When private railroad promoters asked the United States government
for subsidies to build their railroads, they gave all of the following
reasons for their request except that it was
a. too risky without government help.
b. too costly without government help
c. too costly to move people in some areas without government
d. too unprofitable in some areas without government help.
e. impossible to serve military and postal needs without government help.
During the Gilded Age, most of the railroad barons
a. rejected government assistance.
b. built their railroads with government assistance.
c. relied exclusively on Chinese labor.
d. refused to get involved in politics.
e. focused on public service.
The national government helped to finance transcontinental railroad
construction in the late nineteenth century by providing railroad
a. cash grants from new taxes.
b. land grants.
c. cash grants from higher tariffs.
d. reduced prices for iron and steel.
e. aid for construction of railroad stations.
Match each railroad company below with the correct
A. James J. Hill 1. Central Pacific
B. Cornelius Vanderbilt 2. New York Central
C. Leland Stanford 3. Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe
4. Great Northern
a. A-4, B-2, C-1
b. A-3, B-4, C-2
c. A-2, B-1, C-3
d. A-4, B-3, C-1
e. A-1, B-3, C-4
The only transcontinental railroad built without government aid was
a. New York Central.
b. Northern Pacific.
c. Union Pacific.
d. Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe.
e. Great Northern
One by-product of the development of the railroads was
a. a scattering of the U.S. population.
b. fewer big cities.
c. the movement of people to cities.
d. a reduction in immigration to the United States.
e. a loss of population in the East.
The greatest single factor helping to spur the amazing
industrialization of the
post-Civil War years was
c. the steel industry.
d. electric power.
e. the railroad network.
The United States changed to standard time zones when
a. Congress passed a law establishing this system.
b. the major rail lines decreed the division of the continent into four time zones so that they could keep schedules and avoid wrecks.
c. factories demanded standard time schedules.
d. long-distance telephones required standard time
e. all of the above.
Agreements between railroad corporations to divide the business in a
given area and share the profits were called
d. interlocking directorates.
e. holding companies.
Early railroad owners formed "pools" in order to
a. increase competition by establishing more companies.
b. water their stock.
c. divide business in a particular area and share profits.
d. choose the best workers.
e. avoid wasteful competition
Efforts to regulate the monopolizing practices of railroad
corporations first came in the form of action by
b. the Supreme Court.
c. private lawsuits.
d. President Cleveland.
e. state legislatures.
The first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public
interest from business combinations was the
a. Federal Trade Commission.
b. Interstate Commerce Commission.
c. Consumer Affairs Commission.
d. Federal Anti-Trust Commission.
e. Federal Communications Commission.
One of the most significant aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act
was that it
a. revolutionized the business system.
b. represented the first large-scale attempt by the federal government to regulate business.
c. actually did nothing to control the abuses of big business.
d. failed to prohibit some of the worst abuses of big business, such
as pools and rebates.
e. invoked the Constitution's interstate commerce clause.
After the Civil War, the plentiful supply of unskilled labor in the
a. helped to build the nation into an industrial giant.
b. was not a significant force, because industrialization required skilled workers.
c. came almost exclusively from rural America.
d. increasingly found work in agriculture.
e. was almost entirely native born.
One of the methods by which post-Civil War business leaders increased
their profits was
a. increased competition.
b. support for the idea of a centrally planned economy.
c. funding research on new technologies.
d. elimination of the tactic of vertical integration.
e. elimination of as much competition as possible.
Match each entrepreneur below with the form of business combination
with which he is historically identified.
A. Andrew Carnegie 1. interlocking directorate
B. John D. Rockefeller 2. trust
C. J. Pierpont Morgan 3. vertical integration
a. A-2, B-4, C-1
b. A-3, B-2, C-4
c. A-3, B-2, C-1
d. A-1, B-3, C-2
e. A-4, B-1, C-3
Match each entrepreneur below with the field of enterprise with which
he is historically identified.
A. Andrew Carnegie 1. steel
B. John D. Rockefeller 2. oil
C. J. Pierpont Morgan 3. tobacco
D. James Duke 4. banking
a. A-1, B-3, C-2, D-4
b. A-2, B-4, C-3, D-1
c. A-3, B-1, C-4, D-2
d. A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3
e. A-4, B-2, C-1, D-3
The steel industry owed much to the inventive genius of
a. Jay Gould.
b. Henry Bessemer.
c. John P. Altgeld.
d. Thomas Edison.
e. Henry Clay Frick.
J.P. Morgan monitored his competition by placing officers of his bank
on the boards of companies that he wanted to control. This method was
known as a(n)
a. interlocking dictorate.
c. vertical integration.
e. holding company
America's first billion-dollar corporation was
a. General Electric (GE).
b. Standard Oil.
c. American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T).
d. The Union Pacific Railroad.
e. United States Steel.
The first major product of the oil industry was
c. lighter fluid.
d. natural gas.
e. heating oil.
The oil industry became a huge business
a. with the building of electric generator plants.
b. when it was taken over by the government.
c. with the invention of the internal combustion engine.
d. when diesel engines were perfected.
e. when oil was discovered in Texas.
John D. Rockefeller used all of the following tactics to achieve
success in the oil industry except
a. employing spies.
b. extorting rebates from railroads.
c. showing mercy to his competitors.
d. pursuing a policy of rule or ruin.
e. using high-pressure sales methods.
The gospel of wealth, which associated godliness with wealth,
a. relied on the sayings of Jesus.
b. inspired the wealthy to try to help the poor.
c. stimulated efforts to help minorities.
d. was opposed by most clergymen.
e. discouraged efforts to help the poor
To help corporations, the courts ingeniously interpreted the
Fourteenth Amendment, which was designed to protect the rights of
ex-slaves, so as to
a. help freedmen to work in factories.
b. incorporate big businesses.
c. allow the captains of industry to avoid paying taxes.
d. avoid corporate regulation by the states.
e. protect the civil rights of business people.
The ___ Amendment was especially helpful to giant corporations when
defending themselves against regulation by state governments.
The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was at first primarily used to curb the
a. manufacturing corporations.
b. labor unions.
c. state legislatures.
d. railroad corporations.
e. banking syndicates
During the age of industrialization, the South
a. took full advantage of the new economic trends.
b. received preferential treatment from the railroads.
c. turned away from agriculture.
d. held to its "Old South" ideology.
e. remained overwhelmingly rural and agricultural.
The South's major attraction for potential investors was
a. readily available raw materials.
b. a warm climate.
c. good transportation.
d. cheap labor.
e. ethnic diversity.
In the late nineteenth century, tax benefits and cheap, nonunion
labor attracted manufacturing to the "new South."
c. machine tool
d. electrical appliance
e. farm equipment
Many Southerners saw employment in the textile mills as
a. high-wage positions.
c. a poor alternative to farming.
d. institutions that broke up families.
e. salvation, since the jobs and wages were steady.
One of the greatest changes that industrialization brought about in
the lives of workers was
a. their movement to the suburbs.
b. the need for them to adjust their lives to the time clock.
c. the opportunity to relearn the ideals of Thomas Jefferson.
d. the narrowing of class divisions.
e. the encounter with other races.
The group most affected by the new industrial age was
a. Native Americans.
e. small town residents
To provide workers with job security, reformers wanted to introduce
all of the following except
a. job protection.
b. wage protection.
c. establishment of a workers' political party.
d. temporary unemployment compensation.
e. safety and health codes.
The image of the "Gibson Girl" represented
a. a revival of the colonial feminine ideal.
b. a portrayal of the modern corporate business woman.
c. an exploitive image of a woman as a sex object.
d. an independent and athletic "new woman."
e. a sentimental image of a woman as mother.
Most women workers of the 1890s worked for
c. economic necessity.
d. the service sector.
e. personal spending money.
Which one of the following is least like the other three?
a. closed shop
c. yellow dog contract
e. company town
Generally, the Supreme Court in the late nineteenth century
interpreted the Constitution in such a way as to favor
a. labor unions.
c. state regulatory agencies.
d. individual entrepreneurs.
e. independent workers and craftsmen
Match each labor organization below with the correct description.
A. National Labor Union
B. Knights of Labor
C. American Federation of Labor
1. the "one big union" that championed arbitration
2. a social-reform union killed by the depression of the 1870s
3. an association of unions pursuing higher wages, shorter working hours, and better working conditions
a. A-3, B-1, C-2
b. A-3, B-2, C-1
c. A-1, B-2, C-3
d. A-1, B-3, C-2
e. A-2, B-1, C-3
In its efforts on behalf of workers, the National labor Union
a. an eight-hour day for all workers.
b. government arbitration for industrial disputes.
c. equal pay for women.
d. an eight-hour day for government workers.
e. the right to collective bargaining.
One group barred from membership in the Knights of Labor was
e. social reformers.
The Knights of Labor believed that conflict between capital and labor
would disappear when
a. the government owned the means of production.
b. labor controlled the government.
c. workers accepted the concept of craft unions.
d. business would understand the principles of social justice.
e. labor would own and operate businesses and industries.
The Knights of Labor believed that republican traditions and
could be preserved from corrupt monopolists
a. when Republicans were removed from office.
b. by strengthening the economic and political independence of the workers.
c. through the destruction of the American Federation of Labor.
d. by the development of strong craft unions.
e. by forming an independent political movement.
One of the major reasons the Knights of Labor failed was its
a. racial exclusiveness.
b. support of skilled workers.
c. failure to admit women to its ranks.
d. abandonment of the concept of independent producers.
e. lack of class consciousness.
The most effective and most enduring labor union of the post-Civil
War period was the
a. National Labor Union.
b. Knights of Labor.
c. American Federation of Labor.
d. Knights of Columbus.
e. Congress of Industrial Organizations.
By 1900, American attitudes toward labor began to change as the
public came to recognize the right of workers to bargain collectively
and strike. Nevertheless,
a. labor unions continued to decline in membership.
b. the American Federation of Labor failed to take advantage of the situation.
c. the vast majority of employers continued to fight organized labor.
d. Congress declared the AFL illegal.
e. workers began to turn to the Socialist Party.
By 1900, organized labor in America
a. had temporarily ceased to exist.
b. had enrolled nearly half of the industrial labor force.
c. was accepted by the majority of employers as a permanent part of the new industrial economy.
d. had begun to develop a positive image with the public.
e. relied heavily on the National Labor Relations Board.
Some people who found fault with the captains of industry argued that
a. were basically socialists.
b. diminished the workers' quality of life.
c. tried to take the United States back to its old values.
d. failed to develop the industrial system quickly.
e. retarded technological advances.
Historians critical of the captains of industry and capitalism
class-based protest has never been a powerful force in the United States because
a. most employers tried to treat their workers well.
b. few Europeans brought their political philosophies to the United States.
c. the captains of industry did not allow protest to take root.
d. many Americans inherited fortunes.
e. America has greater social mobility than Europe has
All of the following were important factors in post-Civil War
a. a large pool of unskilled labor.
b. an abundance of natural resources.
c. American ingenuity and inventiveness.
d. immigration restrictions.
e. a political climate favoring business.