Intro to DNA History, Structure and Replication Flashcards


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1

nucleotide

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the monomer of a nucleic acid (DNA, RNA)

2

Sugar in DNA

deoxyribose

3

Nitrogenous Bases in DNA

adenine (A)

thymine (T)

guanine (G)

cytosine (C)

4

Purines

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double ringed nitrogenous bases

includes adenine and guanine

5

pyrimidines

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single ring nitrogenous bases

includes cytosine and thymine

6

hydrogen bonds

what holds the two strands of DNA together

A-T=2

G-C=3

7

What are the sides of the DNA made of?

Sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphate

8

What are the rungs of the DNA model made of?

complementary base pairs

A-T, G-C

9

Where is DNA located in a eukaryotic cell?

in the nucleus

10

Francis Griffith

scientist who studied streptococcus pneumoniae

found the "transforming principle"

11

Avery, MacLeod, McCarty

proved DNA was the genetic material using streptococcus pneumoniae and various enzymes to isolate carbs, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. We identifying what the "transforming principle" was.

12

Hershey & Chase

The scientists who finally settled the debate that DNA, not protein was the genetic material. Used a bacteriophage virus, bacteria and radioactive isotopes.

13

Erwin Chargaff

Chargaff's Rules

The amount of A equals the amount of T

The amount of G equals the amount of C

14

Friedrich Miescher

First scientist to isolate (extract) DNA

15

Franklin and Wilkins

took X-Ray crystallography pictures of the DNA

identified DNA was a helix

16

Watson and Crick

the scientists who identified the structure of DNA, the double helix.

17

When does DNA replication take place?

prior to a cell dividing

18

Why is DNA replication semi-conservative?

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It saves half of the original strand and uses it as a template to make the other half new and complementary. End up with two identical copies.

19

DNA Helicase

the enzyme that unwinds and unzips the DNA for replication

20

DNA Polymerase

the enzyme that adds new complementary nucleotides to the template strand.

21

SSB

single stranded binding proteins

hold the original 2 DNA strands apart

22

RNA primase

provides a starting point for DNA polymerase to begin copying the DNA

23

DNA ligase

the enzyme that seals the Okazaki fragments into a continuous strand

24

leading strand

the original DNA strand that is copied continuously

25

lagging strand

the original DNA strand that is copied in pieces, Okazaki fragment.

26

mutation

a change in the DNA

27

mutagen

anything that causes a mutation