Chapter 35 APUSH MCQ Flashcards


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1

The fundamental strategic decision of World War II made by President Roosevelt and the British at the very beginning of the war was to
a. plan for a second front in Western Europe as soon as possible.
b. force Italy out of the war first by attacking the soft underbelly of Europe.
c. arouse the American people to an idealistic crusade of the same sort that Woodrow Wilson had so effectively used in World War I.
d. concentrate first on the war in Europe and to place the Pacific war against Japan on the back burner.
e. fight an equally vigorous naval war against Japan and a land war against Germany and Italy.

d

2

Once at war, America's first great challenge was to
a. pass a conscription law.
b. raise an army and navy.
c. extend aid to the Soviet Union.
d. develop atomic weapons.
e. retool its industry for all-out war production.

e

3

In sharp contrast to World War I, during World War II, the United States was
a. ready to use conscription if necessary to raise an army.
b. forced to sacrifice civilian economic well-being for the military effort.
c. weakened by constant isolationist criticism of the war effort.
d. nearly unanimous in support of the war.
e. actually invaded by enemy forces.

d

4

Overall, most ethnic groups in the United States during World War II
a. were further assimilated into American society.
b. were not allowed to serve in the military.
c. had their patriotism questioned as in World War I.
d. cast their vote for Republican candidates opposed to the war.
e. served in ethnically distinct military units.

a

5

After the United States entered World War II in 1941, the term "enemy aliens" referred to
a. Japanese living in the U.S.
b. Italians living in the U.S.
c. Germans living in the U.S.
d. All of these
e. None of these

d

6

All of the following are true statements about the effect of Executive Order No. 9066 on Japanese living in the U.S. except
a. they were put in internment camps.
b. they were victims of anti-Japanese prejudice.
c. they lost hundreds of millions of dollars in property and lost wages.
d. The U.S. Supreme Court declared the Japanese relocation unconstitutional.
e. The U.S. government officially apologized four decades later and gave each camp survivor $20,000.

d

7

Despite the demands of the wartime economy, inflation was kept well in check during the war by
a. directing production to whatever goods were in most demand.
b. prosecuting war profiteers and black marketers who tried to earn windfall profits.
c. permitting large numbers of illegal migrants to enter the work force.
d. sharply constricting the flow of credit from the Federal Reserve Board.
e. federally imposed wage and price controls.

e

8

When the United States entered World War II in December 1941
a. it took nearly two years for the country to unite.
b. the conflict soon became an idealistic crusade for democracy.
c. the government repudiated the Atlantic Charter.
d. a majority of Americans had no clear idea of what the war was about.
e. the idea of allying with the Communist Soviet Union was repugnant.

d

9

African Americans did all of the following during World War II except
a. fight in integrated combat units.
b. rally behind the slogan "Double V" (victory over dictators abroad and racism at home).
c. move north and west in large numbers.
d. form a militant organization called the Congress of Racial Equality.
e. serve in the Army Air Corps.

a

10

The greatest consequence of World War II for American race relations was
a. the tensions in wartime factories between blacks and whites.
b. the integration of the armed forces.
c. African Americans' experience of more positive European racial attitudes.
d. the massive migration of African Americans from the rural South to northern and western cities.
e. the Atlantic Charter declaring that the war was being fought for democracy and freedom.

d

11

During World War II, most Americans economically experienced
a. serious hardships due to rationing of essential goods.
b. prosperity and a doubling of personal income.
c. a continuing struggle to find employment.
d. growing class conflict between the wealthy and the working class.
e. prosperity in the cities but disastrous conditions on farms and in small towns.

b

12

During World War II, American Indians
a. demanded that President Roosevelt end discrimination in defense industries.
b. rarely enlisted in the armed forces.
c. moved south to replace African American laborers.
d. moved off reservations in large numbers.
e. promoted recovery of tribal languages.

d

13

Most of the money raised to finance World War II came through
a. tariff collections.
b. excise taxes on luxury goods.
c. raising income taxes.
d. voluntary contributions.
e. borrowing.

e

14

The first naval battle in history in which all the fighting was done by carrier-based aircraft was the Battle of
a. Leyte Gulf.
b. the Java Sea.
c. the Coral Sea.
d. Midway.
e. Iwo Jima.

c

15

The tide of Japanese conquest in the Pacific was turned following the Battle of
a. Leyte Gulf.
b. Bataan and Corregidor.
c. the Coral Sea.
d. Midway.
e. Guadalcanal.

d

16

In waging war against Japan, the United States relied mainly on a strategy of
a. heavy bombing from Chinese air bases.
b. invading Japanese strongholds in Southeast Asia.
c. fortifying China by transporting supplies from India over the Himalayan hump.
d. island hopping across the South Pacific while bypassing Japanese strongholds.
e. turning the Japanese flanks in New Guinea and Alaska.

d

17

The American conquest of ____ in 1944 was especially critical, because from there, U.S. aircraft could conduct round-trip bombing raids on the Japanese home islands.
a. Guadalcanal
b. Wake Island
c. New Guinea
d. Okinawa
e. Guam

e

18

Until spring 1943, perhaps Hitler's greatest opportunities of defeating Britain and winning the war was
a. the possibility of a successful invasion across the English Channel.
b. that German U-boat would destroy Allied shipping.
c. the defeatism of pro-fascist elements within upper-class British society.
d. that General Rommel would conquer Egypt and the Suez Canal.
e. that the American-British-Soviet alliance would collapse.

b

19

Hitler's advance in the European theater of war crested in late 1942 at the Battle of ____, after which his fortunes gradually declined.
a. the Bulge
b. Stalingrad
c. Monte Cassino
d. Britain
e. El Alamein

b

20

The Allies postponed opening a second front in Europe until 1944 because
a. they wanted to wait until Germany and the Soviet Union had badly bloodied each other.
b. men and material were needed more urgently in the Pacific.
c. the Soviet Union requested a delay until they could coordinate attacks on the eastern and western fronts.
d. they believed that North Africa was more strategically vital.
e. the British were fearful of becoming bogged down in a ground war in France.

e

21

Roosevelt's and Churchill's insistence on the absolute and "unconditional surrender" of Germany
a. guaranteed that Germany would have to be totally reconstructed after the war.
b. clearly shortened the war.
c. was largely unacceptable to the Soviets, who hoped to encourage a communist revolution inside Germany.
d. may have prevented a "separate peace" between Hitler and Stalin.
e. encouraged anti-Hitler resisters in Germany to try to overthrow the Nazis.

a

22

President Roosevelt's promise to the Soviets to open a second front in Western Europe by the end of 1942
a. was fulfilled by the invasion of North Africa.
b. was made to deceive Stalin and encourage him to slow his army's movement into Eastern Europe.
c. was strongly supported by Churchill and British military leaders.
d. proved utterly impossible to keep.
e. represented the key goal to which all early American military efforts were directed.

d

23

Arrange these wartime conferences in chronological order: (A) Potsdam, (B) Casablanca, and (C) Teheran.
a. A, B, C
b. C, B, A
c. B, C, A
d. B, A, C
e. A, C, B

c

24

Arrange these events in chronological order: (A) V-J Day, (B) V-E Day, (C) D Day, and (D) Invasion of Italy.
a. D, C, B, A
b. A, C, B, D
c. B, D, A, C
d. C, A, D, B
e. A, D, B, C

a

25

The major consequence of the Allied conquest of Sicily in August 1943 was
a. a modification of the demand for unconditional surrender of Italy.
b. the overthrow of Mussolini and Italy's unconditional surrender.
c. the swift Allied conquest of the Italian peninsula.
d. a conflict between Churchill and General Eisenhower over the invasion of the Italian mainland.
e. the threat of a Communist takeover of the Italian government.

b

26

After the Italian surrender in August 1943, the
a. Allies found it easy to conquer Rome and the rest of Italy.
b. Soviets accepted the wisdom of delaying the invasion of France and pursuing the second front in Italy.
c. British demanded the restoration of the monarchy in Italy.
d. Americans withdrew from Italy to prepare for D-Day.
e. German army poured into Italy and stalled the Allied advance.

e

27

The real impact of the Italian front on World War II may have been that it
a. delayed the D-Day invasion and allowed the Soviet Union to advance further into Eastern Europe.
b. prevented the rise of fascism or communism in Italy after the war.
c. enabled the Americans to appease both British and Soviet strategic demands.
d. enabled the United States to prevent Austria and Greece from falling into Soviet hands.
e. destroyed the monastery of Monte Cassino and other Italian artistic treasures.

a

28

At the wartime Tehran Conference
a. the Soviet Union agreed to declare war on Japan within three months.
b. the Big Three allies agreed to divide postwar Germany into separate occupied zones.
c. the Soviet Union agreed to allow free elections in Eastern European nations that its armies occupied at the end of the war.
d. plans were made for the opening of a second front in Europe.
e. it was agreed that five Big Powers would have veto power in the United Nations.

d

29

The cross-channel invasion of Normandy to open a second front in Europe was commanded by General
a. George Patton.
b. Dwight Eisenhower.
c. Douglas MacArthur.
d. Bernard Montgomery.
e. Omar Bradley.

b

30

In a sense, Franklin Roosevelt was the "forgotten man" at the Democratic Convention in 1944 because
a. so much attention was focused on who would gain the vice presidency.
b. he remained in Washington, D.C., to conduct the war.
c. poor health prevented him from taking an active role.
d. the issue of a fourth term was prominent.
e. Vice President Henry Wallace controlled the convention.

a

31

The most significant development in the Democratic convention of 1944 was that
a. Roosevelt's third-term vice president, Henry Wallace, was dumped in favor of Senator Harry Truman.
b. Roosevelt's appearance at the convention revealed how physically frail he was.
c. party leaders developed a campaign that downplayed the New Deal's success.
d. there was growing resistance to Roosevelt's pursuit of a fourth term.
e. the issue of civil rights came to the fore as the dominant concern of the party.

a

32

Franklin Roosevelt won the election in 1944 primarily because
a. Republican Thomas E. Dewey favored an international organization for world peace.
b. labor unions turned out for Roosevelt.
c. Harry Truman was his running mate.
d. questions arose regarding Thomas E. Dewey's honesty.
e. the war was going well.

e

33

Hitler's last-ditch attempt to achieve a victory against the Americans and British came in
a. the Battle of the Bulge.
b. the Battle of the Rhineland.
c. the attempt to assassinate Churchill and Roosevelt.
d. an attempt to arrange a negotiated peace with Stalin.
e. the final U-boat campaign against the American navy.

a

34

As a result of the Battle of Leyte Gulf
a. Japan stalled an Allied victory.
b. Admiral William F. "Bull" Halsey lost his first naval engagement.
c. Japan was nearly able to take Australia.
d. the United States could bomb Japan from land bases.
e. Japan was finished as a naval power.

e

35

The Potsdam conference
a. determined the fate of Eastern Europe.
b. brought France and China in as part of the Big Five.
c. concluded that the Soviet Union would enter the war in the Pacific.
d. was Franklin Roosevelt's last meeting with Churchill and Stalin.
e. issued an ultimatum to Japan to surrender or be destroyed.

e

36

The spending of enormous sums on the original atomic bomb project was spurred by the belief that
a. a nuclear weapon was the only way to win the war.
b. the Germans might acquire such a weapon first.
c. the Japanese were at work on an atomic bomb project of their own.
d. scientists like Albert Einstein might be lost to the war effort.
e. the American public would not tolerate the casualties that would result from a land invasion of Japan.

b

37

The unconditional surrender policy toward Japan was finally modified by
a. assuring the Japanese that there would be no war crimes trials.
b. guaranteeing that defeated Japan would be treated decently by American occupiers.
c. agreeing not to drop more than two atomic bombs on Japan.
d. agreeing to let the Japanese keep Emperor Hirohito on the throne.
e. permitting the Japanese to retain a strong army but no real navy.

d