A & P Review 3 Flashcards


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1

presence or absence of a space between the articulating bones

synovial cavity

2

no synovial cavity

bones held together by dense irregular connective tissue that is rich in collagen fibers

fibrous joints

3

The insertion of a muscle:

c and d

4

Which joint shows a hinge motion?

knee joint

5

A good description for a planar joint is:

flat or slightly curved articulating surfaces

6

Most skeletal muscles produce movement as a component of a _____-class lever.

third

7

Which joint could be called a saddle joint?

between trapezium and first metacarpal

8

If a joint is not used for a period of time the motion of the joint can be limited.

True

9

Synovial fluid is a somewhat viscous liquid that contains hyaluronic acid and fluid formed from blood plasma.

True

10

The contractile elements of skeletal muscle cells are sarcomeres.

True

11

Articular cartilage receives nutrients and oxygen from the _____.

synovial fluid

12

_____ is a subcutaneous layer of dense connective tissue that is wrapped around groups of skeletal muscles.

fascia

13

A motor neuron is a nerve cell that stimulates a muscle cell, causing a contraction.

True

14

Bursae are connective tissue sacs that are responsible for reducing friction during the movement of some joints.

True

15

All symphyses occur in the midline of the body.

True

16

The neurotransmitter released at a neuromuscular junction (in skeletal muscle) is _____.

acetylcholine

17

____ is a bacteria infection causing severe pain in the joints.

Lyme disease

18

The ____ is only where actin and myosin overlap.

A band

19

In skeletal muscle, the sarcoplasmic reticulum:

releases Ca2+ to trigger contraction.

20

A ___ is a stretched or partially torn muscle or muscle and tendon.

strain

21

Which of the following statements about muscle types is not true?

red muscles contain less myoglobin than white.

22

One sarcomere contains all of the following EXCEPT:

myofibrils

23

A(n) ____ is a contraction creating tension but the muscles remain the same length.

isometric

24

Which of the following joints allows the most possible movements?

ball-and-socket

25

Which joint shows a hinge motion?

knee joint

26

A ____ is fibrocartilage disk that partially or completely divide synovial joints into two compartments.

meniscus

27

Additional muscle energy is stored in ____ which transfers stored energy to ADP making ATP.

creatine phosphate

28

This protein block the myosin head from binding to actin when the muscle is at rest.

tropomyosin

29

Abduction occurs when a bone moves toward the midline.

False

30

The joint between two bodies of adjacent vertebrae is a synchondrosis.

False

31

Muscles with either parallel or fusiform arrangements of fasciculi tend to have longer fibers than do pennate muscles.

True

32

A tremor is a painful spasmodic contraction.

False

33

Ligaments at synovial joints may be extracapsular or intracapsular.

True

34

The muscle fibers that are oxidative and resistant to fatigue are the __________ fibers

Slow oxidative

35

Identify the description of the motor end plate

folded region of sarcolemma at the neuromuscular junction

36

The origin of a muscle is ____

on the immovable or fixed end of the bone.

37

Which of the following is true of myosin?

A and C

38

The ____ are the light bands and are only actin.

I bands

39

The surfaces of the bones at a gliding joint perform the movement(s) of:

side-to-side movement.

40

Compared to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle differs in that it:

has branching cells.

41

The strength of movement produced by a muscle depends upon how close to the joint it is attached. A muscle attached farther away will produce a more powerful movement than one attached nearer the joint.

Both statements are true.

42

A good description for a hinge joint is:

one articulating surface is convex and fits into the other surface which is concave

43

Skeletal muscle is affected by both acetylcholine and norepinephrine.

False

44

Cardiac muscle remains refractory until contraction ends so tetany does not occur.

True

45

All fibrous joints are synarthrotic; that is, they are immovable.

False

46

Neurotransmitters are stored in ____ within the motor neuron ending and are released into the synaptic cleft allowing them to bind receptors on the motor end plate.

synaptic vesicle

47

___ is the thin filament involved in skeletal muscle contraction.

actin

48

The _____ ligament limits hyperextension of the knee and prevents the anterior sliding of the tibia on the femur.

anterior cruciate

49

Neurotransmitters are housed within the synaptic cleft.

False

50

Interphalangeal joints are synovial joints at which flexion and extension occur.

True

51

The hinge joint, is the joint that allows for the most possible movements.

False

52

Concerning diarthroses, one may speculate that as mobility increases, decreases.

stability

53

Which of the following statements about fast-twitch (fast glycolytic fibers) muscles is true?

a poorer blood supply

54

Visceral smooth muscle

all of the above

55

The ____ is only where actin and myosin overlap.

A band

56

This protein binds calcium which causes a conformational change unblocking the myosin head binding site on actin.

troponin

57

interosseous membranes are a substantial sheet of dense irregular connective tissue that binds neighboring long bones and permits slight movement.

True

58

ATP is required for dissociation of myosin from actin during the muscle contraction.

True

59

The shoulder joint is an example of a triaxial joint.

True

60

Which of the following terms and descriptions is not correctly paired?

abduction--movement of body parts toward the midline

61

Which of the following statements about muscle types is true?

Red muscles fatigue much slower than white.

62

____ is a storage molecule which can transfer stored energy to ADP making ATP.

creatine phosphate

63

Which joint could be called a saddle joint?

between trapezium and first metacarpal

64

The specialized region of sarcolemma that is located at a neuromuscular junction is called the _____.

motor end plate

65

Calcium is released from the ___ during skeletal muscle contraction.

sarcoplasmic reticulum

66

A motor unit is defined as ____

a motor neuron and the muscle fibers connected to it.

67

Structures that are most responsible for holding bones together at a synovial joint are:

ligaments.

68

The motor neuron and the muscle fibers connected to it are referred to as ____

a motor unit.

69

Lyme disease is a bacterial infection which resembles arthritis.

True

70

Structure and shape of the articulating bones helps determine range of motion at synovial joints.

True

71

The joint between two bodies of adjacent vertebrae is a synchondrosis.

False

72

A good description for a ball-and-socket joint is:

the only synovial joint that allows triaxial movement

73

Identify the description that matches acetylcholine receptors.

proteins of motor end plate

74

A joint where adjacent bones grow together and unite is referred to as a ____

suture.

75

The shoulder joint is an example of a triaxial joint.

True

76

A union of a cone-shaped bony process in a body socket held by a periodontal ligament is a gomphosis.

True

77

___ released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum must bind troponin if muscle contraction is to occur.

calcium

78

____ joints allow for the most possible movements?

ball and socket

79

Identify the description of the motor end plate

folded region of sarcolemma at the neuromuscular junction

80

Which of the following correctly describes abduction?

movement of body parts away from the midline

81

Which of the following terms and descriptions is correctly paired?

adduction--movement of body parts toward the midline

82

_____ muscle cells do not contain sarcomeres.

Smooth

83

Neurotransmitters are housed within the synaptic cleft.

False

84

Biofeedback can control some smooth muscle contraction.

True

85

Cardiac muscle cells contain more mitochondria than do skeletal muscle cells.

True

86

____ is the time following contraction before muscle can respond again.

refractory period

87

A fibrous joint may be a:

all of the above.

88

A good description for a planar joint is:

flat or slightly curved articulating surfaces

89

A motor unit is defined as ____

a motor neuron and the muscle fibers connected to it.

90

Neurotransmitter receptors are found where on the sarcolemma?

motor end plate

91

____ are stored in synaptic vesicles within the motor neuron ending and are released into the synaptic cleft allowing them to bind receptors on the motor end plate.

neurotransmitters

92

This bacterial toxin blocks exocytosis of synaptic vesicles at the neuromuscular junction.

botox

93

Muscles with either parallel or fusiform arrangements of fasciculi tend to have longer fibers than do pennate muscles.

True

94

A motor neuron is a nerve cell that stimulates a muscle cell, causing a contraction.

True

95

If a muscle contracts and its fibers shorten, the contraction is isotonic.

True

96

___ is a painful debilitating autoimmune disorder attacks cartilage and joint linings.

rheumatoid arthritis

97

Which of the following statements about fast-twitch muscles (fast glycolytic fibers) is not true?

can not generate ATP as needed

98

Which of the following statements about slow oxidative muscles is not true?

fatigue fast

99

Which of the following statements about muscle types is not true?

none of the above (all of the answers are correct)

100

Oxygen debt is when oxygen runs out after couple of minutes of strenuous exercise, and aerobic cellular respiration kicks in.

False

101

Bending the ankle so that the foot moves downward is the movement called plantar flexion.

True

102

Which of the following statements about aging and joints is false?

Articular cartilage thickens.

103

What structure(s) of the synovial joint absorb(s) shock from external forces that are placed on it?

ALL of the above

104

The respiratory pigment responsible for the reddish brown color of skeletal muscle and oxygen storage is called ____

myoglobin

105

The endomembrane system which houses calcium within the muscle fiber is the ____

sarcoplasmic reticulum.

106

If a joint is enclosed in a tough connective tissue capsule and if it contains a joint cavity, it is classified as:

synovial.

107

Synovial fluid is a somewhat viscous liquid that contains hyaluronic acid and fluid formed from blood plasma.

True

108

There is no scientific evidence that suggests that creatine supplements actually increase muscle development.

True

109

_____ discs in cardiac muscle contain both desmosomes and gap junctions.

intercalated

110

A motor unit is a muscle fiber and the motor neuron connected to it.

True

111

A fibrous joint may be a:

all of the above.

112

The joint between the parietal and frontal bones _________ .

is classified functionally as a synarthrosis

113

A synovial membrane contains:

loose connective tissue.

114

The respiratory pigment responsible for the reddish brown color of skeletal muscle and oxygen storage is called ____

myoglobin.

115

____ is the respiratory pigment found in muscle cells which pulls in and stores oxygen for use during contraction.

myoglobin

116

Calcium is released from the ___ during skeletal muscle contraction.

sarcoplasmic reticulum