Nervous system and Endocrine system

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1

A function of the nervous system?

protection and activation of an effector organ

2

The central nervous system contains the brain and the spinal cord?

2. false

3

Which of the following are not major divisions of the peripheral nervous system?
a. Somatic nervous system
B. Autonomic nervous system
C. Sensory division
D. Motor division
E. Central division

E. central division

4

The somatic motor component of the primary nervous system is involuntary?

4. False

5

While studying for an exam, you reach for a beverage. To extend your arm,your_____________ nervous system is activated?

Somatic

6

The door slams shut loudly and you flinch. After a few seconds, you realize that your heart is beating very rapidly and forcefully. This response is the result of your ____________ nervous system?

autonomic

7

Is oligodendrocyte cell in the CNS or the PNS?

7. CNS

8

Is the nuclei cell in the CNS or the PNS?

8. CNS

9

Is the Tracts cell in the CNS or the PNS?

9. CNS

10

Is the Schwann cells in the CNS or PNS?

10. PNS

11

Is a ganglia cells in the CNS or PNS?

11. PNS

12

Is the nerves cells in the CNS or PNS?

12. PNS

13

What is the cell type?
The most abundant and versatile glial cells, cling to neurons, synaptic endings and capillaries

astrocytes

14

What is the cell type?
small ovoid cells with thorny processes that migrate towards injured neurons and phagocytize microorganisms.

Microglial cells

15

What is a cell type?
Squamous to columnar cells that line the central cavities of the brain and spinal column;promote circulation of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) through ventricles.

Ependymal cells

16

What is a cell type?
processes wrap CNS nerve fibers forming insulating myelin sheaths.

oligodendrocytes

17

What is the cell type?
Surrounded PNS fibers and form myelin sheaths.

Schwann cells

18

What is the cell type?
long-lived cells that are amitotic, have a high metabolic rate and function in electrical signaling.

Neuron

19

What portion of the diencephalon is considered to be the relay station for information coming into the cerebral cortex?

Thalamus

20

Match the appropriate description of gray and white matter with its location in the nervous system.
Inside core of gray matter, middle layer of white matter and outer layer of gray matter.
A. spinal cord
B. Brain

B. brain

21

Match the appropriate description of gray and white matter with its location in the nervous system.
Central cavity surrounds by a gray matter, external white matter.

A. Spinal cord

22

The dendrites contain most normal cell contents: and a spherical nucleus with necleolus and have well developed Golgi apparatus.

22. False

23

The clusters of cell bodies are called nuclei in the CNS.

23. True

24

The dendrites convey electrical signals away from the cell body.

24. False

25

The position of the axon that communicates with its target cell is the?

Cell body

26

Which of the following are not functions of the myelin sheath?

A. increase the speed of nerve impulse transmission
B.protect the axon
C. Electrically insulate the axon
D. Provide structural support for the axon

D. Provide structural support for the axon

27

what is the main visceral control center of the body, control blood pressure, heart rate, digestive functions and add centers for emotional responses?

Hypothalamus

28

what are the appropriate steps in the functional classification of neurons?
Stimulants --> Receptor--> _________--> integration Center-->__________--> effector---> Response.

Sensory neurons; motor neurons

29

Afferent; transmits impulses toward the CNS?

29. Sensory

30

Efferent; transmit impulses from the CNS to effectors?

30. Motor

31

The outer cortex of gray matter present in the cerebellum is composed primarily of?

neuron cell body

32

What is the name of the heart of the brain that is the site of conscious mind: awareness, sensory perception, involuntary movement, communication, memory storage, and understanding or higher learning?

Cerebral cortex

33

Each hemisphere of the brain will not to the contralateral side of the body?

33. True

34

The primary motor cortex is found on the__________area of the brain.

pre central gyri

35

Which lobe is responsible for the motor part of speech?

frontal lobe

36

Which of the following is not a lobe in each cerebral hemisphere?

maxilla

37

Which lobe is responsible for vision?

occipital lobe

38

Which lobe is responsible for somatosensation or something pain, temperature and pressure?

parietal lobe

39

Which structure is responsible for or naming smooth movement?

Cerebellum

40

The olfactory cortex is located in the _________ lobe?

Temporal

41

The gustatory cortex is located in the_______ lobe?

Insula

42

The vestibular cortex is located in the__________ lobe?

Insula

43

An Association area helps to enter the information coming from a primary area of cortex?

43. True

44

The multimodal Association areas are responsible for receiving inputs from multiple senses and allowing us to give meaning to information that is received and stores it as memory.

44. True

45

The basal nuclei areas are responsible for receiving inputs from multiple senses and allows us to give meaning to information that is received and stores it as memory.

45. False

46

Which of the following is not a function of the basal nuclei?
A. It is thought to influence muscular control
B. Helps to regulated attention and cognition
C. inhabits antagonistic and unnecessary movements
D. regulate intensity of slow or stereotyped movements
E. Responsible for receiving input from multiple of and gives meaning to information.

E. Responsible for receiving inputs from multiple infant and give meaning to information.

47

Which of the following is not considered to be part of the multimodal association area?
A. Anterior Associate area
B. Posterior association area
C. limbic association area
D. Basal Association area

D. Basal Association area

48

What is the name of the structure that connects the right and left, hemispheres and allows information to cross?

corpus callosum

49

Which term refers to the crossing of motor fibers in the medulla oblongata of the brain stem so that the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body?

contralateral control

50

Which layer of meninges is loosely attached by web like fibers, allowing a space for the movement of CFF?

Arcachnoid

51

Which of the four categories is responsible for pain, touch, temperature, the muscles sense, pressure, and vibration?
A. Special sensory
B. General sensory
C. Somatic motor
D. Visceral motor

B. General sensory

52

Which structure connects the cerebellum with other portions of the brain is name means "bridge".

Pons

53

What is the name of the structure that forms the CSF?

choroid plexus

54

what is the correct order of CSF flow through the brain?

lateral ventricles, intraventricular foramina, third ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, fourth ventricle

55

The outer gray matter of the brain that is the most evolved part of the brain and is responsible for conscious thought, reasoning, and abstract mental function is called?

Cerebral cortex

56

Which of the following is not considered general senses?
A. Pressure
B. temperature
C. Pain
D. touch
E. equilibrium

equilibrium

57

Which of the following structures are not considered to help protect the brain?
A. Bone
B. Meninges
C. CSF
D. Myelin

Myelin

58

Which functional brain system is responsible for controlling all aspects of emotion?

limbic system

59

Which of the functional brain system is responsible for governing arousal of the brain as a whole?

Reticular formation

60

Which is the name of the functional range system that sends impulses to the cerebral cortex to keep it conscious and alert, and helps to filter out repetitive and weak stimuli?

Reticular activating system

61

The____________ of the brain is the location of our conscious mind?

Cerebral cortex

62

Of the following brain regions, which, if severely damaged, would result in death?

Medulla oblongata

63

Cerebral spinal fluid is produced by___________(structure) and is located in ____________ (part of the diencephalon)?

Choroid plexus; epithalamus

64

The blood brain barrier is not permeable to ____________?

water-soluble substances

65

The terminal portion of the spinal cord is called ______________ and it ends at the __________ spinal level?

Conus Medullaris; L1-L2 (lumbar) vertebral levels

66

In the spinal nerves, the dorsal root ganglion contains motor function?

66. False

67

Cervical has how many spinal nerves?

Eight

68

Thoracic has how many spinal nerves?

Twelve

69

Lumbar has how many spinal nerves?

five

70

Sacral has how many spinal nerves?

five

71

Coccygeal has how many spinal nerves?

One

72

The__________ portion of the spinal cord control muscle movement?

Ventral

73

What is the term used for the connective tissue layer that encloses the individual axons and Myelin sheath of a nerve?

endoneurium

74

Most nerves are mixtures of afferent and efferent fibers and somatic and autonomatic fibers?

74. true

75

Acetylcholine is a Nerotransmitter used in skeletal muscle for muscle contraction and in the sympathetic nervous system.

75. False

76

Match the following description with being and active associated with the sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system. Mark C for sympathetic or Mark D for Parasympathetic.

76. Referred to as rest and digest
77. Referred to as fight or flight
78. Blood flow is shunted to necessary tissue (skeletal muscles and heart) and away from less critical systems (brain, digestive organs, and skin)
79. Bronchioles dilate to allow more gas exchange
80. blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rates are low
81. Liver releases glucose for energy
82. Gastrointestinal tract activity is high
83. Pupils are constricted and lenses are accommodated for close vision

76. parasympathetic
77. sympathetic
78. sympathetic
79. sympathetic
80. parasympathetic
81. sympathetic
82. parasympathetic
83. parasympathetic

77

A synonym for the autonomic nervous system reflects its major function. The synonym is_____________?

The involuntary nervous system

78

What is the name of the general receptor type that would respond to stimuli arising outside of the body?

exteroreceptor

79

What type of sensory receptor is sensitive to pain causing stimuli?

Nociceptors

80

What type of sensory receptor is responsible for detecting movement?

Mechanoreceptors

81

Is sensation of the conscious interpretation of stimuli?

no (false)

82

Nearly half of the cerebral cortex is involved in processing visual information and 70% of all sensory receptors are in the eye?

82. true

83

What structure of the eye is part of the fibrous tunic, and is made of top connective tissue and appears white?

sclera

84

What structure of the eye contains the rods,cones and retina?

nervous tunic

85

What structure of the eye is a soft, jellylike substance that fills the entire posterior to the lens that is "glass like," maintains the shape of the eye and aids in refraction?

Vitreous body

86

What structure is highly sensitive to light and functions best in dim light?

Rods

87

Which division of the year contains the incus, malleus, and Staples?

middle ear

88

What is the term used to describe the external portion of the ear that is visible and protecting, composed of cartilage?

Pinna

89

Where is the Eustachian or auditory tube connected to?

the pharynx and the middle ear

90

Which of the following is not considered a receptor for taste?

Peppery

91

Hot and cold pain receptors are separated from one another?

91. true

92

Which vitamin is helpful for manufacturing rhodopsin, the light-sensitive pigment?

Vitamin A

93

There are two categories of muscles in the eye, muscles that control extrinsic movements and muscles that control intrinsic movements?

93. true

94

The sense of smell and taste are not closely related?

94. false

95

What stimulates uterine contractions, initiates labor and initiates milk ejection?

Oxytocin

96

what stimulates milk production by mammary glands: promotes lactation?

PRL

97

What stimulates growth and hormonal activity of ovarian follicles, stimulates growth of testes, promote sperm cell development?

FSH

98

What stimulates kidney tubule cell to reabsorb water?

ADH

99

What stimulates liver, muscle, bone, cartilage, and other tissue: anabolic hormone: stimulates somatic growth, mobilizes fats, spares glucose?

GH

100

What stimulates the adrenal cortex to promote release of glucocorticoids and androgens?

ACTH

101

What stimulates the thyroid gland to release thyroid hormones?

TSH

102

What stimulates abolition and a very and production of estrogen and in males promotes testosterone production?

LH

103

Which of the following are not secreted by the anterior pituitary?
A. TSH, LH
B. ADH, oxytocin
C. ACTH, oxytocin
D. GH, PRL
E. ADH, LH

ADH, oxytocin

104

Which of the following are not major functions of what hormones will control for integrate?
A. Reproduction
B. Maintenance of electrolytes, water, and nutrients balance in blood.
C. Regulation of cellular metabolism
D. Physical protection
e. Mobilization of body defenses

D. Physical protection

105

The endoctrine system uses ducts to deliver hormones two different areas of the body

105 false

106

Water soluble hormones act on receptors in the plasma membrane and are usually coupled with regulatory molecules called G proteins.

106 true

107

Thyroid hormone is a water-soluble hormone.

107 false

108

Target cell activation occurs by binding a hormone to a receptor site, but what other components are also important to the effectiveness of the hormone?

A.blood levels of the hormone,C. relative numbers of receptors for that hormone on or in the target cells, D.the affinity of the binding between the hormone in the receptor.answer is capital E. All of the above except B..

109

What is the correct order of the steps for lipid soluble, steroid hormones that diffuse into their target tissue to activate a gene directly?

The steroid binds to the plasma membrane, this triggers a G protein,the G protein binds with specific DNA region, and the binding initiates translation of the gene to M RNA, the M RNA then directs proteins synthesis.

110

Endocrine glands that secrete their hormones in direct response to changing blood levels a certain critical ions and nutrients is called?

humoral stimuli

111

___________ is the term used to describe what happens when low-level of a hormone can cause its target cell to form additional receptors for that hormone.

up regulation

112

What hormones promote salt (and thus water) retention and potassium excretion?

aldosterone

113

What hormone increase metabolic rate, influencing both physical and mental activities; requiring for normal growth.?

T3 and T4

114

What hormone increases blood pressure and heart rate; activates cells influenced by sympathetic nervous system plus may not be supplied by sympathetic nerves?

epinephrine

115

What hormone regulates exchange of calcium between blood and bones; increases calcium level in blood?

PTH

116

Which of the following hormones is not released in the adrenal cortex?
A. aldosterone, mineralcorticoids
B. Cortisol, glucocorticoids
C. sex hormones, gonadocorticoids
D. catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine

catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine

117

Which portion of the brain controls the pituitary gland?

Hypothalamus

118

The master gland of the body is the?

parathyroid gland

119

Which pancreatic cells produce insulin?

Beta

120

Which is not a function of hormones?
A. Regulation of growth
B. Regulation of metabolism
C. Regulation of the reproduction
D. Regulation of behavior
E. Regulation of thoughts

regulation of thoughts

121

Name the adrenal hormone?
Have kidneys increase blood levels of sodium and decrease blood levels of potassium, sense of water reabsorption accompanies sodium retention, blood volume and blood pressure rises.

mineral corticoids

122

Name the adrenal hormone?
Promotes gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia, mobilizes fats for energy metabolism, stimulates protein catabolism, assists body to resist stressors, depressed inflammatory and immune responses.

Glucocorticoids

123

Name the adrenal hormone?
Insignificant effects in males, but contributes to female libido development of pubic and axillary hair in females; source of estrogen after menopause.

gonadocorticoids

124

Name the adrenal hormone?
Sympathetic nervous system targets organs; effects mimic sympathetic nervous system activation; increase heart rate and metabolic rate; increase blood pressure by promoting vasoconstriction.

catecholamines

125

Fill in the missing steps for appropriate regulation of thyroid hormone secretion.
____________--> TRH -->______________--> TSH-->____________--> thyroid hormones T3 or T4--> Target cells.

hypothalamus B,A,C
anterior pituitary
thyroid gland

126

Which of the following stimulate metabolic activities, bronchial dilation, and blood flow to the skeletal muscles and the heart?

Epinephrine

127

Which of the following are not functions of the adrenal medulla?
A. Blood delivered to sex organs
B. Blood glucose levels to rise
C. Blood vessels to constrict
D. The heart to beat faster
E. Blood to be delivered to the brain, heart, and skeletal muscles

blood delivered to sex organs

128

Which of the following is not true of gonadocorticoids?
A. The onset of puberty
B. The appearance of secondary sex characteristics C. Sex drive
D. Stimulation of the ovarian follicles

stimulation of the ovarian follicles

129

Which of the following are true of cortisol
A. Keeps blood sugar levels relatively constant
B. Maintains blood pressure by increasing the action of vasoconstructors
C. Increase blood calcium
D. a and B
E. A and C

D. A and B

130

Which of the following is not considered to be a mechanism of aldosterone secretion?
A. renin-angiotensin
B. Plasma concentration of K
C. calcitonin
D. ACTH
E. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

calcitonin

131

Name the appropriate zone in the adrenal cortex to its appropriate corticosteroid produced
zona glomerulosa

mineralcorticoid

132

name the appropriate zone in the adrenal cortex to its appropriate cortisteroid produced
zona fasciculate

glucocorticoid

133

name the appropriate zone in the adrenal cortex to its appropriate Cortisteroid produced
zona reticularis

gonadocorticoid

134

Which of the following is not a function of the parathyroid?
A. Stimulate osteoclasts to digest bone matrix
B. Enhances reabsorption of Ca2 and secretion of phosphate by the kidneys
C. Promotes activation of vitamin D (I the kidneys); increase absorption of Ca2 by intestinal mucosa
D. Negative feedback control; rising Ca2 in the blood inhibits PTH release
E. stimulate osteoblasts to deposit more calcium matrix

e. Stimulate osteoblasts to deposit more calcium matrix

135

Antagonist to parathyroid hormone (PTH), inhibits osteoclast activity and release of Ca2 from bone matrix

calcitonin

136

T4 is represented as a larger percent then T4, but T4 is 4-10 times as potent.

136. true

137

Fill in the blank with the appropriate steps in stimulating the adrenal cortex. Hypothalamus-->___________--> adrenal cortex-->________________.

CRH, release corticosteroid hormones

138

Which of the following is not included in the hypopyseal portal system?
A. Inferior hypopyseal artery
B. Primary capillary plexus
C. Hypopyseal portal veins
D. Secondary capillary plexus

A. Inferior hypopyseal artery

139

Hypopyseal is another name for?

pituitary gland

140

Where are posterior pituitary hormones synthesized?

In hypothalamic neurons

141

Another name for growth hormone is?

somatotropin