MasteringAandP Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation Chapter 24 P Besaw

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chapter 24 nutrition metabolism and body temperature regulation. NGTC. D Hay
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1

Which nutrients function as coenzymes and are needed in only small amounts?

vitamins

2

Which of the following is a water-soluble vitamin?

vitamin B

3

Neurons and red blood cells rely exclusively on __________ to meet their energy needs.

glucose

4

__________ is a substance in food used by the body to promote normal growth, maintenance, and repair.

A nutrient

5

The term essential nutrient refers to the chemicals that can be interconverted in the liver so that the body can maintain life and good health.

False

6

Which of the following is represented by the "membrane" indicated in the figure?

inner mitochondrial membrane

7

Which of the following molecules is most directly involved in the transfer of "energy from food" to the "proton pumps" depicted in this figure?

NADH

8

Which of the following is a common feature of the processes indicated by both letters D and E?

movement of hydrogen atoms associated with NADH

9

Which of the following is following is a true statement regarding the reactions indicated by the letters F and G?

Both reactions F and G involve the transfer of a phosphate group from an organic substrate to ADP.

10

__________ refers to reactions in which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules.

__________ refers to reactions in which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules.

11

Redox reactions __________.

are characterized by one substance gaining an electron while another substance loses an electron

12

Glycolysis occurs in the __________ of cells and is an __________ process.

cytosol; anaerobic

13

Which nutrients are the most important anabolic nutrients?

amino acids

14

Cellular respiration is an anabolic process.

False

15

The "proton pumps" indicated in the figure are physically associated with ______.

the electron transport chain

16

Which of the following is a common feature of the both sets of reactions represented by the letters A and B in the figure?

Both include steps involving the oxidation of organic molecules.

17

Where do the processes indicated by the letter C occur?

along the cristae of the mitochondria

18

Oxygen is consumed during which of the lettered processes?

C

19

Proton pumps within the electron transport chain transport H+ ions ______.

from matrix to intermembrane space

20

Which of the following statements regarding the electron transport chain is FALSE?

The electron carriers within complex IV have a greater affinity for electrons than the electron carrier within complex III.
Oxidation of electron carriers within the electron transport chain results in the transport of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
xxx Each enzyme complex in the electron transport chain catalyzes the conversion of oxygen to water.
Transfer of electrons to the electron transport chain from NADH results in more ATP synthesis than transfer of electrons from FADH2.

21

Which of the following describes the event depicted on the right side of the figure?

oxidative phosphorylation

22

Which of the following pathways act as a source for the electrons carried by the NADH and FADH2 molecules shown in this figure?

both A and B

23

Which of the following is NOT an end product of the Krebs cycle?

xxx citric acid
FADH2
NADH
CO2

24

Which of the following is a characteristic of the electron transport chain (ETC)?

The ETC occurs in the mitochondria.

25

Ammonia, which is a byproduct of protein metabolism, is converted to __________ primarily in the __________.

urea; liver

26

__________ is the key hormone regulator of the absorptive state.

Insulin

27

__________ are considered "bad" cholesterol; high blood levels are believed to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.

LDLs

28

Which nutrient molecule is the pivotal fuel molecule in the oxidative pathways?

glucose

29

The primary goal during the postabsorptive state is to __________.

maintain blood glucose levels within an adequate range

30

Which of the following is NOT a pathway in the oxidation of glucose?

xxxx gluconeogenesis
Krebs cycle
electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation
glycolysis

31

During ketosis caused by inadequate ingestion of carbohydrates, ______.

the glycogen content of the liver is reduced

32

If cyanide entered cells, the result would be ______.

a net gain of only 4 ATP molecules produced from each glucose molecule

33

Which term describes the breakdown of stored fats into glycerol and fatty acids?

lipolysis

34

The hyperglycemia that occurs during diabetes mellitus is accompanied by ______.

ketosis

35

Which hormone directs essentially all events of the absorptive state?

insulin

36

The body's rate of kilocalorie consumption needed to fuel all ongoing activities is called the __________.

total metabolic rate

37

A growing child is likely to exhibit negative nitrogen balance.

False

38

Which of the following is NOT an essential role of the liver?

xxx urea disposal
protein metabolism
biotransformation functions
carbohydrate metabolism

39

One of the reasons why statins are effective in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease is ______.

they decrease the incidence of cholesterol deposition in arterial walls

40

Most ATP in cellular respiration is generated in glycolysis.

False

41

The body is able to form glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors.

True

42

Which hormone is called the "metabolic" hormone?

thyroxine

43

Which brain region is the main integrating center for thermoregulation?

hypothalamus

44

Leptin is a short-term regulator of food intake.

False

45

Metabolism includes both anabolism and catabolism. In hyperthyroidism, the metabolic rate is increased because ______.

the rate of exergonic reactions is increased

46

Although both conditions share the common characteristic of elevated body temperature, hyperthermia is technically different from fever because ______.

fever is a condition in which there is a change in the body's temperature set-point

47

Frostbite is LEAST likely to occur in the skin of a body region (e.g., abdominal region, finger region, etc.) that ______.

is closer to the heart than skin of a body region that is farther from the heart

48

Heavy sweating can induce heat cramps due to ______.

abnormal electrolyte levels in muscle cells
abnormal electrolyte levels in neurons
abnormal electrolyte levels in interstitial fluid
xxx All of the listed responses are correct.

49

Peptides called NPY and AgRP are powerful appetite enhancers.

True

50

Ghrelin, produced by the stomach, is a powerful appetite stimulant.

True

51

An effective way to treat galactosemia would be to stop ingesting galactose and ______.

lactose

52

The primary reason elderly people should decrease their caloric intake is that ________.

muscle mass and metabolism decline with age

53

What is the primary function of cellular respiration - its end-purpose?

to generate ATP

54

Which of the following would decrease body temperature?

dilation of cutaneous blood vessels

55

Diets high in cholesterol and saturated fats tend to produce high HDL concentrations.

False

56

Select the correct sequence of steps as energy is extracted from glucose during cellular respiration.

glycolysis → acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain

57

What is the correct general equation for cellular respiration?

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy

58

Which of the following processes takes place in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?

glycolysis

59

In what organelle would you find acetyl CoA formation, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain?

mitochondrion

60

Which statement describes glycolysis?

This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.

61

Which statement describes the citric acid cycle?

This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion.

62

Which statement describes the electron transport chain?

This process uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.