________ nervous system.

  1. autonomic
  2. somatic
  3. sympathetic
  4. parasympathetic

...

49

If your ________ is activated, you will feel relatively at ease.

  1. somatic nervous system
  2. sympathetic nervous system
  3. parasympathetic nervous system
  4. spinal cord

...

50

The central nervous system is comprised of ________.

  1. sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
  2. organs and glands
  3. somatic and autonomic nervous systems
  4. brain and spinal cord

...

51

Sympathetic activation is associated with ________.

  1. pupil dilation
  2. storage of glucose in the liver
  3. increased heart rate
  4. both A and C

...

52

The ________ is a sensory relay station where all sensory information, except for smell, goes before being sent to other areas of the brain for further processing.

  1. amygdala
  2. hippocampus
  3. hypothalamus
  4. thalamus

...

53

Damage to the ________ disrupts one’s ability to comprehend language, but it leaves one’s ability to produce words intact.

  1. amygdala
  2. Broca’s Area
  3. Wernicke’s Area
  4. occipital lobe

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54

A(n) ________ uses magnetic fields to create pictures of a given tissue.

  1. EEG
  2. MRI
  3. PET scan
  4. CT scan

...

55

Which of the following is not a structure of the forebrain?

  1. thalamus
  2. hippocampus
  3. amygdala
  4. substantia nigra

...

56

The two major hormones secreted from the pancreas are:

  1. estrogen and progesterone
  2. norepinephrine and epinephrine
  3. thyroxine and oxytocin
  4. glucagon and insulin

...

57

The ________ secretes messenger hormones that direct the function of the rest of the endocrine glands.

  1. ovary
  2. thyroid
  3. pituitary
  4. pancreas

...

58

The ________ gland secretes epinephrine.

  1. adrenal
  2. thyroid
  3. pituitary
  4. master

...

59

The ________ secretes hormones that regulate the body’s fluid levels.

  1. adrenal
  2. pituitary
  3. testes
  4. thyroid

...

60

The body’s biological clock is located in the ________.

  1. hippocampus
  2. thalamus
  3. hypothalamus
  4. pituitary gland

...

61

________ occurs when there is a chronic deficiency in sleep.

  1. jet lag
  2. rotating shift work
  3. circadian rhythm
  4. sleep debt

...

62

________ cycles occur roughly once every 24 hours.

  1. biological
  2. circadian
  3. rotating
  4. conscious

...

63

________ is one way in which people can help reset their biological clocks.

  1. Light-dark exposure
  2. coffee consumption
  3. alcohol consumption
  4. napping

...

64

Growth hormone is secreted by the ________ while we sleep.

  1. pineal gland
  2. thyroid
  3. pituitary gland
  4. pancreas

...

65

The ________ plays a role in controlling slow-wave sleep.

  1. hypothalamus
  2. thalamus
  3. pons
  4. both a and b

...

66

________ is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland that plays a role in regulating biological rhythms and immune function.

  1. growth hormone
  2. melatonin
  3. LH
  4. FSH

...

67

________ appears to be especially important for enhanced performance on recently learned tasks.

  1. melatonin
  2. slow-wave sleep
  3. sleep deprivation
  4. growth hormone

...

68

________ is(are) described as slow-wave sleep.

  1. stage 1
  2. stage 2
  3. stage 3 and stage 4
  4. REM sleep

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69

Sleep spindles and K-complexes are most often associated with ________ sleep.

  1. stage 1
  2. stage 2
  3. stage 3 and stage 4
  4. REM

...

70

Symptoms of ________ may be improved by REM deprivation.

  1. schizophrenia
  2. Parkinson’s disease
  3. depression
  4. generalized anxiety disorder

...

71

The ________ content of a dream refers to the true meaning of the dream.

  1. latent
  2. manifest
  3. collective unconscious
  4. important

...

72

________ is loss of muscle tone or control that is often associated with narcolepsy.

  1. RBD
  2. CPAP
  3. cataplexy
  4. insomnia

...

73

An individual may suffer from ________ if there is a disruption in the brain signals that are sent to the muscles that regulate breathing.

  1. central sleep apnea
  2. obstructive sleep apnea
  3. narcolepsy
  4. SIDS

...

74

The most common treatment for ________ involves the use of amphetamine-like medications.

  1. sleep apnea
  2. RBD
  3. SIDS
  4. narcolepsy

...

75

.

________ is another word for sleepwalking.

  1. insomnia
  2. somnambulism
  3. cataplexy
  4. narcolepsy

...

76

.

________ occurs when a drug user requires more and more of a given drug in order to experience the same effects of the drug.

  1. withdrawal
  2. psychological dependence
  3. tolerance
  4. reuptake

...

77

Cocaine blocks the reuptake of ________.

  1. GABA
  2. glutamate
  3. acetylcholine
  4. dopamine

...

78

________ refers to drug craving.

  1. psychological dependence
  2. antagonism
  3. agonism
  4. physical dependence

...

79

LSD affects ________ neurotransmission.

  1. dopamine
  2. serotonin
  3. acetylcholine
  4. norepinephrine

...

80

________ is most effective in individuals that are very open to the power of suggestion.

  1. hypnosis
  2. meditation
  3. mindful awareness
  4. cognitive therapy

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81

.

________ has its roots in religious practice.

  1. hypnosis
  2. meditation
  3. cognitive therapy
  4. behavioral therapy

...

82

Meditation may be helpful in ________.

  1. pain management
  2. stress control
  3. treating the flu
  4. both a and b

...

83

Research suggests that cognitive processes, such as learning, may be affected by ________.

  1. hypnosis
  2. meditation
  3. mindful awareness
  4. progressive relaxation

...

84

________ refers to the minimum amount of stimulus energy required to be detected 50% of the time.

  1. absolute threshold
  2. difference threshold
  3. just noticeable difference
  4. transduction

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85

Decreased sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus is known as ________.

  1. transduction
  2. difference threshold
  3. sensory adaptation
  4. inattentional blindness

...

86

________ involves the conversion of sensory stimulus energy into neural impulses.

  1. sensory adaptation
  2. inattentional blindness
  3. difference threshold
  4. transduction

...

87

________ occurs when sensory information is organized, interpreted, and consciously experienced.

  1. sensation
  2. perception
  3. transduction
  4. sensory adaptation

...

88

Which of the following correctly matches the pattern in our perception of color as we move from short wavelengths to long wavelengths?

  1. red to orange to yellow
  2. yellow to orange to red
  3. yellow to red to orange
  4. orange to yellow to red

...

89

The visible spectrum includes light that ranges from about ________.

  1. 400–700 nm
  2. 200–900 nm
  3. 20–20000 Hz
  4. 10–20 dB

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90

The electromagnetic spectrum includes ________.

  1. radio waves
  2. x-rays
  3. infrared light
  4. all of the above

...

91

The audible range for humans is ________.

  1. 380–740 Hz
  2. 10–20 dB
  3. less than 300 dB
  4. 20-20,000 Hz

...

92

The quality of a sound that is affected by frequency, amplitude, and timing of the sound wave is known as ________.

  1. pitch
  2. tone
  3. electromagnetic
  4. timbre

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93

The ________ is a small indentation of the retina that contains cones.

  1. optic chiasm
  2. optic nerve
  3. fovea
  4. iris

...

94

.

________ operate best under bright light conditions.

  1. cones
  2. rods
  3. retinal ganglion cells
  4. striate cortex

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95

________ depth cues require the use of both eyes.

  1. monocular
  2. binocular
  3. linear perspective
  4. accommodating

...

96

If you were to stare at a green dot for a relatively long period of time and then shift your gaze to a blank white screen, you would see a ________ negative afterimage.

  1. blue
  2. yellow
  3. black
  4. red

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97

Hair cells located near the base of the basilar membrane respond best to ________ sounds.

  1. low-frequency
  2. high-frequency
  3. low-amplitude
  4. high-amplitude

...

98

The three ossicles of the middle ear are known as ________.

  1. malleus, incus, and stapes
  2. hammer, anvil, and stirrup
  3. pinna, cochlea, and utricle
  4. both a and b

...

99

Hearing aids might be effective for treating ________.

  1. Ménière's disease
  2. sensorineural hearing loss
  3. conductive hearing loss
  4. interaural time differences

...

100

Cues that require two ears are referred to as ________ cues.

  1. monocular
  2. monaural
  3. binocular
  4. binaural

...

101

Chemical messages often sent between two members of a species to communicate something about reproductive status are called ________.

  1. hormones
  2. pheromones
  3. Merkel’s disks
  4. Meissner’s corpuscles

...

102

Which taste is associated with monosodium glutamate?

  1. sweet
  2. bitter
  3. umami
  4. sour

...

103

________ serve as sensory receptors for temperature and pain stimuli.

  1. free nerve endings
  2. Pacinian corpuscles
  3. Ruffini corpuscles
  4. Meissner’s corpuscles

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104

Which of the following is involved in maintaining balance and body posture?

  1. auditory nerve
  2. nociceptors
  3. olfactory bulb
  4. vestibular system

...

105

According to the principle of ________, objects that occur close to one another tend to be grouped together.

  1. similarity
  2. good continuation
  3. proximity
  4. closure

...

106

Our tendency to perceive things as complete objects rather than as a series of parts is known as the principle of ________.

  1. closure
  2. good continuation
  3. proximity
  4. similarity

...

107

According to the law of ________, we are more likely to perceive smoothly flowing lines rather than choppy or jagged lines.

  1. closure
  2. good continuation
  3. proximity
  4. similarity

...

108

The main point of focus in a visual display is known as the ________.

  1. closure
  2. perceptual set
  3. ground
  4. figure

...

109

Which of the following is an example of a reflex that occurs at some point in the development of a human being?

  1. child riding a bike
  2. teen socializing
  3. infant sucking on a nipple
  4. toddler walking

...

110

Learning is best defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior that ________.

  1. is innate
  2. occurs as a result of experience
  3. is found only in humans
  4. occurs by observing others

...

111

Two forms of associative learning are ________ and ________.

  1. classical conditioning; operant conditioning
  2. classical conditioning; Pavlovian conditioning
  3. operant conditioning; observational learning
  4. operant conditioning; learning conditioning

...

112

In ________ the stimulus or experience occurs before the behavior and then gets paired with the behavior.

  1. associative learning
  2. observational learning
  3. operant conditioning
  4. classical conditioning

...

113

A stimulus that does not initially elicit a response in an organism is a(n) ________.

  1. unconditioned stimulus
  2. neutral stimulus
  3. conditioned stimulus
  4. unconditioned response

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114

.

In Watson and Rayner’s experiments, Little Albert was conditioned to fear a white rat, and then he began to be afraid of other furry white objects. This demonstrates ________.

  1. higher order conditioning
  2. acquisition
  3. stimulus discrimination
  4. stimulus generalization

...

115

Extinction occurs when ________.

  1. the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without being paired with an unconditioned stimulus
  2. the unconditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without being paired with a conditioned stimulus
  3. the neutral stimulus is presented repeatedly without being paired with an unconditioned stimulus
  4. the neutral stimulus is presented repeatedly without being paired with a conditioned stimulus

...

116

In Pavlov’s work with dogs, the psychic secretions were ________.

  1. unconditioned responses
  2. conditioned responses
  3. unconditioned stimuli
  4. conditioned stimuli

...

117

________ is when you take away a pleasant stimulus to stop a behavior.

  1. positive reinforcement
  2. negative reinforcement
  3. positive punishment
  4. negative punishment

...

118

Which of the following is not an example of a primary reinforcer?

  1. food
  2. money
  3. water
  4. sex

...

119

.

Rewarding successive approximations toward a target behavior is ________.

  1. shaping
  2. extinction
  3. positive reinforcement
  4. negative reinforcement

...

120

Slot machines reward gamblers with money according to which reinforcement schedule?

  1. fixed ratio
  2. variable ratio
  3. fixed interval
  4. variable interval

...

121

The person who performs a behavior that serves as an example is called a ________.

  1. teacher
  2. model
  3. instructor
  4. coach

...

122

In Bandura’s Bobo doll study, when the children who watched the aggressive model were placed in a room with the doll and other toys, they ________.

  1. ignored the doll
  2. played nicely with the doll
  3. played with tinker toys
  4. kicked and threw the doll

...

123

Which is the correct order of steps in the modeling process?

  1. attention, retention, reproduction, motivation
  2. motivation, attention, reproduction, retention
  3. attention, motivation, retention, reproduction
  4. motivation, attention, retention, reproduction

...

124

.

Who proposed observational learning?

  1. Ivan Pavlov
  2. John Watson
  3. Albert Bandura
  4. B. F. Skinner

...

125

Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that focuses on the study of ________.

  1. human development
  2. human thinking
  3. human behavior
  4. human society

...

126

Which of the following is an example of a prototype for the concept of leadership on an athletic team?

  1. the equipment manager
  2. the scorekeeper
  3. the team captain
  4. the quietest member of the team

...

127

Which of the following is an example of an artificial concept?

  1. mammals
  2. a triangle’s area
  3. gemstones
  4. teachers

...

128

.

An event schema is also known as a cognitive ________.

  1. stereotype
  2. concept
  3. script
  4. prototype

...

129

________ provides general principles for organizing words into meaningful sentences.

  1. Linguistic determinism
  2. Lexicon
  3. Semantics
  4. Syntax

...

130

________ are the smallest unit of language that carry meaning.

  1. Lexicon
  2. Phonemes
  3. Morphemes
  4. Syntax

...

131

The meaning of words and phrases is determined by applying the rules of ________.

  1. lexicon
  2. phonemes
  3. overgeneralization
  4. semantics

...

132

________ is (are) the basic sound units of a spoken language.

  1. Syntax
  2. Phonemes
  3. Morphemes
  4. Grammar

...

133

A specific formula for solving a problem is called ________.

  1. an algorithm
  2. a heuristic
  3. a mental set
  4. trial and error

...

134

A mental shortcut in the form of a general problem-solving framework is called ________.

  1. an algorithm
  2. a heuristic
  3. a mental set
  4. trial and error

...

135

Which type of bias involves becoming fixated on a single trait of a problem?

  1. anchoring bias
  2. confirmation bias
  3. representative bias
  4. availability bias

...

136

Which type of bias involves relying on a false stereotype to make a decision?

  1. anchoring bias
  2. confirmation bias
  3. representative bias
  4. availability bias

...

137

Fluid intelligence is characterized by ________.

  1. being able to recall information
  2. being able to create new products
  3. being able to understand and communicate with different cultures
  4. being able to see complex relationships and solve problems

...

138

Which of the following is not one of Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences?

  1. creative
  2. spatial
  3. linguistic
  4. musical

...

139

Which theorist put forth the triarchic theory of intelligence?

  1. Goleman
  2. Gardner
  3. Sternberg
  4. Steitz

...

140

When you are examining data to look for trends, which type of intelligence are you using most?

  1. practical
  2. analytical
  3. emotional
  4. creative

...

141

In order for a test to be normed and standardized it must be tested on ________.

  1. a group of same-age peers
  2. a representative sample
  3. children with mental disabilities
  4. children of average intelligence

...

142

The mean score for a person with an average IQ is ________.

  1. 70
  2. 130
  3. 85
  4. 100

...

143

Who developed the IQ test most widely used today?

  1. Sir Francis Galton
  2. Alfred Binet
  3. Louis Terman
  4. David Wechsler

...

144

The DSM-5 now uses ________ as a diagnostic label for what was once referred to as mental retardation.

  1. autism and developmental disabilities
  2. lowered intelligence
  3. intellectual disability
  4. cognitive disruption

...

145

Where does high intelligence come from?

  1. genetics
  2. environment
  3. both A and B
  4. neither A nor B

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146

Arthur Jensen believed that ________.

  1. genetics was solely responsible for intelligence
  2. environment was solely responsible for intelligence
  3. intelligence level was determined by race
  4. IQ tests do not take socioeconomic status into account

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147

What is a learning disability?

  1. a developmental disorder
  2. a neurological disorder
  3. an emotional disorder
  4. an intellectual disorder

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148

Which of the following statements is true?

  1. Poverty always affects whether individuals are able to reach their full intellectual potential.
  2. An individual’s intelligence is determined solely by the intelligence levels of his siblings.
  3. The environment in which an individual is raised is the strongest predictor of her future intelligence
  4. There are many factors working together to influence an individual’s intelligence level.

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149

________ is a memory store with a phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, episodic buffer, and a central executive.

  1. sensory memory
  2. episodic memory
  3. working memory
  4. implicit memory

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150

The storage capacity of long-term memory is ________.

  1. one or two bits of information
  2. seven bits, plus or minus two
  3. limited
  4. essentially limitless

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151

The three functions of memory are ________.

  1. automatic processing, effortful processing, and storage
  2. encoding, processing, and storage
  3. automatic processing, effortful processing, and retrieval
  4. encoding, storage, and retrieval

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152

This physical trace of memory is known as the ________.

  1. engram
  2. Lashley effect
  3. Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradigm
  4. flashbulb memory effect

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153

An exceptionally clear recollection of an important event is a (an) ________.

  1. engram
  2. arousal theory
  3. flashbulb memory
  4. equipotentiality hypothesis

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154

________ is when our recollections of the past are done in a self-enhancing manner.

  1. stereotypical bias
  2. egocentric bias
  3. hindsight bias
  4. enhancement bias

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155

Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon is also known as ________.

  1. persistence
  2. misattribution
  3. transience
  4. blocking

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156

The formulation of new memories is sometimes called ________, and the process of bringing up old memories is called ________.

  1. construction; reconstruction
  2. reconstruction; construction
  3. production; reproduction
  4. reproduction; production

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157

When you are learning how to play the piano, the statement “Every good boy does fine” can help you remember the notes E, G, B, D, and F for the lines of the treble clef. This is an example of a (an) ________.

  1. jingle
  2. acronym
  3. acrostic
  4. acoustic

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158

According to a study by Yogo and Fujihara (2008), if you want to improve your short-term memory, you should spend time writing about ________.

  1. your best possible future self
  2. a traumatic life experience
  3. a trivial topic
  4. your grocery list

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159

The self-referencing effect refers to ________.

  1. making the material you are trying to memorize personally meaningful to you
  2. making a phrase of all the first letters of the words you are trying to memorize
  3. making a word formed by the first letter of each of the words you are trying to memorize
  4. saying words you want to remember out loud to yourself

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160

Memory aids that help organize information for encoding are ________.

  1. mnemonic devices
  2. memory-enhancing strategies
  3. elaborative rehearsal
  4. effortful processing

...