Which of the following is NOT true of the Babinski reflex?
It is an abnormal response that occurs in some adults in the calcaneal reflex.
Both the primary olfactory cortex and the primary gustatory cortex are located in the temporal lobe of the cerebrum.
Which of the following is NOT a chamber found in the cochlea?
Which structure of the cow (or sheep) eye is not present in humans, and helps to reflect light back through the retina, to provide good night vision?
A bundle of nerve fibers is surrounded by a layer of fibrous connective tissue called the
Which of the following membranes acts as a rigid roof over the cilia of the hair cells of the spiral organ, causing the cilia to bend against it when sound waves are present?
Which portion of a reflex arc is the only portion that is found entirely within the CNS?
The integration center
What is the significance of the scleral venous sinus?
It reabsorbs aqueous humor, to maintain proper pressure in the anterior cavity.
Which of the following is true of interneurons?
They often connect sensory neurons to motor neurons.
On the dermatome map, the sacral nerves generally innervate the genital, buttock, anal, and posterior lower limb regions.
The sensation of dental pain is derived from the __________ nerve.
A peripheral process is a structure found only in __________ neurons.
Neurons conduct action potentials (nerve impulses), but neuroglia do not.
Which of the following is not true of the sense of static equilibrium?
It helps a person maintain balance during angular acceleration.
The normal response(s) in the plantar reflex is/are
plantar flexion of the foot and flexion of the toes.
Which of the following represents the correct order of components in a reflex arc?
Receptor, sensory neuron, integration center, motor neuron, effector
Which of the following structures of the ear function(s) as (an) organ(s) in the sense of equilibrium?
Vestibule and semicircular ducts
Olfactory receptors cells send their action potentials through openings in the ethmoid bone, and synapse with neurons in the
Both the crista ampullaris and the macula contain otoliths.
The anterior cavity of the eyeball is much smaller than the posterior cavity.
Olfactory hairs are __________; taste hairs are __________.
Swallowing problems might indicate damage to all of the following cranial nerves except
the trigeminal nerve.
Which of the following is NOT true of the myelin sheath?
The myelin sheath forms a wrapped coating around both axons and dendrites.
Which portion of the cerebellum is the deep branching pattern of white matter?
The crista ampullaris projects into the lumen of the bony labyrinth of the semicircular canal.
Which of the following nerves are the components of the large sciatic nerve?
Tibial and common fibular nerves
In the Rinne test, when the sound of the tuning fork can no longer be heard through bone conduction, normal hearing is indicated if the sound can once again be heard through air conduction.
Alkaloids produce the __________ taste sensation.
Which of the following nerves is part of the cervical plexus?
- Musculocutaneous nerve
- Median nerve
- Femoral nerve
- Phrenic nerveCorrect
- Pudendal nerve
Which of the following is not true of otoliths?
- They cause the stereocilia to bend, which is the stimulus for sending nerve impulses to the cerebrum.
- They consist of magnesium chloride.Correct
- They add weight to the otolithic membrane as the head is tilted, which causes it to sag.
- They are embedded in the gelatinous portion of the otolithic membrane.
- All of these are true of otoliths.
Which of the following is NOT true of the cranial nerves?
They are part of the CNS.
Which portion of a neuron originates action potentials (nerve impulses), to send to other neurons, glands, or muscle cells?
Which of the following is not true of the utricle and saccule?
Their maculae both detect vertical acceleration.
In the vision and equilibrium test, it can be demonstrated that vision has very little to do with the sense of equilibrium, since unsteadiness does not increase when the eyes are closed while balancing on one foot.
The organs of static and dynamic equilibrium both contain hair cells, with stereocilia embedded in a gelatinous mass.
Which of the following is NOT true of the epidural space?
It contains cerebrospinal fluid.
A reflex arc is the simplest kind of neural pathway in the nervous system.
The inner ear houses the organs of both static and dynamic equilibrium.
The stretch receptors of the biceps reflex are located in the biceps brachii muscle and tendon.
What is Broca's area of the brain?
A motor area for the planning of speech
The tympanic cavity is a fluid-filled chamber in the middle ear.
Reflexes involving skeletal muscles are called __________ reflexes.
Which membrane separates the cochlear duct from the scala tympani, and provides a surface on which the spiral organ rests?
During accommodation, it is normal for the eyes to diverge, to obtain a thorough view of the close object.
The membranous labyrinth is the only portion of the inner ear that contains endolymph.
Which of the following nerves innervates the effectors of the patellar reflex?
Which of the following is NOT part of the diencephalon?
The anterior roots of spinal nerves house axons of
Which of the following is NOT true of sound wave frequency?
Different sound wave frequencies are perceived as different degrees of loudness.
Which type of neuron conducts nerve impulses from the central nervous system to muscles or glands?
What is found in the posterior root ganglion of a spinal nerve?
A cluster of sensory neuron cell bodies
Taste receptors for the 5 different categories of taste sensations are evenly distributed on the tongue.
Vestibular neurons transmit nerve impulses along the vestibulocochlear nerve to all of the following sites except
All of these sites are destinations for neural information from the vestibular neurons.
Sensory adaption occurs very quickly in both olfaction and gustation.
In the astigmatism test, astigmatism is present if some groups of radiating lines on the astigmatism chart appear red, while others appear black.
In the absence of olfaction, the sense of gustation is diminished.
What is the function of the basal cells of the taste buds?
They replace damaged taste cells every 7–10 days.
What do the olfactory, optic, and vestibulocochlear nerves have in common?
They are all sensory nerves.
On their way to the primary gustatory cortex, taste impulses pass through the
medulla oblongata and the thalamus.
All of the following structures in the eye are black, due to the presence of melanin pigment, except
The spinal cord is the largest and most complex portion of the nervous system.
Spinal nerves are called mixed nerves because they contain both sensory and motor nerve fibers.
Which chamber of the inner ear receives sound waves directly from the oval window?
A person with better than normal visual acuity may have a vision of
The meninges surround and protect the entire CNS and PNS.
A positive Romberg test occurs when
a person becomes unsteady while standing with feet together and eyes closed.
Vision is one of the special senses, because its receptors are found within complex sensory organs in the head.
The muscles of photopupillary reflex are innervated by the __________ nerve.
Pertaining to the nervous system, what is an effector?
A muscle or gland that receives a nerve impulse from a motor neuron
What is the function of the cervical enlargement of the spinal cord?
It contains extra gray matter to provide the necessary innervation to the upper limbs.
What is the function of the ciliary muscles?
They change the shape of the lens to accommodate near or far vision.
Neurons that have one dendrite and one axon extending from the cell body are called __________ neurons.
Which of the following is NOT true of accommodation?
It is accomplished by a reflex in the iris.
Which of the following is NOT true of the cranial meninges?
The dura mater is a single layer around the brain, just as it is around the spinal cord.
The lumbar plexus is considered to be the most complex of the nerve plexuses.
The innermost (most anterior) layer of the retina consists of
nerve fibers of the ganglion cells.
Which type of neuroglia forms the myelin sheath around some axons of the PNS (peripheral nervous system)?
All of the following are major spinal nerve plexuses except the __________ plexus.
Which portion of the brainstem is responsible for the visual and auditory reflexes?
Which portion of the lacrimal apparatus consists of 2 small pores that drain the tears off of the surface of the eye?
Which of the following is NOT true of the brachial plexus?
It contains the phrenic nerve and the ansa cervicalis.
It contains the phrenic nerve and the ansa cervicalis.
The smell and taste of foods are influenced by all of the following except
all of these influence the smell and taste of foods.
What is the function of the suspensory ligaments?
They hold the lens in position, suspended from the ciliary body.
In the blind spot demonstration, when staring at the + sign with your right eye, and moving the figure closer to your face, the dot in the figure suddenly disappears when it is focused on the
What is the function of ependymal cells?
They produce cerebrospinal fluid, and circulate it around the brain and spinal cord.
Which of the following is not true of the crista ampullaris?
Its sensory information is carried on neurons of the cochlear nerve.
All structural types of neurons contain only one axon.
Which of the following is NOT true of cones?
Cones are much more numerous than rods in the peripheral portions of the retina.
Umami taste receptors are sensitive to
aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and MSG.
A shallow groove on the surface of the brain is called a
The area in which the nerve fibers of the retina leave the eye to become the optic nerve is called the
The S-shaped tube of the ear is called the
external acoustic meatus.
The anterior ramus of each spinal nerve sends out communicating rami that connect to
a sympathetic trunk ganglion.
What type of cells are olfactory receptor cells?
The filum terminale anchors the inferior end of the spinal cord to the
Which of the following structures is NOT part of the bony labyrinth?
Stretch reflexes and withdrawal reflexes are types of autonomic reflexes.
Which of the following structures is NOT part of the external ear?
Which of the following is NOT true of the crossed extensor reflex?
It occurs in reflexes in both the upper and lower limb.
Which of the following structures secrete(s) an oily lubricant for the surface of the eye?
When a person focuses on a close object, the pupil constricts along with the normal accommodation reflex.
The cerebral cortex is the part of the brain used for conscious awareness and decision making.
Which of the following is NOT true of the Weber test?
If a person has conductive hearing impairment, the sound will be heard louder in the normal ear.
The obturator and genitofemoral nerves are part of the ___________ plexus.
Why is the optic disc sometimes called the blind spot of the eye?
There are no rods and cones there.
Sensory neurons are
mostly unipolar, but some are bipolar.
The near point of accommodation increases with age.
Which of the following is NOT true of the white matter of the spinal cord?
The ascending tracts of the white matter contain motor neurons.
All of the following cranial nerves innervate the extrinsic eye muscles except
the facial nerve.
In the Barany test, what is the expected response of the eyes to rotation in a chair when the head is tilted 90 degrees onto the shoulder?
Up and down nystagmus
Reflex arcs for stretch reflexes are polysynaptic, while those for withdrawal reflexes are monosynaptic.
The pupil is an opening in the ciliary body, which allows light to enter the eye.
Which of the dural septa separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum?
Which of the following is NOT true of colorblindness?
Protanopia involves a lack of or a decrease in sensitivity to the blue-sensitive cones.
Which of the following cranial nerves is NOT associated with eye muscle movement?
The anterior roots of the spinal nerves contain motor neurons.
As people age, the lenses of the eye thicken and lose elasticity, a condition called
The cranial nerves are basically numbered from superior to inferior.
Vestibular input to the cerebellum provides
What is the role of an inhibitory interneuron in a stretch reflex?
It is used to inhibit the antagonistic muscles from contracting at the same time as the effectors of the reflex.
The vagus nerve transmits gustatory nerve impulses from the entire tongue to the brain.
The numbers of spinal nerve pairs in the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal regions are __________ respectively.
8, 12, 5, 5, and 1
Exchange of nutrients and other substances between CNS neurons and blood vessels is accomplished by
Which of the following is NOT true of stretch and withdrawal reflexes?
They are voluntary.
Which of the following is the correct description of the pia mater?
The innermost layer of the meninges
Which of the cranial nerves has many diverse functions, such as controlling muscles of speech and swallowing, and providing sensation in the pharynx, esophagus, and thoracic and abdominal viscera?
A defect in the curvature of the cornea or lens results in a condition called
The rarest structural type of neuron is a bipolar neuron.
Which of the following is true of the subarachnoid space?
It contains cerebrospinal fluid, which cushions and nourishes the neurons of the spinal cord.
Nodes of Ranvier are found only on
In a sandstorm, which of the following muscles would protect the eyes, by closing the eyelids?
A nerve is the same structure as a neuron.
Which of the following is NOT true of farsightedness?
It is caused by the eyeball being too long.
About 7% of females are colorblind.
The inner layer of the eye consists of the pigmented and neural portions of the
retina and optic nerve.
The stretch reflex tests that you demonstrated in this lab require input from the brain in order to work properly.
The supporting cells for olfactory receptor cells are
pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells.
Nystagmus is a normal response that occurs along with
Which type of neuroglial cell has a cuboidal shape?
Which of the following is NOT true of the ventricles of the brain?
They are blood-filled chambers.
The aqueous humor occupies and flows through the anterior and posterior chambers and the pupil.
The conjunctiva is a mucous membrane that covers the entire anterior surface of the eyeball, including the cornea.
Cranial and spinal nerves are part of the central nervous system (CNS).
If a person were having trouble balancing while walking, which cranial nerve should be tested for damage?
Which of the following is NOT true of the photopupillary reflex?
All of these are true of the photopupillary reflex.
Which of the following structures refract(s) light to focus it on to the proper area of the retina?
Cornea and lens
What is the function of the pharyngotympanic tube?
To equalize the pressure on both sides of the eardrum
Which of the following is the main area of the brain that receives information from skin receptors and proprioceptors?
primary somatosensory cortex
Which of the following extrinsic eye muscles rotates the eyeball inferiorly and laterally?
When testing the biceps reflex, what is the proper area to tap with the reflex hammer?
The biceps brachii tendon in the bend of the elbow
Among the pairs of cranial nerves, 3 are sensory, 4 are mixed, and 5 are primarily motor.
Olfactory and gustatory receptors are both chemoreceptors.