Marketing Management: Chapter 8, Tapping into global markets Flashcards


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1

What is a global firm?

A) A firm that operates in one country and exports its goods and services to foreign countries.

B) A firm that operates in more than one country and has a sales and marketing staff in those countries.

C) A firm that operates in more than one country and captures R&D, production, logistical, marketing, and financial advantages not available to purely domestic competitors.

D) A firm that sells its products and services across the world but restricts manufacturing to the home country.

E) A firm that operates in more than one country but restricts the sale of its products to the home country.

C

2

Which of the following is NOT true about Tata Nano?

A) Its cost is three times India's annual per capita income.

B) It targets the 7 million Indians who buy scooters and motorcycles every year.

C) It has a negative stigma attached to it because it is considered a "cheap" car.

D) It has received positive feedback for reminding people of the tuk-tuk.

E) Some target customers were intimidated by Tata's showrooms.

D

3

Which of the following can induce a firm to expand into the international arena?

A) Consumer preferences in the domestic market vary widely.

B) Average income level of domestic consumers is high.

C) The firm operates in an industry that caters to the mass market.

D) The firm finds that the domestic market is almost saturated.

E) The firm is yet to achieve economies of scale even though the domestic market has potential.

D

4

Zodiac Inc. is one of the leading producers of designer bags in its country. The company is considering shifting some of its production to India. Which of the following could have prompted this move?

A) People in India prefer imported designer bags.

B) Zodiac can target a niche market of high-profile consumers who have a high income.

C) Zodiac can improve its market share if it can offer better prices than its competitors.

D) People in the home country have an ethnocentric approach.

E) Market research indicates that Indian consumers have a low per-capita income.

C

5

Which of the following is a risk that firms must consider prior to expanding abroad?

A) The domestic consumers prefer low-priced products.

B) The market in the foreign country may be too similar to the domestic market.

C) Consumers in the foreign country are very particular about the quality of the goods they consume.

D) The foreign country has very low pollution control standards.

E) The foreign country's business culture may be too different from the domestic country.

E

6

Services account for nearly ________ percent of global trade.

A) 10

B) 15

C) 20

D) 25

E) 30

C

7

Which of the following is NOT a challenge associated with international marketing?

A) Managers need to learn new languages and laws.

B) Managers need to deal with volatile currencies.

C) Managers face political and legal uncertainties.

D) International markets are less safe.

E) All of the above are challenges.

E

8

Which of the following is the first stage of the internationalization process that can induce firms to enter the international arena?

A) no regular export activities

B) export via independent representatives (agents)

C) establishment of one or more sales subsidiaries

D) establishment of production facilities abroad

E) adoption of a flexible exchange rate regime

A

9

Once a firm decides to enter the international market, what is the next step in the decision-making process?

A) deciding on the marketing organization

B) deciding on the marketing program

C) deciding how to enter the market

D) deciding how to adapt the product to the new market

E) deciding which markets to enter

E

10

Luxury brands are usually not global because they target a niche market.

False

11

A global profile is essential for firms like Prada, Gucci, and Louis Vuitton to profitably grow because the addressable market is small.

True

12

The World Trade Organization, consisting of 158 countries, works to erect entry barriers or regulations that limit free trade.

False

13

Global firms plan, operate, and coordinate their activities on a worldwide basis.

True

14

Services account for nearly 40 percent of global trade.

False

15

Most companies would prefer to remain domestic if their domestic market were large enough.

True

16

A global firm is a firm that operates in more than one country and captures R&D, production, logistical, marketing, and financial advantages not available to purely domestic competitors.

True

17

Companies enter the international market only when their domestic markets are saturated.

False

18

The first task of the internationalization process is moving a company from no regular exports to regular export activities.

True

19

Companies enter the international market only when their domestic markets are saturated.

False

20

WayToGrow Inc. is one of the most popular brands of toys in its home market. The company decides to expand its business abroad and its board of directors feel that instead of trying to establish its presence all at once in multiple markets, it is better to expand one country at a time. This would limit their risk and allow them to analyze customer response, after which they could expand to other similar countries. WayToGrow is following a ________ approach.

A) shotgun

B) continuous

C) born global

D) sprinkler

E) waterfall

E

21

2Microsoft sold more than 60 million licenses and upgrades of Windows 8 in the first 10 weeks after its October 26, 2012, global launch. Marketing spanned 42 countries with TV, print, and banner ads, outdoor posters, and branded entertainment. They used a ________ approach for the launch.

A) shotgun

B) continuous

C) born global

D) sprinkler

E) waterfall

D

22

The main risk in a ________ approach is the substantial resources needed and the difficulty of planning entry strategies for many diverse markets.

A) shotgun

B) continuous

C) born global

D) sprinkler

E) waterfall

D

23

When innovation at Siemens enables the company to offer solutions that can make the generation of hydroelectricity more environment-friendly, the company will want to reap the benefits of being the first to introduce such a product across countries. In this case, which of the following approaches is likely to be the best approach to entering foreign markets?

A) the rifle approach

B) the continuous approach

C) the born global approach

D) the sprinkler approach

E) the waterfall approach

C

24

A2Z Inc. is a producer of a wide variety of consumer goods in Brazil. It has successfully captured a huge share of the domestic market and has been able to create a very strong brand. It is now considering a foray into foreign markets. Its board of directors decides to first try out some of its products in the neighboring country of Argentina. A2Z plans to eventually expand its presence in other countries, after they analyze the impact of their entry into the Argentine market. A2Z Inc. is following a ________ approach.

A) born global

B) waterfall

C) sprinkler

D) franchisee

E) shotgun

B

25

a waterfall approach to international expansion, ________.

A) firms enter countries gradually in a sequence

B) firms enter those countries first where the demand for the product is greatest

C) countries are entered based upon the availability of government subsidies

D) firms enter those countries first where the supply of raw material is greatest

E) countries are entered based upon ease of entry

A

26

n a sprinkler approach to international expansion, ________.

A) countries are entered when competition is limited

B) countries are gradually entered sequentially

C) countries in which the supply of raw material is greatest are entered first

D) countries in which the demand for the product is greatest are entered first

E) many countries are entered simultaneously

E

27

When first-mover advantage is crucial and a high degree of competitive intensity prevails, the ________ approach is better.

A) waterfall

B) born global

C) rifle

D) sprinkler

E) franchisee

D

28

32) A waterfall approach to entering foreign markets is described as entering countries simultaneously.

False

29

33) The sprinkler approach is an entry strategy where a company gradually enters countries in sequence.

False

30

It often makes sense to operate in fewer countries, with a deeper commitment and penetration in each.

True

31

In general, a company prefers to enter countries that have high market attractiveness and high market risk, regardless of whether it possesses a competitive advantage.

False

32

mportant developing or emerging markets include Brazil, Russia, India, Canada, and South Africa, often called "BRICS" for short.

False

33

Regional economic integration means companies are more likely to enter entire regions at the same time.

True

34

The Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) cautions that economic reforms have stagnated and ranks Russia as one of the most corrupt countries in the world.

True

35

"BRICS" is an acronym for ________.

A) Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa

B) Bolivia, Russia, Indonesia, China, and South Africa

C) Brazil, Russia, Indonesia, China, and South Africa

D) Bolivia, Russia, India, Canada, and South Africa

E) Bolivia, Russia, Indonesia, Canada, and South Africa

A

36

"CIVETS" is an acronym for ________.

A) Columbia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Egypt, Turkey, and Syria

B) China, India, Vietnam, Egypt, Turkey, and South Africa

C) Columbia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Egypt, Turkey, and South Africa

D) China, India, Vietnam, Egypt, Turkey, and Syria

E) Columbia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Egypt, Turkey, and Saudi Arabia

C

37

________ is the sixth largest economy in the world, and it is expected to move into fourth place by 2050, meaning it would economically be larger than countries like Germany, Japan, and the United Kingdom.

A) South Africa

B) Brazil

C) Russia

D) India

E) China

B

38

A) Brazil had serious disputes with neighboring countries.

B) Brazil's transportation costs are higher than other markets.

C) Unloading a container is twice as expensive in India and takes three times longer than in China.

D) Strict and costly labor laws inspire an underground economy that takes urban jobs.

E) Crime and corruption are problems.

A

39

44) A2Z Inc. is a producer of a huge variety of consumer goods, from soaps to shower gels, and shampoos to detergents. It is a market leader in the United States and is planning to tap the immense potential in the emerging markets. Market research, however, indicates that the Brazilian culture and society are substantially different from their American counterparts. If the company wants to target the masses, which of the following options is most likely to succeed?

A) A2Z can use a price skimming strategy to increase market share.

B) The company's existing strategies in the United States will work just as well in Brazil.

C) A2Z can introduce smaller "sachets" of shampoos and detergents that are priced lower.

D) The company can introduce large family packs of shampoos and soaps even if they are priced higher than competitors.

E) A2Z can use a predatory pricing strategy to capture the market.

C

40

45) Which of the following causes a difference between marketing in developed countries and marketing in developing countries?

A) The cost of production varies substantially between the developed and the developing world.

B) The disparity between the rich and the poor in the developing world is reducing.

C) There are substantial cultural differences between the developed and the developing world.

D) Marketing in developing countries is far more expensive than in the developed world.

E) The developing countries have more trade barriers in place than the developed countries.

C

41

Regional economic integration is defined as the creation of trading agreements between ________.

A) a firm and its suppliers and distributors

B) firms targeting the same market

C) individual firms in an industry

D) related industries

E) blocs of countries

E

42

47) Many US firms prefer to sell in Canada, England, and Australia — rather than in larger markets such as Germany and France — because they feel more comfortable with the languages, laws, and culture, which reflect the ________ between these countries and the United States.

A) self-serving bias

B) coincident development

C) psychic proximity

D) cognitive dissonance

E) backward invention

C

43

NAFTA is a free trade zone comprising of which of the following countries?

A) Canada, Mexico, and South America

B) Canada, Mexico, and Peru

C) Mexico, South America, and the United States

D) Canada, Mexico, and the United States

E) Canada, Japan, and the United States

D

44

________ consumers drank an average of only 14 eight-ounce bottles of Coke in 2012, compared with an average of 241 bottles in Brazil and 745 bottles in Mexico, leading Coca-Cola to announce a $5 billion investment over 2012-2020.

A) Venezuelan

B) Indian

C) Indonesian

D) South African

E) Chinese

B

45

While choosing countries to invest in, companies often choose psychic proximity to their own country. Psychic proximity can best be defined as countries ________.

A) in which the company feels comfortable with the language, laws, and culture

B) that are located close

C) that the home country's management team have visited

D) that have no trade barriers

E) with good infrastructure and stable political environment

A

46

More than 90 percent of future population growth is projected to occur in the less developed countries.

True

47

) Nestlé, Unilever, and Modelēz get close to or above 40 percent of their total business coming from emerging markets.

True

48

Smaller packaging and lower sales prices are often critical in markets where incomes are limited.

True

49

Regional economic integration has intensified in recent years, which makes it more difficult for marketers to expand globally.

False

50

Which of the following modes of entry into a foreign market involves the maximum commitment and risk?

A) franchising

B) direct investment

C) joint ventures

D) licensing

E) direct exporting

B

51

Domestic-based export merchants ________.

A) buy manufacturers' products and then sell them abroad

B) manage a company's export activities for a fee

C) buy foreign products and sell them in the domestic country

D) seek and negotiate foreign purchases

E) carry on exporting activities on behalf of several producers

A

52

Domestic-based export agents perform a valuable service for companies seeking to enter foreign markets. The primary function of these agents is to ________.

A) carry on exporting activities on behalf of several producers

B) buy the manufacturer's products and then sell them abroad

C) buy foreign products and sell them in the domestic country

D) seek and negotiate foreign purchases for a commission

E) produce and export products to foreign countries

D

53

Companies typically start their international foray with ________, which involves working through independent intermediaries who sell their products abroad.

A) indirect exporting

B) licensing

C) franchising

D) direct exporting

E) joint ventures

A

54

Indirect exports have two advantages for a firm: less investment and less ________.

A) paperwork

B) intrusion by the government

C) risk

D) competition

E) customer suits

C

55

James Franks lives in Miami. He buys local products from manufacturers in Miami and other parts of Florida and sells them abroad, mainly to Caribbean nations. Mr. Franks is a(n) ________.

A) domestic-based export merchant

B) domestic-based export agent

C) cooperative agent

D) export-management agent

E) direct exporting agent

A

56

Nash & Associates is a firm that takes care of all export procedures on behalf of its clients. In exchange for a fee, the firm acts as the liaison between domestic manufacturers and prospective foreign buyers. It has access to established distribution networks in other countries that domestic small-scale producers are unlikely to have, and facilitates communication between foreign importers and domestic producers. Nash & Associates is most likely a(n) ________.

A) domestic-based export merchant

B) domestic-based export agent

C) cooperative organization

D) export-management company

E) direct exporter

B

57

________ agree to manage a company's export activities for a fee.

A) Cooperative organizations

B) Domestic-based export agents

C) Export-management companies

D) Domestic-based export merchants

E) Contract manufacturing organizations

C

58

After successfully exporting its products through export merchants, Boyes Inc. decides to take control of its exports. It sets up its own unit in the home country that takes care of all export-related activities. Boyes Inc. is most likely using ________.

A) foreign-based distributors or agents

B) a domestic-based export department

C) export merchants in foreign countries

D) export-management companies

B

59

A well-known producer of breakfast cereals has decided to hire producers in different countries so that the cereals marketed under their brand are locally produced in the respective countries. This would not only appeal more to consumers who prefer domestically produced goods, but would also create jobs in the host-country enhancing the brand's image further. This is an example of ________.

A) management contracting

B) franchising

C) greenfield venturing

D) contract manufacturing

E) straight extension

D

60

Which of the following statements is true about licensing?

A) It is one of the most complex ways to engage in international marketing.

B) The licensor gains entry into the new market at low risk.

C) The licensee has no access to proprietary information.

D) The licensee receives a fee or royalty.

E) The only benefit for a licensee is the production expertise it gains.

B

61

Hotel chains such as Hyatt and Marriott sell a variation of the licensing agreement called ________ to the owners of foreign hotels to manage these businesses for a fee.

A) greenfield venturing

B) management contracts

C) strategic alliance

D) indirect exporting

E) direct exporting

B

62

In which of the following modes of licensing does the firm hire local producers to produce the product, giving the company less control over the manufacturing process?

A) contract manufacturing

B) management contracts

C) direct investment

D) joint venture production

E) greenfield venturing

A

63

Toshiba, Hitachi, and other Japanese television manufacturers use ________ to service the Eastern European market.

A) contract manufacturing

B) management contracts

C) direct investment

D) joint venture production

E) greenfield venturing

A

64

A company can enter a foreign market through a ________, which is a complete form of licensing in which the company offers a complete brand concept and operating system.

A) contract manufacturing

B) cooperative agreement

C) management contract

D) joint venture

E) franchising arrangement

E

65

Which of the following can cause a firm to choose joint ventures as a mode of expansion into foreign markets?

A) excellent managerial resources

B) lack of sufficient finances

C) lack of conflicting regulations in the host country

D) preferences of target consumers in the host country

E) psychic proximity of the host country

B

66

Identify a benefit of using a joint venture to enter a foreign market.

A) It entails minimum risk.

B) It provides access to an established distribution network in the host country.

C) It yields the highest returns.

D) It retains full control of its investment in the host country.

E) It is the best strategy for countries with psychic proximity.

B

67

Which of the following is true about direct investment as a mode of international expansion?

A) It allows a firm to retain full control over its investment.

B) It yields lower returns than joint ventures.

C) It involves the least amount of risk.

D) It involves the least cost.

E) It does not allow the firm to diversify.

A

68

Cisco had no presence in India before 2005, but it used a ________ approach and already opened a second headquarters in Bangalore to take advantage of opportunities in India and other locations such as Dubai.

A) direct investment

B) joint venture

C) contract manufacturing agreement

D) licensing agreement

E) franchising agreement

A

69

Whirlpool took a 53 percent stake in the Dutch electronics group Phillips' home appliances business to leapfrog into the European market. This is an example of a ________.

A) straight extension

B) joint venture

C) contract manufacturing agreement

D) licensing agreement

E) franchising agreement

B

70

Which of the following is NOT one of the ways direct exporting happens?

A) overseas sales branch or subsidiary

B) domestic-based export agents

C) domestic-based export division

D) traveling export sales representatives

E) foreign-based distributors or agents

B

71

GE Capital, GE's lending arm, uses ________ with financial institutions in South Korea, Spain, Turkey, and elsewhere to reach more geographic and technological markets and to diversify investments and risk.

A) licensing deals

B) direct investment

C) indirect exporting

D) joint ventures

E) direct exporting

D

72

Once a company decides to target a particular country, it must determine the best mode of entry. Its broad choices are indirect exporting, direct exporting, licensing, joint ventures, and direct investment.

True

73

Domestic-based export merchants seek and negotiate foreign purchases for a commission.

False

74

ooperative organizations carry on exporting activities on behalf of several producers and are partly under their administrative control.

True

75

Indirect exports are characterized by high investment, and therefore high risk.

False

76

In licensing, the licensor issues a license to a foreign company to use an item of value for a fee or royalty.

True

77

When the licensor provides the licensee with a complete brand concept and operating system, the arrangement is called contract manufacturing.

False

78

Management contracts offer foreign owners the opportunity to manage businesses for a fee.

True

79

Contract manufacturing is one mode of licensing that allows a company to start faster, with the opportunity to form a partnership or buy out the local manufacturer later.

True

80

The ultimate form of foreign investment is direct ownership of foreign-based assembly or manufacturing facilities.

True

81

The main disadvantage of direct investment is that the firm loses access to the market in case the government of that country insists locally purchased goods have domestic content.

False

82

Your firm has decided to enter the international market with your product called "Trema," a new pocket organizer that can also be used as a cell phone. While discussing marketing plans, your CMO decides that no changes will be necessary in either the marketing mix or the product for export. What form of marketing strategy is the CMO advocating?

A) distributive marketing program

B) leveraged marketing program

C) adapted marketing program

D) engineering-driven marketing program

E) standardized marketing program

E

83

In an adapted marketing program, the company ________.

A) ensures that uniform practices are adopted across countries

B) focuses more on brand image than consumer preferences

C) ignores differences in the legal environment

D) ensures the lowest cost marketing program is adopted

E) tailors the marketing programs to each target market

E

84

When Kraft blends different coffees for the British (who drink coffee with milk), the French (who drink it black), and Latin Americans (who want a chicory taste), it is engaged in ________.

A) straight extensions

B) product adaptation

C) retailer versions

D) backward invention

E) forward invention

B

85

To what extent should a company adapt its products and marketing program to each foreign country?

AACSB: Application of knowledge

97) A standardized marketing program involves ________.

A) adopting the strategy that best fits a given target market

B) consistently using the communication and distribution channels that entail the lowest costs

C) adjusting the product to suit market preferences

D) changing the features of the product to accommodate the host country

E) changing only the communication message to suit the different target markets

B

86

Which of the following is one of Hofstede's four cultural dimensions that differentiate countries?

A) customer relationship management versus power distance

B) strategic management versus marketing management

C) weak versus strong uncertainty avoidance

D) total quality management versus JIT deliveries

E) marketing management versus customer relationships

C

87

The United States imposed a duty of 44.99 to 47.59 percent on wind towers produced in China and Vietnam and imported to the United States after they found evidence both countries were selling them at below fair market value, or ________, the practice of charging less than its costs or less than it charges at home to win a market.

A) arm's-length pricing

B) gray marketing

C) counterfeiting

D) transfer pricing

E) dumping

E

88

In collectivist societies, ________.

A) all property is owned by the government

B) the self-worth of the individual is rooted more in the social system than in individual achievement

C) the culture is dominated by the need to maintain low power distance and reduce income inequality

D) the culture is dominated by a nurturing attitude as opposed to an assertive attitude

E) people are highly risk-averse

B

89

According to Hofstede, cultures with low power distance are ________.

A) collectivist

B) assertive

C) egalitarian

D) risk-averse

E) risk-tolerant

C

90

According to Hofstede, cultures with weak uncertainty avoidance are best described as ________.

A) collectivist

B) hierarchical

C) egalitarian

D) risk-averse

E) risk-tolerant

E

91

risk averse attitude is associated with high ________.

A) uncertainty avoidance

B) femininity

C) power distance

D) individualism

E) collectivism

A

92

A market survey by LG revealed that Indians preferred not to mix vegetarian and non-vegetarian food items. Hence, LG refrigerators in India include a special convertible box with separate compartments to store and control the temperature of vegetarian and non-vegetarian food. This is an example of customizing ________ to local needs.

A) advertising media

B) product features

C) packaging

D) brand name

E) labeling

B

93

Straight extension of the product means introducing ________.

A) the product to the foreign market without any changes to the product

B) the product to the foreign market with minor changes to the product

C) the product to the foreign market with major changes to the product

D) a customized product to the foreign market with a new marketing strategy

E) a customized product to the foreign market with existing marketing strategy

A

94

Which of the following is most likely to be successful when introduced in foreign markets as a straight extension?

A) laundry detergent

B) khaki pants

C) dessert mixes

D) digital camera

E) condensed soup

D

95

For the launch of "Trema," your company's new pocket organizer that can also be used as a cell phone, the CMO has decided that the product can be launched in international markets without any changes in its features or the marketing strategy. This introduction can be described as a ________.

A) dual adaptation

B) straight extension

C) product adaptation

D) forward invention

E) backward invention

B

96

Finnish cellular phone giant Nokia customized its 6100 series mobile phone for every major market in which it is present. In Asia, for example, the series came with higher ring volume so that it could be heard on the crowded Asian streets. This is an example of ________.

A) straight extension

B) forward invention

C) regional version

D) city version

E) country version

C

97

In an attempt to tailor its products to suit the requirements of consumers in India, LG introduced the aero-comfort system. A remote control is programed to regulate both the air-conditioning and the ceiling fan. Consumers can switch off the AC and increase the ceiling fan's flow once the desired temperature is achieved. This not only increases convenience, but also cuts down electricity charges. LG's aero-comfort system is an example of which of the following?

A) backward invention

B) dual invention

C) country version product

D) straight extension

E) communication adaptation

C

98

Your firm has decided to enter the international market with your product called "Trema," a combination of a pocket organizer and cell phone. Even though the product has been a huge success in the home country, market research suggests some changes may be required before it can be introduced in Europe. Your CMO is of the opinion that the product requires certain extra features and the product will also have to be marketed differently. Your CMO is advocating ________.

A) product invention

B) dual adaptation

C) straight extension

D) forward adaptation

E) product standardization

B

99

Product adaptation involves ________.

A) altering the product to meet local preferences with no change in communication strategy

B) altering the product to meet minimum acceptable standards

C) altering both the product and the communication strategy to meet local preferences

D) altering neither the product nor the communication strategy while entering a new market

E) developing a new product and adapting the communication strategy to enter a new market

A

100

Backward invention occurs when a firm ________.

A) creates a new product to meet a need in another country

B) reintroduces earlier product forms adapted to suit another country's needs

C) invents products that are similar to competing offerings

D) takes an existing product into a new market

E) produces its own raw materials

B

101

Forward invention is ________.

A) creating a new product to meet a need in another country

B) creating a new product to meet the need in the home country

C) inventing products that are superior to competing offerings

D) taking an existing product into a new market

E) inventing something that as yet has no "market"

A

102

Companies can run the same marketing communications programs as used in the home market or change them for each local market, a process called ________.

A) product communications

B) market development

C) dual adaptation

D) diversification

E) communication adaptation

E

103

If a company adapts or changes both a product and the communications, the company engages in a process called ________.

A) straight extension

B) product reinvention

C) product adaptation

D) dual adaptation

E) full adaptation

D

104

A Gucci bag sells for $120 in Italy and $240 in the United States due to the differences in the costs of distributing the product in the two countries. This phenomenon is called a(n) ________ problem.

A) opportunity cost

B) market pricing

C) tactical pricing

D) price escalation

E) transfer pricing

D

105

Trends Inc. produces and markets casual wear for men and women. The company wants to be a global brand and is planning to enter a few chosen markets across Europe and Asia. To accommodate the differences in purchasing power and costs of shipping goods to the retailers, the company has decided to use cost-based pricing in each country. In order to ensure that this strategy is successful, Trends must first make sure that ________.

A) all the countries it is planning to enter have similar laws and regulations

B) competing offerings in the different markets are not priced lower

C) all competitors follow cost-based pricing

D) its marketing communication targets rival firms in the respective markets to prove its superiority

E) its transfer prices are high

B

106

The problem with setting a uniform global price for a product is that ________.

A) it allows intermediaries in low-price countries to reship their products to high-price countries

B) the company would earn the same profits everywhere, regardless of the cost structure

C) this strategy can price the product out of the market in countries where costs are high

D) this strategy makes the price too high in poor countries and not high enough in rich countries

E) it is ineffective for products that are homogeneous

D

107

When companies are setting prices in different countries, the problem with setting a market-based price in each country is that ________.

A) it allows intermediaries in low-price countries to reship their products to high-price countries

B) the company would earn the same profits everywhere, regardless of the cost structure

C) this strategy might price the product out of the market in countries where costs are high

D) this strategy would make the price too high in poor countries and not high enough in rich countries

E) it prevents the company from differentiating its products

A

108

When one unit charges another unit in the same company for goods it ships to its foreign subsidiaries, the charge is called a(n) ________ price.

A) original

B) transfer

C) margin

D) break-even

E) customer value

B

109

Existence of gray markets leads to which of the following outcomes?

A) They make the distribution channel stronger.

B) They create a free-rider problem making legitimate distributors' investments in supporting a manufacturer's product less productive.

C) Goods sold in grey markets are always counterfeit.

D) Goods sold in grey markets come with standard product warranties.

E) Taxes imposed on grey market products are very high.

B

110

Dumping occurs when a company ________.

A) entering a foreign market charges either less than its costs or less than it charges at home

B) entering a foreign market charges more than the price in its home market

C) entering a foreign market charges prices that are lower than those charged by its competitors in this market

D) sets its price equal to its average cost of production

E) exports its products to a foreign country to increase its revenue in spite of excess demand in the home country

A

111

Various governments force companies to charge the ________ price, which is charged by other competitors for the same or a similar product.

A) gray market

B) implicit

C) arm's-length

D) authorized

E) contingent

C

112

In India, where people often buy items like cigarettes one at a time because incomes are low and people shop daily because homes lack storage and refrigeration, ________ remains an important function of intermediaries and helps perpetuate long channels of distribution.

A) breaking bulk

B) jobbing

C) type of transportation

D) information sharing

E) reinforcing policies

A

113

Which of the following is likely if the distribution channel for a product in the foreign country is long?

A) The foreign country buyers pay a high price.

B) The consumer will pay arms-length price.

C) The profit margin of the sellers increases.

D) The intermediaries are motivated to reship the product to another country to earn higher profits.

E) The seller can increase profit margins by charging a uniform price.

A

114

s people in developing countries often prefer to buy in smaller quantities, ________ is one of the most important functions of intermediaries in developing countries and helps perpetuate the long channels of distribution, which are a major obstacle to the expansion of retailing.

A) product adaptation

B) breaking bulk

C) diversification

D) transfer pricing

E) dual adaptation

B

115

If PepsiCo charges what each country could afford, ignoring cost differences from country to country, it would be using a(n) ________ price.

A) uniform

B) market-based

C) cost-based

D) escalation

E) skimming

B

116

If a society is collectivist, it would imply that the self-worth of the people is rooted in individual achievements.

False

117

Straight extension means using an established product's brand name for a new item in the same product category.

False

118

Product adaptation not only involves altering the product to meet local preferences, but also calls for a change in the communication strategy.

False

119

Forward invention refers to reintroducing earlier product forms that are well adapted to a foreign country's needs.

False

120

Communication adaptation occurs when companies change marketing communications for each local market.

True

121

If Kellogg's offered different varieties of breakfast cereals in India as compared to Australia, and also positioned its products differently in the two countries, then Kellogg's would be engaging in dual adaptation.

True

122

The use of media may require international adaptation because media availability varies from country to country.

True

123

When companies sell on the Internet, price becomes transparent, and price differentiation between countries declines.

True

124

If a company charges its subsidiary in a foreign country too low a transfer price, it can be accused of dumping.

True

125

Gray market activities harm distributor relations, tarnish the manufacturer's brand equity, and undermine the integrity of the distribution channel.

True

126

Web-crawling technology searches for counterfeit storefronts and sales by detecting domain names similar to legitimate brands.

True

127

As required levels of distribution increase, so do customer prices relative to the importer's price.

True

128

Coors brand slogan "Turn it loose" translated into Spanish was interpreted as "suffer from diarrhea," which is an example of why marketers may need to change brand elements when they launch products and services globally.

True

129

Comparative advertising is not acceptable in Japan, and is illegal in India and Brazil.

True

130

157) As a result of the ad campaigns depicting Brazil as a multicultural land of carnivals and beaches, any mention of the country makes people think of sun and sand. This is an example of ________.

A) collectivism

B) target market impact

C) ethnocentric thinking

D) country-of-origin effect

E) cognitive dissonance

D

131

The New Zealand Way program was an initiative by the government of New Zealand to raise awareness and attract tourists by showing the dramatic landscapes featured in "The Lord of the Rings" film trilogy. This is an example of a government trying to strengthen its ________.

A) country-of-origin perceptions

B) international subsidiaries

C) internationalization

D) contract manufacturing

E) distributor relationships

A

132

) The more favorable a country's image, the less prominently the "Made in…" label should be displayed.

False

133

Country-of-origin effects refer to the attitude anything produced by the home country is better than imported goods.

False

134

Country-of-origin perceptions, once formed, are very difficult to change.

False

135

ople are often ethnocentric and favorably predisposed to their own country's products, unless they come from a less developed country.

True

136

The impact of country of origin is independent of the type of product.

False