A&P II: Blood Review Questions

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1

What is the normal pH range of blood?

7.35-7.45

2

Leukocytes and platelets comprise what percentage of whole blood?

1%

3

Which ABO blood group is known as the "universal donor"?

O

4

What are the regulatory function of blood?

Body temperature, pH levels, and fluid volume

5

What are the protective functions of blood?

Blood clot and antibodies

6

What are the distribution functions of blood?

Oxygen, carbon dioxide,and hormones

7

What are the phases of erythropoiesis?

hemocytoblast, proerythroblast, erythroblast, late erythroblast, and erythrocyte

8

If there is hypoxia of the EPO-producing cells, what will it trigger?

The EPO-producing cells make EPO and travel to bone marrow

9

What happens as red blood cells age?

Membranes "wear out" and the cells become damaged.

10

What types of blood can blood type AB negative receive?

A-, B-, AB-, O-

11

What is the most abundant plasma protein?

Albumin

12

When neither anti-A nor anti-B clots on a blood plate, the blood type is what?

O

13

What is the area that is the main site of blood cell formation throughout an adult life?

Red bone marrow (ends of long bones and flat bone such as hips and sternum)

14

What are the values of hemoglobin in the blood for infants?

14-20g/100mL blood

15

What are the values of hemoglobin in the blood for adult males?

13-18g/100mL blood

16

What are the values of hemoglobin in the blood for adult females?

12-16g/100mL blood

17

Who has the highest normal value of hemoglobin in the blood out of infants, adult males, an adult females?

Infants

18

What are the normal plasma proteins found in bloo plasma?

Alpha, beta, gamma globulins, albumin, and fibrinogen

19

What can you expect with polycythemia?

Higher blood volume, blood pressure, hematocrit, and blood viscosity

20

Which white granulocyte blood cells have cytoplasmic granules?

Neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils

21

Which white agranulocyte blood cells have cytoplasmic granules?

Lymophocytes and monocytes

22

What is the correct developmental seuence of erythrocyte formation?

Proerythroblast, erythroblast, late erythroblast, normoblast, reticulocyte, and erythrocyte

23

If there is a lack of the intrinsic factor leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes, it is characteristic of what condition?

Pernicious anemia which is mainly found in the elderly

24

What are the phases of hemostasis?

Vascular spasms, platelet plug formation, and big stage of coagulation where fibrogen is convered to fibrin through 13 coagulation factors in the plasma with the use of vitamin K and calcium to form the permanent clot for healing to take place

25

What is a thromboembolic disorder?

Includes embolus formation, a clot moving within the circulatory system

26

What is a characteristic of all leukocytes?

They all have a nucleus

27

Blood plasma contains how much water?

90% and over 100 dissolved solutes

28

What is the job of platelets?

They stick to damaged area of the blood vessel and help seal the break

29

What does it mean when someone's blood is AB positive when it comes to the antigens and the antibodies?

A, B, and Rh antigens. No antibodies

30

What are sickling red blood cells be produced in those with sickle-cell anemia?

Traveling at high altitude and vigorous exercise

31

What impairs coagulation?

Liver disease, vitamin C deficiency, and severe hypoclacemia

32

When can erythroblastosis fetalis not possibly happen in the child of an Rh negative mother?

If the father is Rh- like the mother

33

What type of mixture is blood?

Suspension

34

What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?

Kidney

35

What is the shelf life of whole blood collected at 4 degrees C?

About 35 days

36

What are two ways athletes can increase their number of erythrocytes which aren't healthy?

EPO injections and blood doping

37

Polycythemia:

excess number of red blood cells

38

What is the normal percentage of neutrophils in a normal differential white blood count?

50-70%

39

If you found the basophil percentage to be 28% in a differential white blood count, what could this indicate?

Viral infection

40

What is the largest WBC?

Monocytes

41

How many WBCs would you expect to find for every 600 RBCs?

1 per 600

42

What odes a high eosinophil count indicate?

Parasitic worm

43

Which WBCs are classified as agrandulocytes?

Lymphocytes and monocytes

44

Neutrophil:

multilobed nucleus; inconspicuous cytoplasm granules. 3000-7000

45

Eosinophil

bilobed nucleus; red granules. 100-400

46

Basophil

bilobed nucleus; large purplish-black granules. 20-50

47

Lymphocytes

Spherical or indented nucleus; no granules. 1500-3000

48

Monocytes

U-or kidney shaped nucleus, gray-blue cytoplasm. 100-700

49

What is the normal number of erythrocytes per cubic millimenter of blood?

4-6 million

50

What is the lifetime of an erythrocyte?

100-120 days

51

What is the lifetime of a neutrophil?

6 hours to a few days

52

What is the normal number of platelets per cubic millimeter of blood?

150,000-400,000

53

Which formed element in the blood is responsible for sealing small tears in blood vessels and intrumental in blood clotting?

Platelets

54

What does the Epstein-Barr virus cause?

Mononucleosis

55

All white blood cells start out as a

hemocytoblast

56

What conditions cause a reduced number of erythrocytes?

Blood loss, and abnormal hemoglobin

57

What disorders cause an over-production of abnormal leukocytes?

Leukemia and mononucleosis

58

What are the normal values for hematocrite counts for males and females?

47% males and 42% females

59

What does tissue hypoxia mean?

Oxygen prevention

60

How long does it take a reticulocyte once released into the blood to become a mature erythrocyte?

Two days

61

Once additional EPO is secreted into the blood targeted for the bone marrow, how long does it take for new erythrocytes to be formed?

Two days

62

Which organ is referred to as the "red blood cell graveyard"?

Spleen

63

When iron enters the blood it is transported loosely, but bound to a transport protein called ___________________.

Ferritin and hemosiderin

64

What is a brown pigment that gives feces its dark color?

Sterocobilin

65

Leukocytes are able to slip out of the capillary blood vessels by away of a process called ______ and follow a trail of chemical released by damaged cells which is a phenomenon called positive______.

Migration and chemostaxis

66

What is the average blood volume for males and females?

5-6 males and 4-5 females

67

What is the normal temperature of blood?

100.4

68

Plasma makes up what percentage of blood?

55%

69

Which formed element of blood is a true cell?

White blood cells

70

Erythrocytes make up what percentage of whole blood?

45%

71

90% of blood plasma is _________.

Water

72

What are common cations (positive) found in blood plasma?

Sodium, calcium, potassium, and magnesium

73

What are common anions (negative) found in blood plasma?

Chloride, phosphate, sulfate, and bicarborated

74

What are the organic nutrients found in blood plasma?

Glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids

75

Do most blood cells divide and go through mitosis in order to reproduce?

No

76

What is spectrin and what does it allow?

A protein that allows RBCs to squeeze through capillaries and return to its original shape

77

Do females or males have the lowest hematocrit count?

Males

78

How many oxygen molecules can 1 hemoglobin molecule pick up?

4

79

How many oxygen molecules can 1 RBC pick up?

250 million

80

How much carbon dioxide is transported by caraminohemoglibin?

20%

81

Hematopoiesis:

Blood cell formation

82

WHere does hemocytoblast reside?

Bone marrow

83

The direct stimulus for erythrocyte formation is a glycoprotien hormone called erythropoietin produced by cells located in the _____.

Kidney

84

What could possibly account for REC counts being higher in males than in females?

Testosterone

85

What do you need to make hemoglobin?

Amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates, iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12

86

Iron is _____ to the body.

Toxic

87

The intake of what beverages interfere with the absorption of iron?

Tannic acid in tea, caffeine in coffee and drinks, and carbonates in sodas

88

Which WBC carries out phagocytosis of erythrocytois?

Monocytes called macrophages

89

Leukopenia:

Low count of WBCs

90

Platelet formation is regulated by a hormone called _____________.

Thromboprotien

91

Which WBC is the most common in whole blood?

Neutrophil