Perio midterm Flashcards


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1

Initiation of good patient self-care can result in a return to a healthy periodontium during all of the following stages of disease progression EXCEPT:

Advanced lesion

2

Which of the following is a biochemical mediator that increases vascular permeability and has the potential to initiate the tissue destruction and bone loss seen in chronic periodontitis?

Cytokines

3

Prostaglandins function to:

Initiate alveolar bone destruction in periodontal disease

4

In which phase of periodontal disease progression does RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway participate?

Advanced lesion

5

All of the following are phases of the bone remodeling cycle EXCEPT:

Initial phase

6

In which phase of periodontal disease progression are PMNs the most numerous cells at the site of the periodontal infection?

Initial lesion

7

In which phase of periodontal disease progression do the PMNs first travel through the bloodstream, exit the bloodstream, and travel through the gingival connective tissue to the gingival sulcus?

Initial lesion

8

Resolution of inflammation and return to a noninflammatory state is called:

Catabasis

9

Which of the following is a biochemical mediator that plays the most important role in the bone destruction seen in periodontitis?

RANKL

10

Osteoblasts are cells that create erosion cavities in the bone. Osteoclasts are cells that specialize in forming bone. (t/f)

Both statements are false

11

Inflammation is the body's reaction to:

injury and invasion of pathogens

12

B-lymphocytes affect microorganisms by:

Secreting antibodies that neutralize microorganisms

13

The immune system protects the body against all of the following, EXCEPT:

Basophils (protects against bacteria, toxins, and viruses)

14

The liver produces this type of acute phase protein during episodes of acute inflammation:

C-reactive proteins

15

A leukocyte travels through the bloodstream to an infection site and pushes its way between the cells lining the blood vessel. This process of exiting the blood vessel is termed:

Trans-endothelial migration

16

Pus at a site of inflammation consists of:

leukocytes that have engorged on bacteria and died

17

The complement system is part of:

The immune response

18

A leukocyte secretes a biologically active compound that attracts more immune cells to an infection site. Biologically active compounds secreted by cells that activate the body's immune system are termed:

Biochemical mediators

19

Your friend cut her finger while chopping vegetables yesterday. Today her finger is twice its normal size. What is the cause of the SWELLING?

Entry of fluid and cells into the connective tissues of the finger

20

One human mouth is home to more microorganisms than there are people on the planet Earth. Periodontal disease is a bacterial infection. (t/f)

both statements are true

21

The type of bacteria that can cause periodontal disease are referred to as:

pathogenic

22

The cell-to-cell adherence of one oral bacterium to another is termed:

Coaggregation

23

Socransky grouped microorganisms into complexes and assigned each a color. Which color signifies bacterial species that are dominant in the late stages of biofilm development?

Red

24

What is periodontitis?

A mixed infection

25

why is it is difficult to identify specific periodontal pathogens?

-Different bacteria in periodontal pockets require different culture media

-Periodontal pockets contain pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria

-Periodontal disease has episodes of active and dormant diseases

26

Periodontal pathogens can be passed from the oral cavity of one person to another by direct contact. Periodontal pathogens also can be spread by contact with inanimate objects, such as cell phones. (t/f)

The first statement is true; the second is false

27

Which of the following statements best describes bacterial blooms?

Bacterial bloom is a period in which specific bacterial species grow at rapid rates

28

Research suggests that this type of bacterial subgingival attachment is the most detrimental to the periodontal tissues:

Tissue-associated plaque biofilm

29

A biofilm is a living film that grows on a surface. Biofilms are only found in the mouth. (t/f)

The first statement is true; the second is false

30

Legionnaire's disease, which killed 29 people in 1976, was caused by:

Biofilm in the hotel's air conditioning unit

31

When examining a bacterium under a microscope, you note the following features: a double cell membrane and a red stain. Which type of bacteria are you examining?

Gram-negative bacterium

32

How do bacteria adhere during the process of coaggregation to a tooth surface?

Each bacterial strain only has a limited set of bacteria to which it can adhere

33

Which of the following statements best describes bacterial blooms?

Bacterial bloom is a period in which specific bacterial species grow at rapid rates

34

All of the following are true regarding the benefits of daily disruption of plaque biofilms, EXCEPT:

Motile bacteria are important first colonizers of the pellicle

35

What is true regarding the benefits of daily disruption of plaque biofilms?

-periodontal pathogens cannot colonize the tooth surface until the nonpathogenic bacteria attach to the pellicle

-A disrupted biofilm must start at step 1 and reform in a specific sequenced

-Each bacterial strain only has a limited set of bacteria to which it can adhere

36

What is the term for a bacterial virulence factor that is a class of proteins found in living bacterial cell membranes?

Peptide proteins

37

Free-floating periodontal pathogens can cause periodontal disease. Biofilm development always begins supragingivally (t/f)

The first statement is false; the second is true

38

If a bacterium wants to join a biofilm, it should look for which of the following conditions:

A group of bacteria attached to a tooth surface

39

A leukocyte exits the blood vessel and enters the connective tissue to travel to the site of an infection. What is the process called whereby leukocytes are attracted to an infection site?

Chemotaxis

40

Your friend is walking on the beach barefoot and cuts his foot on something sharp hidden in the sand. At home, he washes the foot and puts on an adhesive bandage over the cut. The next day the area around the cut is swollen, red, and hot. What is the cause of the REDNESS?

increased blood flow rushing to the area of the cut in his foot

41

A leukocyte secretes a biologically active compound that attracts more immune cells to an infection site. Biologically active compounds secreted by cells that activate the body's immune system are termed:

Biochemical mediators

42

In a bacterial infection of the periodontium, the cells that arrive to the infection site first (the rapid responders) are the:

polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)

43

The complement system is part of:

the immune response

44

All of the following are symptoms of inflammation EXCEPT:

bruising

45

The intensity of the immune response is the same for every person. The local immune response is the same for each affected area. (t/f)

Both statements are false

46

In which phase of periodontal disease progression does PGE2 mediate bone destruction by stimulating large numbers of osteoclasts to resorb alveolar bone?

Advanced lesion

47

Which of the following is a biochemical mediator that plays the most important role in the bone destruction seen in periodontitis?

RANKL

48

In which phase of periodontal disease progression do the increasing numbers of PMNs rush to the site of the periodontal pathogens and in doing so destroy healthy gingival connective tissue and migrate through the junctional epithelium to form a "wall of cells" between the plaque biofilm and the sulcus wall

Early lesion

49

In which phase of periodontal disease progression does the coronal-most portion of the junctional epithelium first detach from the tooth surface?

Established lesion

50

Bleeding on probing is considered a clinical indication of active periodontitis (t/f)

false

51

The absence of BOP means that the particular site is unlikely to lose attachment (t/f)

true

52

What is an important parameter for assessing the failure of an implant?

Clinical mobility

53

What does radiographic assessment indicate?

past disease activity

54

Why is the mucogingival junction an important feature in the periodontium?

demarcates the attached gingiva from the oral mucosa

55

What is the most accurate assessment of periodontal support for the tooth?

clinical attachment loss

56

In gingivitis, all of the following are histologic changes that can occur EXCEPT:

alveolar bone loss & the JE may start to detach at the coronal end

57

Furcation involvement affects the tooth in all of the following ways except:

it improves the prognosis for the tooth

58

What is the correct order for the DH process of care?

assessment, diagnosis, plan, implementation, evaluation

59

Non-keratinized, loosely attached, movable tissue that begins at the mucogingival junction is:

alveolar mucosa

60

Numerical reading of the depth of the epithelial attachment in relation to the CEJ and margin:

probing measurements

61

Recession is the distance between:

CEJ and gingival margin

62

What provides the most reliable and accurate means of assessing periodontal disease?

CAL

63

Which of the following teeth may have a bifurcated root increasing its chances of developing periodontal disease?

maxillary 1st premolar

64

Implants should be probed to assess the health of the implant. A healthy probing depth is:

3 to 4 mm

65

Gingival papilla that are enlarged and expand out of the interproximal spaces are described as:

bulbous

66

An important etiologic factor of severe gingivitis that may occur during pregnancy is:

dental plaque

67

Oral lesions (Wickham's Straie) are most often found in which of the following dermatologic diseases?

lichen planus

68

Diabetes mellitus is a group of disorders that share a common feature of:

elevated blood glucose levels

69

An appropriate tx plan includes the consideration of the wishes of the patient. (t/f)

true

70

The phase of treatment that addresses any periodontal emergency is called the:

preliminary phase

71

Increased fluid in inflamed gingival tissue (edema) can be best described as:

soft and spongy tissue

72

Which of the following is a way gingivitis can be distributed?

papillary, marginal, and diffuse

73

According to the AAP, the severity of periodontal disease is determined by:

clinical attachment loss

74

What level of CAL is considered moderate periodontal disease?

3-4 mm