Genetics: PCB3063 Ch 1 Overview of Genetics Flashcards


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Genetics
Chapter 1
General Genetics Connect
updated 2 weeks ago by c_mylinh
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1

An organism's genome consists of ______.

the DNA found in all of its chromosomes

2

The branch of biology that deals with heredity and variation is

genetics

3

Which of the following are correct descriptions of a gene?

- A segment of DNA that produces a functional product

- A unit of heredity

- A segment of DNA that influences one or more traits of an organism

4

The functional product of most genes is a(n)

protein, polypeptide, polypeptides, proteins, or RNA

5

The term that describes all of the DNA found in all of an organism's chromosomes is

genome

6

Genes are often described according to the way they affect the characteristics of an organism, which are called

traits

7

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with ______.

heredity and variation

8

Which of the following molecules are nucleic acids?

- DNA

- RNA

9

A gene can be described as a unit of heredity or as a segment of _____

that produces a functional product.

DNA

10

The building blocks of DNA are called

nucleotides, nucleotide, or deoxyribonculeotides

11

A gene is a segment of DNA that produces a functional product, which is usually a(n) ____ , or as a unit of heredity that affects an organism's ____.

- polypeptide or protein

- traits, characteristics, or phenotype

12

Genes are the source of products for cellular function. The product of most genes is a ______.

polypeptide

13

Of the macromolecules found in living cells, the largest one is

DNA

14

A trait is a ______.

characteristic of an organism

15

In a eukaryotic cell, the ____ is surrounded by a double membrane that protects the chromosomes from the rest of the cellular components.

nucleus, nuclei, or DNA

16

Both DNA and RNA are ______ acids.

nucleic

17

DNA is made of ______.

nucleotides

18

In a eukaryotic cell, what are the advantages of having the chromosomes organized within a cell nucleus?

- It protects the chromosomes from damage.

- It provides a single compartment for activities such as gene transcription.

19

What is the largest macromolecule found in living cells?

DNA

Reason:

A protein has hundreds or thousands of amino acids compared to a single DNA molecule with hundreds of millions of nucleotides.

20

Which of the following are potential functions of proteins?

- Transport ions across the cell membrane

- Aid in cell structure and stability

- Accelerate chemical reactions

21

Where are the chromosomes located in a eukaryotic cell?

In the nucleus

22

An enzyme is a protein that ______.

accelerates a chemical reaction

23

An enzyme that breaks molecules into smaller components is called a(n) ____ enzyme, and an enzyme that synthesizes macromolecules is called a(n) ____ enzyme.

- catabolic

- anabolic

24

The abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid is

DNA

25

Organizing chromosomes within a cell nucleus protects chromosomes from mechanical damage and provides a single ____ for genetic activities such as transcription.

compartment or location

26

What is the genetic material of all living organisms composed of?

DNA

27

Which cellular molecules can accelerate chemical reactions, transport substances across the membrane, and provide structure and stability for a cell?

Proteins

28

A protein that can accelerate a chemical reaction is called a(n)

enzyme, enzymes, or catalyst

29

What is the main function of a cell's genetic material?

to code the production of proteins in the correct cell, at the proper time, and in suitable amounts

30

What are some of the functions of enzymes in cells?

- They breakdown molecules and macromolecules into smaller units.

- They synthesize molecules and macromolecules.

31

A DNA molecule is a linear sequence of subunits called

nucelotides

32

Adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine are nitrogen-containing bases found in ______.

each nucleotide of DNA

33

True or false: All living organisms have genetic material composed of DNA.

True

Reason:

The genetic material of all living organisms is made of DNA. Viruses, some of which have RNA genomes, are not living entities.

34

The information in a(n) ____ molecule is stored in the sequence of its nucleotide bases.

DNA, RNA, DNA/RNA, or DNA or RNA

35

The primary function of DNA is to code for the production of

proteins, polypeptides, protein, polypeptide, or RNA

36

Most genes contain the information to direct the synthesis of a polypeptide. The order of amino acids in the polypeptide is specified according to the ____ code.

genetic

37

What are the subunits of DNA?

Nucleotides

38

In the genetic code, there are 64 codons consisting of ____ nucleotide(s) each that specify the 20 different amino acids. (Your answer will be a number).

3

39

What are the four nitrogen-containing bases found in the nucleotides that make up DNA?

Guanine

Adenine

Thymine

Cytosine

40

In living cells, DNA is found in large structures called ____, which are contained in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.

chromosomes

41

In a DNA molecule, information is contained in the sequence of ______.

nitrogenous bases

42

Which cellular molecules can accelerate chemical reactions, transport substances across the membrane, and provide structure and stability for a cell?

Proteins

43

The genetic code directs the order of ______ within a polypeptide based on the sequence of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.

amino acids

44

What is a karyotype?

A micrograph of all of the chromosomes in a cell

45

In the genetic code, how many nucleotides are necessary to specify one amino acid?

3

46

The DNA of human chromosomes is ______.

long

double-stranded

linear

47

What structures in a cell contain DNA?

Chromosomes

48

True or false: An average human chromosome contains approximately two million genes.

False

49

A micrograph of the chromosomes in a cell is called a(n)

karyotype

50

What is gene expression?

The use of a gene sequence to affect the characteristics of a cell or organism.

51

When a structural gene is expressed, its DNA sequence is ____ into RNA, which is then ___ to produce a polypeptide.

- transcripted

- translated

52

During transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a sequence of ______.

RNA

53

Approximately how many genes are found on a typical human chromosome?

1000 different genes

54

The process of using a gene sequence to affect the characteristics of cells and organisms is called gene ______.

expression

55

Place the molecules produced when a gene is expressed in the correct sequence beginning with the gene.

1. DNA

2. mRNA

3. Protein

56

RNA is an abbreviation for ______.

ribonucleic acid

57

The process by which a DNA sequence is copied into an RNA sequence is called

transcription

58

A structural gene is a gene that encodes a(n)

protein, polypeptide, proteins, or polypeptides

59

What type of RNA contains the information required to synthesize a protein?

Messenger RNA

60

What is translation?

The synthesis of a polypeptide based on the sequence of mRNA

61

What does the central dogma of genetics describe?

The pathway of gene expression from DNA to RNA to protein

62

During transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a sequence of ______.

RNA

63

Match each trait with the correct example.

  • Morphological trait The color of a flower
  • Physiological trait The rate at which a bacterium metabolizes a sugar
  • Behavioral trait The mating call of a bird species

64

What is a structural gene?

A gene that contains the information to synthesize a protein

65

A trait that affects the appearance, form, and structure of an organism is called a(n) ____ trait. A trait that affects the ability of an organism to function is called a(n) ____ trait. A trait that affects the way an organism responds to its environment is called a(n) ____ trait.

- morphological

- physiological

- behavioral

66

When a protein-encoding gene is transcribed, the RNA molecule that is produced is referred to as ___ RNA (mRNA).

messenger

67

Genes affect traits at several levels of biological organization. Match each level of organization with the correct description of gene function.

  • Molecular level A DNA sequence is transcribed in to RNA, which is translated into protein.
  • Cellular level The function of a protein in a cell affects the structure and function of the cell.
  • Organism level A flower appears red because its cells synthesize a red pigment.
  • Population level Beneficial traits evolve because they enhance the reproductive success of some members of a population.

68

The synthesis of a polypeptide based on the nucleotide sequence of a messenger RNA molecule is called

translation

69

What is a species?

A group of organisms that maintains a distinctive set of attributes

70

The pathway of gene expression from DNA to RNA to protein is referred to as the ____ ____ genetics.

central dogma

71

Alternative versions of the same gene are called

alleles

72

The color of a butterfly is an example of a(n) ______ trait.

morphological trait

73

Match each type of trait with the correct description.

  • Morphological trait A trait that affects the appearance, form, and structure of an organism
  • Physiological trait A trait that affects the ability of an organism to function
  • Behavioral trait A trait that affects the way an organism responds to its environment.

74

Different alleles of the same gene have different ___ sequences.

DNA, nucleotide, or nucleotides

75

Transcription and translation lead to gene expression at the ______ level. The evolution of beneficial traits that enhance reproductive success is an example of how genetics affects a species at the ______ level.

molecular; population

76

A group of organisms that maintains a distinctive set of attributes is called a(n)

species or specie

77

What are alleles?

Alternative versions of the same gene

78

Differences in inherited traits among individuals within a population are referred to as genetic

variation, diversity, variability, variations, or variance

79

The genetic variation among individuals within a population can be explained by differences in the sequence of

DNA

80

How do alleles differ from one another?

They have slightly different DNA sequences.

81

Which of the following are genomic alterations that may induce genetic variation?

Changes in chromosome number

Gene mutations

Changes in chromosome structure

82

Changes in the nucleotide sequence of a single gene that result in two or more alleles for that gene are called gene

mutations

83

Genetic variation describes differences in ______.

inherited traits among individuals within a population

84

True or false: All gene mutations that have an effect on a cell or organism alter the structure and function of the protein encoded by the gene.

False

85

What underlies the majority of the genetic variation among individuals within a population?

Differences in the nucleotide sequence of DNA

86

Down syndrome is the result of ______.

a change in total chromosome number

87

True or false: An organism's environment can affect its morphological and physiological traits.

True

Reason:

Both genes and the environment can influence an organism's traits.

88

Genetic variation can be attributed to gene ____ that affect the sequence of a single gene or alterations in the structure or total number of ____.

mutations; chromosomes

89

What is a gene mutation?

A change in the base pair sequence of a gene

90

Gene mutations can affect the traits of an organism because they can alter the expression or function of the ____ encoded by the gene.

protein, proteins, or polypeptide

91

The term diploid means that a cell or organism has ______.

two copies of every chromosome

92

Variation in human eye color is due to ______.

variation of sequences within genes

Reason:

Changes in chromosome number often cause harmful changes rather than producing harmless variations such as differing eye colors.

Reason:

Changes in chromosome structure often cause harmful changes rather than producing harmless variations such as differing eye colors.

93

An organism's traits can be affected by its genes and also by its

environment

94

In this figure, two copies of chromosome 13 are circled. These two copies of chromosome 13 are called of each other.

homologs, homologues, homologous, or homolog

95

Which of the following are genomic alterations that may induce genetic variation?

Changes in chromosome structure

Gene mutations

Changes in chromosome number

96

The two chromosomes in a homologous pair contain ______.

copies of the same genes, which may or may not be identical alleles

97

A cell or organism that contains two copies of every chromosome is said to be

diploid or somatic

98

In a multicellular organism, cells that are not directly involved in sexual reproduction are called ____ cells.

somatic

99

How many chromosomes would be found in a diploid human cell?

46

100

In a diploid organism, the two copies of a chromosome are referred to as ______.

homologs

101

A human sperm cell contains ______ chromosome(s).

23

102

Which of the following cells are gametes?

Sperm

Egg

103

True or false: A pair of homologous chromosomes always contains identical alleles of the same genes.

False

104

A cell that contains a single set of chromosomes is called

haploid or monoploid

105

What are somatic cells?

Cells that are not involved in sexual reproduction

106

A human somatic cell contains ____ chromosomes.

46

107

A human egg cell would contain ____ chromosomes.

23

108

The union of gametes at fertilization restores ______.

the diploid number of chromosomes

109

Sperm and egg cells are also called ______.

gametes

110

What is the primary advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction?

Sexual reproduction enhances genetic variation.

111

A cell that is haploid contains ______ set(s) of chromosomes.

1

112

Changes in the genetic makeup of a population from one generation to the next represent

evolution, microevolution, or biological evolution

113

In a multicellular organism, cells that are not directly involved in sexual reproduction are called ____ cells.

somatic

114

An allele that improves the ability of individuals to survive and reproduce may become more prevalent in future generations due to

natural selection

115
card image

Match each model organism shown in the image to the correct name.

  • A Escherichia coli
  • B Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • C Drosophila melanogaster
  • D Caenorhabditis elegans
  • E Mus musculus
  • F Arabidopsis thaliana

116

During sexual reproduction, the process in which gametes unite to restore the diploid number of chromosomes is called

fertilization

117

The inheritance of genes and the way that genes influence traits is the focus of ____ genetics.

transmission

118

One of the main advantages of sexual reproduction is that it increases ____ variation.

genetic

119

How are genes passed from parents to offspring?

In sperm and egg cells

120

What is evolution?

Change in the genetic makeup of a population from one generation to the next

121

The breeding of two selected individuals and the analysis of their offspring is referred to as ______.

a genetic cross

122

After a random mutation creates a new allele that may be harmful, neutral or beneficial, which of the following may occur during natural selection?

A beneficial allele may become more prevalent in future generations

Individuals carrying a beneficial allele are more likely to reproduce and pass on the allele

123

Which area of genetics focuses on the biochemical understanding of DNA and gene expression?

Molecular genetics

124

Match the scientific name of each organism with its common name.

  • Escherichia coli Bacterium
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast
  • Drosophila melanogaster Fruit fly
  • Caenorhabditis elegans Nematode worm
  • Mus musculus Mouse
  • Arabidopsis thaliana Flowering plant

125

The term genetic approach refers to the study of ______.

mutant genes with abnormal function

126

Which field of genetics focuses on how genes are passed on from parents to offspring?

Transmission genetics

127

A mutation that eliminates the function of a gene is called a(n) -___ of- ___ mutation.

loss; function

128

Mendel proposed that factors, which we now call ____ , are passed from parents to offspring via sperm and egg cells.

genes

129

If fruit flies normally have red eyes and a loss-of-function mutation in a certain gene results in white eyes, then the role of the normal gene is the production of pigment that is ___ in color.

red

130

What is a genetic cross?

The breeding of two individuals and the analysis of their offspring

131

The field of genetics that focuses on the relationship of genetic variation to an organism's environment is called genetics.

population

132

Which of the following topics is the focus of molecular genetics?

The biochemical structure and function of DNA

133

Which approach involves implementation of the scientific method to test an explanation for a natural phenomenon?

Hypothesis testing

134

The study of mutant genes with abnormal function in order to better understand the function of a normal gene is referred to as a(n) ___ approach.

genetic

135

Because genetics is a quantitative science, researchers often rely on methods to analyze the data and make conclusions.

statistical or mathematical

136

A loss-of-function mutation is a mutation that ______.

eliminates the function of a gene

137

One useful strategy for solving problems in genetics is to propose a(n) ____, which is an attempt to explain an observation or data.

hypothesis

138

If a plant normally produces red flowers and a loss-of-function mutation within a certain gene results in production of white flowers, what is the role of the functional gene?

Production of red pigments

139

What is the focus of population genetics?

The relationship between genetic variation and an organism's environment

140

What is the difference between hypothesis testing and discovery-based science?

Discovery-based science does not require a preconceived hypothesis.

141

You are studying genetic data about the prevalence of a disease from a large family, but it is not organized in any particular way. To better understand the data, which genetics problem solving strategy should you employ?

Make a drawing

142

You are trying to solve a genetics problem that asks you to determine how two proteins differ from one another. Which problem-solving strategy would be most helpful for this question?

Compare and contrast