Microbiology Chapter 27 Flashcards


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1

45) Bacteria that emit light can be used as biosensors because they

A) migrate to hazardous chemical.
B) do not emit light in the presence of a hazardous chemical.
C) degrade hazardous chemicals.
D) have FMN.
E) have the lux gene.

Answer D

2

1) In water treatment, the purpose of flocculation is to remove microbes, such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium.

False

3

1) All of the following are habitats for extremophiles EXCEPT
A) an acid mine wash.
B) the Atlantic Ocean.
C) inside rock.
D) a salt-evaporating pond.
E) 100°C water.

Answer B

4

2) Which of the following organisms is using sulfur as a source of energy?
A) Thiobacillus: H2S → S0
B) Desulfovibrio: SO42- → H2S
C) Proteus: Amino acids → H2S
D) Redwood tree: SO42- → Amino acids
E) Photosynthetic bacteria: H2S → S0

Answer A

5

3) Which of the following is NOT a symbiotic pair of organisms?
A) elk and rumen bacteria
B) orchid and mycorrhizae
C) onions and arbuscules
D) bean plant and Rhizobium
E) sulfur and Thiobacillus

Answer E

6

4) All of the following are true of mycorrhizae EXCEPT
A) they are fungi that form beneficial relationships with plants.
B) an example is the food delicacy truffles.
C) the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae are a type of ectomycorrhizae.
D) they enable plants to absorb soil nutrients.
E) ectomycorrhizae form a mantle over plant roots.

Answer C

7

5) The guano deposited by seabirds is used a source for which of the following fertilizer components?
A) phosphate
B) nitrate
C) sulfate
D) carbonate
E) potassium

Answer A

8

6) Adding untreated sewage to a freshwater lake would cause the biochemical oxygen demand to
A) increase.
B) decrease.
C) stay the same.
D) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

Answer A

9

7) In freshwater lakes and ponds, the majority of photosynthetic microbes are located in the ________ zone(s).
A) benthic
B) profundal
C) limnetic
D) littoral
E) benthic and profundal

Answer C

10

8) All of the following are used in secondary sewage treatment EXCEPT
A) trickling filters.
B) bulking and floc formation.
C) aeration.
D) anaerobic digestion.
E) activated sludge.

Answer D

11

9) 6H2S + 6CO2 --light--> 6S0 + glucose
A) takes place under aerobic conditions.
B) takes place under anaerobic conditions.
C) The amount of oxygen does not make any difference.

Answer B

12

10) Which of the following requires aerobic conditions?
A) nitrogen fixation
B) sludge digestion
C) primary sewage treatment
D) secondary sewage treatment
E) water treatment

Answer D

13

11) All of the following organisms are involved in carbon fixation EXCEPT
A) green and purple sulfur bacteria.
B) cyanobacteria.
C) lichens.
D) algae.
E) mycorrhizae.

Answer E

14

12) What stage of sewage treatment produces methane?
A) primary treatment
B) secondary treatment
C) tertiary treatment
D) sludge digestion
E) None of the stages of sewage treatment produce methane.

Answer D

15

13) NH3 → NO2-
A) takes place under aerobic conditions.
B) takes place under anaerobic conditions.
C) The amount of oxygen does not make any difference.

Answer A

16

14) Bioremediation of petroleum
A) takes place under aerobic conditions.
B) takes place under anaerobic conditions.
C) The amount of oxygen does not make any difference.

Answer A

17

15) Biochemical oxygen demand is a measure of the
A) number of bacteria present in a water sample.
B) amount of oxygen present in a water sample.
C) amount of organic matter present in a water sample.
D) amount of undissolved solid matter present in a water sample.
E) amount of nitrogen in a water sample.

Answer C

18

16) For the biogeochemical cycles of the following elements, which does NOT have an atmospheric cycle?
A) carbon
B) phosphorus
C) sulfur
D) nitrogen

Answer B

19

17) Which of the following is required for composting?
A) addition of non-biodegradable materials
B) addition of nitrogen and phosphorus sources
C) periodic turning or raking of the compost pile
D) addition of thermophilic microbes
E) constant anaerobic conditions

Answer C

20

18) Which step in Figure 27.1 represents anaerobic respiration?
A) I
B) II
C) III
D) IV
E) V

Answer B

21

19) Which term in Figure 27.1 describes step V?
A) ammonification
B) denitrification
C) dissimilation
D) nitrification
E) nitrogen fixation

Answer E

22

20) Which step in Figure 27.1 represents the following reaction: amino acid (-NH2) → NH3?
A) I
B) II
C) III
D) IV
E) V

Answer C

23

21) Nitrification is beneficial to farmers. It is represented by which step in Figure 27.1?
A) I
B) II
C) III
D) IV
E) V

Answer A

24

22) Which of the following terms describes step III in Figure 27.1?
A) ammonification
B) denitrification
C) nitrification
D) nitrogen fixation
E) assimilation

Answer A

25

23) Which of the following terms describes NO3- → NO2- → N2O → N2?
A) ammonification
B) denitrification
C) nitrification
D) nitrogen fixation
E) anaerobic respiration

Answer B

26

24) Which of the following is an assimilation process?
A) Thiobacillus: H2S → S0
B) Desulfovibrio: SO42- → H2S
C) Proteus: Amino acids → H2S
D) Redwood tree: SO42- → Amino acids
E) Photosynthetic bacteria: H2S → S0

Answer D

27

25) Which wastewater treatment process is responsible for removal of most of the BOD in sewage?
A) anaerobic sludge digestion
B) primary sewage treatment
C) secondary sewage treatment
D) tertiary sewage treatment
E) water treatment

Answer C

28

26) Which wastewater treatment process produces BOD-containing effluent used for irrigation?
A) anaerobic sludge digestion
B) primary sewage treatment
C) secondary sewage treatment
D) tertiary sewage treatment
E) water treatment

Answer C

29

27) Residual chlorine must be maintained in
A) anaerobic sludge digestion.
B) primary sewage treatment.
C) secondary sewage treatment.
D) tertiary sewage treatment.
E) water treatment.

Answer E

30

28) Sedimentation of sludge occurs in
A) anaerobic sludge digestion.
B) primary sewage treatment.
C) secondary sewage treatment.
D) tertiary sewage treatment.
E) water treatment.

Answer B

31

29) The product of which process contains the highest BOD?
A) anaerobic sludge digestion
B) primary sewage treatment
C) secondary sewage treatment
D) tertiary sewage treatment
E) water treatment

Answer B

32

30) Zoogloea form flocculent masses in
A) anaerobic sludge digestion.
B) primary sewage treatment.
C) secondary sewage treatment.
D) tertiary sewage treatment.
E) water treatment.

Answer C

33

31) Drinking water supplies are routinely tested for the presence of
A) Giardia.
B) Cryptosporidium.
C) fecal coliforms.
D) fecal viruses.
E) Vibrio.

Answer C

34

32) Aerobic respiration occurs in
A) anaerobic sludge digestion.
B) primary sewage treatment.
C) secondary sewage treatment.
D) tertiary sewage treatment.
E) water treatment.

Answer C

35

33) In the ONPG and MUG test for fecal coliforms, a sample that is positive for E. coli will be
A) positive for ONPG; fluorescent in UV light.
B) negative for ONPG; fluorescent in UV light.
C) positive for ONPG; non-fluorescent in UV light.
D) negative for ONPG; non-fluorescent in UV light.

Answer A

36

34) Filtration to remove protozoa occurs in
A) anaerobic sludge digestion.
B) primary sewage treatment.
C) secondary sewage treatment.
D) tertiary sewage treatment.
E) water treatment.

Answer E

37

35) Which of the following do NOT fix atmospheric nitrogen?
A) cyanobacteria
B) lichens
C) mycorrhizae
D) Frankia
E) Azotobacter

Answer C

38

36) Which of the following is mismatched?
A) CO2 + 4H2 → CH4 + 2H2O Methane-producing bacteria
B) Fe2+ → Fe3+ Thiobacillus ferrooxidans
C) 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 Clostridium
D) N2 + 6H+ → 2NH3 Beijerinckia
E) SO42- + 10H+ → H2S + 4H2O Desulfovibrio

Answer C

39

37) Bacteria can increase the Earth's temperature by
A) generating a great deal of heat in metabolism.
B) producing CH4, which is a greenhouse gas.
C) using the greenhouse gas CO2.
D) providing nutrients for plant growth.
E) oxidizing CH4.

Answer B

40

38) Which of the following is NOT characteristic of fecal coliforms?
A) gram-negative
B) non-spore forming
C) rod-shaped
D) lactose-fermenting
E) pathogenic

Answer E

41

39) Which one of the following processes in sewage treatment requires bacterial metabolism?
A) chlorination
B) primary treatment
C) removal of BOD
D) sedimentation
E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer C

42

40) Where are photosynthetic bacteria most likely to be found in Figure 27.2?
A) a
B) b
C) c
D) a and b
E) b and c

Answer D

43

41) Where are the benthic microbes such as Desulfovibrio and Clostridium most likely to be found in Figure 27.2?
A) a
B) b
C) c
D) a and b
E) b and c

Answer C

44

42) In the early 1900s, cities such as Philadelphia reduced the incidence of typhoid fever by
A) isolating human carriers.
B) using tertiary water treatment systems.
C) filtering municipal drinking water through sand-bed filters.
D) requiring residents to boil drinking water.
E) mass vaccination of residents.

Answer C

45

43) The release of phosphate-containing detergents into a river would
A) kill algae.
B) increase algal growth.
C) kill bacteria.
D) improve the water quality.
E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer B

46

44) Untreated sewage is released into a river. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A) The untreated sewage is a health hazard.
B) The untreated sewage increases the BOD.
C) The untreated sewage decreases the dissolved oxygen.
D) The untreated sewage kills bacteria.
E) All of the statements are true.

Answer D

47

2) Bioremediation involves the use of microbes to degrade or detoxify pollutants.

True

48

3) The water from tertiary sewage treatment can be used as drinking water.

True

49

4) The purpose of tertiary sewage treatment is to remove all of the phosphorus, nitrogen, and BOD left from secondary treatment.

True

50

5) The BOD is a measurement of the amount of bacteria present before and after the sewage treatment process.

False

51

6) The bacteriological safety of drinking water is determined by testing water samples for the presence of human pathogens.

False

52

7) The dense growth of algae in an algal bloom leads to increased oxygen levels in lakes that enhance the habitat for fish.

False

53

8) Microorganisms in deep-sea vents and caves serve as autotrophic primary producers in the absence of sunlight.

True

54

9) Nitrogen fixation by bacteria occurs only in the root nodules of leguminous plants.

False

55

10) In small communities lacking municipal sewage systems, sewage is treated in septic systems or oxidation ponds.

True