What is the normal pH range of blood?
Leukocytes and platelets comprise what percentage of whole blood?
Which ABO blood group is known as the "universal donor"?
What are the regulatory function of blood?
Body temperature, pH levels, and fluid volume
What are the protective functions of blood?
Blood clot and antibodies
What are the distribution functions of blood?
Oxygen, carbon dioxide,and hormones
What are the phases of erythropoiesis?
hemocytoblast, proerythroblast, erythroblast, late erythroblast, and erythrocyte
If there is hypoxia of the EPO-producing cells, what will it trigger?
The EPO-producing cells make EPO and travel to bone marrow
What happens as red blood cells age?
Membranes "wear out" and the cells become damaged.
What types of blood can blood type AB negative receive?
A-, B-, AB-, O-
What is the most abundant plasma protein?
When neither anti-A nor anti-B clots on a blood plate, the blood type is what?
What is the area that is the main site of blood cell formation throughout an adult life?
Red bone marrow (ends of long bones and flat bone such as hips and sternum)
What are the values of hemoglobin in the blood for infants?
What are the values of hemoglobin in the blood for adult males?
What are the values of hemoglobin in the blood for adult females?
Who has the highest normal value of hemoglobin in the blood out of infants, adult males, an adult females?
What are the normal plasma proteins found in bloo plasma?
Alpha, beta, gamma globulins, albumin, and fibrinogen
What can you expect with polycythemia?
Higher blood volume, blood pressure, hematocrit, and blood viscosity
Which white granulocyte blood cells have cytoplasmic granules?
Neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils
Which white agranulocyte blood cells have cytoplasmic granules?
Lymophocytes and monocytes
What is the correct developmental seuence of erythrocyte formation?
Proerythroblast, erythroblast, late erythroblast, normoblast, reticulocyte, and erythrocyte
If there is a lack of the intrinsic factor leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes, it is characteristic of what condition?
Pernicious anemia which is mainly found in the elderly
What are the phases of hemostasis?
Vascular spasms, platelet plug formation, and big stage of coagulation where fibrogen is convered to fibrin through 13 coagulation factors in the plasma with the use of vitamin K and calcium to form the permanent clot for healing to take place
What is a thromboembolic disorder?
Includes embolus formation, a clot moving within the circulatory system
What is a characteristic of all leukocytes?
They all have a nucleus
Blood plasma contains how much water?
90% and over 100 dissolved solutes
What is the job of platelets?
They stick to damaged area of the blood vessel and help seal the break
What does it mean when someone's blood is AB positive when it comes to the antigens and the antibodies?
A, B, and Rh antigens. No antibodies
What are sickling red blood cells be produced in those with sickle-cell anemia?
Traveling at high altitude and vigorous exercise
What impairs coagulation?
Liver disease, vitamin C deficiency, and severe hypoclacemia
When can erythroblastosis fetalis not possibly happen in the child of an Rh negative mother?
If the father is Rh- like the mother
What type of mixture is blood?
What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?
What is the shelf life of whole blood collected at 4 degrees C?
About 35 days
What are two ways athletes can increase their number of erythrocytes which aren't healthy?
EPO injections and blood doping
excess number of red blood cells
What is the normal percentage of neutrophils in a normal differential white blood count?
If you found the basophil percentage to be 28% in a differential white blood count, what could this indicate?
What is the largest WBC?
How many WBCs would you expect to find for every 600 RBCs?
1 per 600
What odes a high eosinophil count indicate?
Which WBCs are classified as agrandulocytes?
Lymphocytes and monocytes
multilobed nucleus; inconspicuous cytoplasm granules. 3000-7000
bilobed nucleus; red granules. 100-400
bilobed nucleus; large purplish-black granules. 20-50
Spherical or indented nucleus; no granules. 1500-3000
U-or kidney shaped nucleus, gray-blue cytoplasm. 100-700
What is the normal number of erythrocytes per cubic millimenter of blood?
What is the lifetime of an erythrocyte?
What is the lifetime of a neutrophil?
6 hours to a few days
What is the normal number of platelets per cubic millimeter of blood?
Which formed element in the blood is responsible for sealing small tears in blood vessels and intrumental in blood clotting?
What does the Epstein-Barr virus cause?
All white blood cells start out as a
What conditions cause a reduced number of erythrocytes?
Blood loss, and abnormal hemoglobin
What disorders cause an over-production of abnormal leukocytes?
Leukemia and mononucleosis
What are the normal values for hematocrite counts for males and females?
47% males and 42% females
What does tissue hypoxia mean?
How long does it take a reticulocyte once released into the blood to become a mature erythrocyte?
Once additional EPO is secreted into the blood targeted for the bone marrow, how long does it take for new erythrocytes to be formed?
Which organ is referred to as the "red blood cell graveyard"?
When iron enters the blood it is transported loosely, but bound to a transport protein called ___________________.
Ferritin and hemosiderin
What is a brown pigment that gives feces its dark color?
Leukocytes are able to slip out of the capillary blood vessels by away of a process called ______ and follow a trail of chemical released by damaged cells which is a phenomenon called positive______.
Migration and chemostaxis
What is the average blood volume for males and females?
5-6 males and 4-5 females
What is the normal temperature of blood?
Plasma makes up what percentage of blood?
Which formed element of blood is a true cell?
White blood cells
Erythrocytes make up what percentage of whole blood?
90% of blood plasma is _________.
What are common cations (positive) found in blood plasma?
Sodium, calcium, potassium, and magnesium
What are common anions (negative) found in blood plasma?
Chloride, phosphate, sulfate, and bicarborated
What are the organic nutrients found in blood plasma?
Glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids
Do most blood cells divide and go through mitosis in order to reproduce?
What is spectrin and what does it allow?
A protein that allows RBCs to squeeze through capillaries and return to its original shape
Do females or males have the lowest hematocrit count?
How many oxygen molecules can 1 hemoglobin molecule pick up?
How many oxygen molecules can 1 RBC pick up?
How much carbon dioxide is transported by caraminohemoglibin?
Blood cell formation
WHere does hemocytoblast reside?
The direct stimulus for erythrocyte formation is a glycoprotien hormone called erythropoietin produced by cells located in the _____.
What could possibly account for REC counts being higher in males than in females?
What do you need to make hemoglobin?
Amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates, iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12
Iron is _____ to the body.
The intake of what beverages interfere with the absorption of iron?
Tannic acid in tea, caffeine in coffee and drinks, and carbonates in sodas
Which WBC carries out phagocytosis of erythrocytois?
Monocytes called macrophages
Low count of WBCs
Platelet formation is regulated by a hormone called _____________.
Which WBC is the most common in whole blood?