A&P chpt 12 & 13

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1

The primary auditory cortex is located in the _______

temporal lobe

2

The brain stem consists of the ________.

midbrain, medulla, and pons

3

The arbor vitae refers to ________.

cerebellar white matter

4

What cells line the ventricles of the brain?

ependymal cells

5

The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the ________.

medulla

6

Which fissure separates the cerebral hemispheres?

longitudinal fissure

7

A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called a ________

sulcus

8

Which of the following generalizations does not describe the cerebral cortex?

The hemispheres are exactly equal in function

9

The central sulcus separates which lobes?

frontal from parietal

10

Which of these would you not find in the cerebral cortex?

fiber tracts

11

Ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are called ________.

gyri

12

The frontal lobe is separated from the temporal lobe by the ________

lateral sulcus

13

Broca's area ________

is considered a motor speech area

14

Which part of the cerebral cortex is involved in intellect, cognition, recall, and personality?

prefrontal cortex

15

The brain area that regulates activities that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex is the ________

reticular formation

16

The area of the cortex that is responsible for sensations of the full bladder and the feeling that your lungs will burst when you hold your breath too long is the ________.

visceral sensory area

17

The large commissure that connects the right and left sides of the brain is called the ________.

corpus callosum

18

The infundibulum connects the hypothalamus to the ________.

pituitary gland

19

The ________ includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.

diencephalon

20

The corpora quadrigemina superior colliculi are visual reflex centers, whereas the inferior colliculi are auditory reflex centers.

True

21

The left cerebral hemisphere is usually dominant.

True

22

The limbic system acts as our emotional, or affective, brain

True

23

One functional center found within the medulla oblongata is a respiratory center involved in the control of the rate and depth of breathing.

True

24

Which of the following is true of the cerebral hemispheres of the human brain?

The cerebral hemispheres account for about 83% of total brain mass.

25

Which of the following best represents the motor areas of the cortex?

Primary motor cortex; Premotor cortex; Broca's area; Frontal eye field

26

Which of the following areas of the brain is responsible for spatial discrimination?

Primary somatosensory cortex

27

Which of the following areas of the brain controls voluntary movement of the eyes?

Frontal eye field

28

Which of the following is not a function of the hypothalamus?

Secretion of the hormone melatonin

29

Which of the following regions of the brain coordinates subconscious activities and provides for the muscle coordination and agility needed for our daily living?

Cerebellum

30

Patients who have lesions involving Broca's area:

can understand language, but have difficulty speaking.

31

Which of the following meninges is composed of delicate connective tissue and is richly invested with tiny blood vessels?

Pia mater

32

Which parts of the brain constitutes the "emotional brain" known as the limbic system?

cerebral and diencephalon structures

33

Which type of white matter fiber tract connects the two cerebral hemispheres?

commissures

34

Which part of the brain is the gateway to the cerebral cortex?

thalamus

35

Which of the following best describes the hypothalamus?

visceral control center of the body

36

Which part of the brain stem houses the reflex centers for respiration and cardiovascular functioning?

medulla oblongata

37

Which part of the brain is the motor command center?

cerebellum

38

Which protective covering of the brain releases cerebrospinal fluid into the dural sinuses?

arachnoid mater

39

The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges?

arachnoid and pia

40

Which of the following would you not find in normal cerebrospinal fluid?

red blood cells

41

Which of the following is not a function of the CSF?

initiation of some nerve impulses

42

Meningitis is the most accurate term for inflammation of neurons.

False

43

The structures that are valvelike and protrude externally through the dura mater to absorb cerebrospinal fluid into venous blood are the ________.

arachnoid villi

44

Cerebrospinal fluid circulates within the ventricles of the brain and in the subarachnoid space outside the brain.

True

45

_________ forms a liquid cushion for CNS structures

Cerebrospinal fluid

46

________ results from a degeneration of dopamine-releasing neurons of the substantia nigra, and leads to symptoms such as persistent tremors at rest, forward-bent walking posture and shuffling gate.

Parkinson's disease

47

The process of linking new facts with old facts already stored in the memory bank is called ________.

consolidation

48

Which category of memory is involved when playing the piano?

procedural

49

REM sleep is associated with ________

temporary skeletal muscle inhibition except for the extrinsic eye muscles

50

Which of the following structures is probably not directly involved in memory?

medulla

51

Which statement about coma is true?

Coma is defined as total unresponsiveness to stimuli for a long period of time

52

Declarative memory ________.

is the ability to learn specific information

53

Which statement is not true?
Half of infant sleep is composed of REM sleep.
Sleep requirements decline from infancy to early adulthood, level off, then decline again in old age.
Stage 4 sleep increases in old age.
Ten-year-olds are in REM sleep about 1.5-2 hours per night.

Stage 4 sleep increases in old age.

54

Which brain waves are not normal for awake adults but are common for children?

Theta

55

NREM sleep normally exhibits four distinct stages, which appear to alternate

True

56

The terms fainting and syncope describe the same thing.

True

57

A flat EEG is a good indication of deep sleep.

False

58

Nondeclarative memories preserve the circumstances in which they are learned.

False

59

What part of the spinal cord represents the collection of nerve roots at the inferior end of the vertebral canal?

cauda equina

60

Spinocerebellar tracts ________

carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum

61

Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in ________.

the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord

62

The white matter of the spinal cord contains ________.

myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers

63

An individual who could trace a picture of a bicycle with his or her finger but could not recognize it as a bicycle is most likely to have sustained damage to the ________.

visual association area

64

The blood-brain barrier is effective against ________

metabolic waste such as urea

65

Nerves that only carry impulses away from the central nervous system (CNS) are called:

motor nerves.

66

______ are collections of neuron cell bodies associated with nerves in the PNS

Ganglia

67

Which of the following is not a main level of neural integration in the somatosensory system?

segmental

68

Which of the following is an incorrect statement regarding the occurrence of a sensation?

The stimulus energy must be converted into the energy of a graded potential
called a transduction potential.

69

Transduction refers to conversion of ________

stimulus information to nerve impulses

70

Choose the false statement about nerves

The majority of a nerve's bulk is due to axons

71

The majority of the cranial nerves attach to the:

brain stem

72

Spinal nerves are all classified as

mixed nerves

73

Which connective tissue layer directly surrounds each axon in a nerve?

endoneurium

74

Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are ________.

afferent nerves

75

After axonal injury, regeneration in peripheral nerves is guided by ________.

Schwann cells

76

The phrenic nerve serves the

diaphragm

77

In carpal tunnel syndrome the ______ is compressed

median nerve

78

Which of the following cranial nerves carries only sensory information?

olfactory

79

Which cranial nerve transmits information about our sense of equilibrium?

vestibulocochlear

80

The ________ nerve is not a branch of the trigeminal nerve.

cervical

81

The abducens nerve ________.

supplies innervation to the lateral rectus muscle of the eye

82

The trochlear nerve conveys proprioceptor impulses from the ________ to the brain

superior oblique muscle

83

Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers include all except which of the following?

olfactory

84

Problems in balance may follow trauma to which nerve?

vestibulocochlear

85

A fracture of the ethmoid bone could result in damage to which cranial nerve?

olfactory

86

The glossopharyngeal nerve is the only cranial nerve that contains sensory fibers

False

87

The second cranial nerve forms a chiasma at the base of the brain for partial crossover of neural fibers

True

88

The only cranial nerves to extend beyond the head and neck region are the vagus nerves.

True

89

The knee-jerk reflex is an example of a:

stretch reflex.

90

What type of nerve fibers are found in the ventral ramus of a spinal nerve?

both sensory and motor

91

Striking the "funny bone" is actually stimulation of (or injury to) the ________.

ulnar nerve

92

If the ventral root of a spinal nerve were cut, what would be the result in the tissue or region that nerve supplies?

a complete loss of voluntary movement

93

Dermatomes are skin segments that relate to sensory innervation regions of the spinal nerves

True

94

Irritation of the phrenic nerve may cause diaphragm spasms called hiccups

True

95

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes the brain and spinal cord.

False

96

Inborn or intristic reflexes are ________.

involuntary, yet may be modified by learned behavior

97

Which of the following is the correct simple spinal reflex arc?

receptor, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, effector

98

Which reflex is important for maintaining muscle tone?

stretch reflex

99

Which reflex is triggered when a stranger suddenly grasps your arm?

crossed-extensor reflex

100

The patellar "knee jerk" reflex is an example of a(n) ________.

stretch reflex

101

A reflex that causes muscle relaxation and lengthening in response to muscle tension is called a ________.

Golgi tendon reflex

102

In a crossed-extensor reflex, if the right arm was grabbed it would flex and the left arm would ________

extend

103

_________ are receptors that can respond to changes in pressure.

Mechanoreceptors

104

Which of the following is comprised of encapsulated nerve endings?

Muscle spindles

105

The first level of neural integration in the somatosensory system is the ______ level.

receptor

106

_______ do not exhibit the property of adaptation.

Tonic receptors

107

Which type of sensory receptor allows us to feel an insect landing on our skin?

mechanoreceptor

108

Which of the following is not an example of an exteroceptor?

baroreceptor

109

Pressure, pain, and temperature receptors in the skin are ________

exteroceptors

110

Potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by ________

nociceptors

111

Which receptors adapt most slowly?

nociceptors