General Anatomy and Radiographic Positioning Terminology Flashcards


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1

1. In the “anatomic position,”" the palms of the hands are facing:
a. backward.
b. forward.
c. up.
d. down.

b. forward.

2

A plane passing through the body parallel with the midsagittal plane is termed:
a. coronal.
b. sagittal.
c. axial.
d. oblique

b. sagittal.

3

A plane passing vertically through the body from side to side is termed:
a. oblique.
b. sagittal.
c. coronal.
d. horizontal

c. coronal.

4

Any plane passing through the body at right angles to its longitudinal axis is termed:
a. coronal.
b. oblique.
c. sagittal.
d. horizontal.

d. horizontal.

5

All of the following are located in the thoracic cavity except:
a. trachea.
b. spleen.
c. lungs.
d. esophagus.

b. spleen.

6

All of the following are located in the abdominal cavity except:
a. kidneys.
b. stomach.
c. rectum.
d. pancreas.

c. rectum.

7

Which of the following lie in the pelvic cavity?
1. Kidneys
2. Rectum
3. Urinary bladder
a. 1 and 2
b. 1 and 3
c. 2 and 3
d. 1, 2, and 3

c. 2 and 3

8

Into how many regions is the abdomen divided?
a. Two
b. Four
c. Six
d. Nine

d. Nine

9

The lower, center region on the illustration in the figure above is termed the:
a. epigastrium.
b. lumbar.
c. inguinal.
d. hypogastrium

d. hypogastrium

10

The external landmark indicated by the arrow in the figure above is the:
a. mastoid tip.
b. vertebra prominens.
c. gonion.
d. transverse process

b. vertebra prominens.

11

T9 and T10 are located at the level of the:
a. sternal angle.
b. xiphoid process.
c. jugular notch.
d. vertebra prominens

b. xiphoid process.

12

L4 and L5 are located at the level of the:
a. costal margin.
b. superior iliac spine.
c. umbilicus.
d. superior aspect of the iliac crests.

d. superior aspect of the iliac crests.

13

S1 and S2 are located at the level of the:
a. costal margin.
b. umbilicus.
c. superior aspect of the iliac crests.
d. anterior superior iliac spines (ASISs)

d. anterior superior iliac spines (ASISs)

14

Which of the following is not one of the four types of body habitus?
a. Atrophic
b. Sthenic
c. Asthenic
d. Hypersthenic

a. Atrophic

15

Approximately what percentage of the population has a sthenic body habitus?
a. 5%
b. 10%
c. 35%
d. 50%

d. 50%

16

Which of the following body habitus is shown in the figure above?
a. Hypersthenic
b. Hyposthenic
c. Asthenic
d. Atrophic

a. Hypersthenic

17

The least-occurring body habitus is the:
a. hyposthenic.
b. hypersthenic.
c. asthenic.
d. atrophic.

b. hypersthenic.

18

The adult skeleton is composed of how many bones?
a. 185
b. 200
c. 206
d. 208

c. 206

19

Bones are composed of an outer layer of compact bony tissue called the:
a. compact bone.
b. periosteum.
c. spongy tissue.
d. medullary canal.

a. compact bone.

20

Long bones have a central cylindrical cavity called the:
a. meniscus.
b. periosteum.
c. medullary cavity.
d. spongy tissue.

c. medullary cavity.

21

How many specific types of synovial joints are there?
a. Three
b. Four
c. Five
d. Six

d. Six

22

Some synovial joints contain synovial fluid–filled sacs outside the main joint cavity called:
a. bursae.
b. menisci.
c. ligaments.
d. fibrous capsules

a. bursae.

23

How many saddle joints are there in the body?
a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. Four

a. One

24

Some synovial joints contain a thick cushioning pad of fibrocartilage called the:
a. bursae.
b. meniscus.
c. cartilage.
d. fibrous capsule.

b. meniscus.

25

Which specific type of joint allows multiaxial movement?
a. Pivot
b. Gliding
c. Ellipsoid
d. Ball and socket

d. Ball and socket

26

After birth, a separate bone begins to develop at the ends of long bones. Each end is called the:
a. diaphysis.
b. epiphysis.
c. epiphyseal line.
d. epiphyseal plate.

b. epiphysis.

27

A rounded process at an articular extremity is called a:
a. condyle.
b. malleolus.
c. tubercle.
d. styloid.

a. condyle.

28

A hole in a bone for transmission of blood vessels and nerves is called a:
a. groove.
b. foramen.
c. fissure.
d. facet.

b. foramen.

29

A small, smooth-surfaced process for articulation of bones is called a:
a. condyle.
b. coronoid.
c. facet.
d. tuberosity

c. facet.

30

A term that means the same as anterior is:
a. plantar.
b. distal.
c. dorsal.
d. ventral.

d. ventral.

31

The term that may also be used to refer to the posterior surface of the body is:
a. dorsal.
b. ventral.
c. volar.
d. plantar

a. dorsal.

32

The term that refers to parts away from the head of the body, or angling the central ray toward the feet is:
a. caudad.
b. cephalad.
c. medial.
d. proximal

a. caudad.

33

The term that refers to parts nearer the point of attachment, or origin, is:
a. distal.
b. proximal.
c. caudad.
d. cephalad

b. proximal.

34

The term used to describe the sole of the foot is:
a. ventral.
b. posterior.
c. plantar.
d. dorsal.

c. plantar.

35

A large, rounded, elevated process on a bone is called a(n):
a. malleolus.
b. epicondyle.
c. tubercle.
d. tuberosity

d. tuberosity

36

Which of the following terms are used to describe x-ray “projections”?
1. AP
2. PA axial
3. Supine
a. 1 and 2
b. 1 and 3
c. 2 and 3
d. 1, 2, and 3

a. 1 and 2

37

Which of the following terms are used to describe “body positions”?
1. Upright
2. Axial
3. Prone
a. 1 and 2
b. 1 and 3
c. 2 and 3
d. 1, 2, and 3

b. 1 and 3

38

Which of the following is an x-ray “projection”?
a. RPO
b. LAO
c. Dorsoplantar
d. Recumbent

c. Dorsoplantar

39

Which of the following is an x-ray “position”?
a. Mediolateral
b. Craniocaudal
c. Orbitoparietal
d. Trendelenburg’s

d. Trendelenburg’s

40

Which of the following is an x-ray “projection”?
a. Tangential
b. Lordotic
c. Right anterior oblique (RAO)
d. Right lateral decubitus

a. Tangential

41

Which of the following terms are used to describe x-ray “projections”?
1. AP oblique
2. Transthoracic
3. Lateromedial
a. 1 and 2
b. 1 and 3
c. 2 and 3
d. 1, 2, and 3

d. 1, 2, and 3

42

If the central ray enters the anterior body surface and exits the posterior body surface, the x-ray projection is termed:
a. PA.
b. AP.
c. lateral.
d. axiolateral.

b. AP.

43

The x-ray projection identified in the figure above is:
a. AP.
b. PA.
c. AP axial.
d. AP oblique.

c. AP axial.

44

The x-ray projection identified in the figure above is:
a. tangential.
b. PA axial oblique.
c. orbitoparietal.
d. parietoorbital.

a. tangential.

45

When there is longitudinal angulation of the central ray with the long axis of the body, the projection will always use the term:
a. oblique.
b. axial.
c. lateral.
d. decubitus

b. axial.

46

Which of the following terms are used both as an x-ray projection and a body position?
1. Axial
2. Oblique
3. Lateral
a. 1 and 2
b. 1 and 3
c. 2 and 3
d. 1, 2, and 3

c. 2 and 3

47

The term used to describe the act of placing the patient in the appropriate position for a radiographic examination is:
a. supine.
b. recumbent.
c. projection.
d. position.

d. position.

48

Which of the following terms is used to describe a patient placed “lying on the back”?
a. Supine
b. Prone
c. Lateral
d. Recumbent

a. Supine

49

The patient in the figure above is placed in which of the following positions?
a. Dorsal recumbent
b. Right lateral recumbent
c. Left lateral decubitus
d. Trendelenburg’s

b. Right lateral recumbent

50

Oblique positions are always named according to the side of the patient that is:
a. closest to the x-ray tube.
b. the source of pathology.
c. closest to the IR.
d. farthest from the IR.

c. closest to the IR.

51

The patient in the figure above is placed in which of the following positions?
a. RPO
b. LPO
c. RAO
d. LAO

d. LAO

52

The body position depicted below results in which x-ray projection?
a. PA oblique
b. AP oblique
c. Recumbent
d. Mediolateral

a. PA oblique

53

Which of the following positioning terms indicates that the patient is lying down and the central ray is horizontal?
a. Lateral
b. Decubitus
c. Recumbent
d. Mediolateral

b. Decubitus

54

The patient in the figure above is placed in which of the following positions?
a. Left lateral decubitus
b. Right lateral decubitus
c. Dorsal decubitus
d. Ventral decubitus

c. Dorsal decubitus

55

The x-ray projection shown in the figure above is:
a. AP.
b. PA.
c. right lateral.
d. right lateral decubitus.

a. AP.

56

The movement shown in the figure above is:
a. adduction.
b. abduction.
c. extension.
d. flexion.

d. flexion.

57

Movement of a part away from the central axis of the body or body part is termed:
a. adduction.
b. abduction.
c. extension.
d. flexion.

b. abduction

58

Forced or excessive extension of a limb or part is termed:
a. eversion.
b. inversion.
c. hyperextension.
d. hyperflexion.

c. hyperextension.

59

Rotation of the arm toward the midline of the body from the anatomic position is termed:
a. pronation.
b. supination.
c. lateral rotation.
d. medial rotation.

d. medial rotation.

60

If the foot is turned inward at the ankle joint, the body movement is termed:
a. inversion.
b. eversion.
c. flexion.
d. extension.

a. inversion.

61

Movement of a part toward the central axis of the body is termed:
a. abduction.
b. adduction.
c. medial rotation.
d. lateral rotation.

b. adduction.

62

Turning the forearm so that the palm of the hand is up is termed:
a. pronation.
b. supination.
c. abduction.
d. adduction.

b. supination.

63

A club-shaped process on a bone is called a:
a. coronoid.
b. trochanter.
c. tuberosity.
d. malleolus.

d. malleolus.

64

The term that refers to a part on the opposite side of the body is:
a. distal.
b. proximal.
c. ipsilateral.
d. contralateral.

d. contralateral.

65

Which of the following terms is plural?
a. Calculi
b. Labium
c. Vertebra
d. Bronchus

a. Calculi

66

Study of the bones of the body is known as:
a. physiology.
b. radiology.
c. osteology.
d. orthopedics.

c. osteology.

67

Which of the following planes divides the body into superior or inferior portions?
a. Horizontal
b. Oblique
c. Midsagittal
d. Midcoronal

a. Horizontal

68

Which plane specifically divides the body into equal right and left halves?
a. Axial
b. Transverse
c. Midcoronal
d. Midsagittal

d. Midsagittal

69

The plane that divides the body into equal posterior and anterior halves is termed:
a. horizontal.
b. longitudinal.
c. midcoronal.
d. midsagittal.

c. midcoronal.

70

The upper, center region on the illustration above is termed the:
a. umbilical.
b. epigastrium.
c. hypogastrium.
d. hypochondrium

b. epigastrium.

71

The vertebra prominens is located at the level of the:
a. L2-L3.
b. L4-L5.
c. C3-C4.
d. C7-T1

d. C7-T1

72

The jugular notch is located at the level of:
a. T2-T3.
b. T4-T5.
c. L2-L3.
d. L4-L5.

a. T2-T3.

73

For which type of body habitus will the lungs be very short and wide?
a. Sthenic
b. Asthenic
c. Hypersthenic
d. Hyposthenic

c. Hypersthenic

74

For which type of body habitus will the stomach be the lowest?
a. Sthenic
b. Asthenic
c. Hypersthenic
d. Hyposthenic

b. Asthenic

75

For which type of body habitus will the diaphragm be very high?
a. Sthenic
b. Asthenic
c. Hyposthenic
d. Hypersthenic

d. Hypersthenic

76

The longest lungs will be found in which type of body habitus?
a. Sthenic
b. Asthenic
c. Hyposthenic
d. Hypersthenic

b. Asthenic

77

The lungs will be a moderate length in which body habitus?
The lungs will be a moderate length in which body habitus?
a. Sthenic
b. Asthenic
c. Hyposthenic
d. Hypersthenic
b. Asthenic
c. Hyposthenic
d. Hypersthenic

a. Sthenic

78

The stomach is positioned the highest in which type of body habitus?
a. Sthenic
b. Asthenic
c. Hyposthenic
d. Hypersthenic

d. Hypersthenic

79

Which type of body habitus is shown in the illustration above?
a. Sthenic
b. Asthenic
c. Hyposthenic
d. Hypersthenic

b. Asthenic

80

The appendicular skeleton allows the body to move in various positions. How many bones does it contain?
a. 14
b. 80
c. 126
d. 206

c. 126

81

Bones provide which of the following?
1. Protection of internal organs
2. Production of red and white blood cells
3. Attachment for the skin and fat layers
a. 1 and 2
b. 1 and 3
c. 2 and 3
d. 1, 2, and 3

a. 1 and 2

82

The red marrow within bones produces _____ cells.
1. adipose
2. red blood
3. white blood
a. 1 and 2
b. 1 and 3
c. 2 and 3
d. 1, 2, and 3

c. 2 and 3

83

What is the name of the tough, fibrous tissue that covers all bony surfaces?
a. Endosteum
b. Periosteum
c. Compact bone
d. Spongy bone

b. Periosteum

84

The tissue lining the medullary cavity of bones is called the:
a. endosteum.
b. periosteum.
c. trabeculae.
d. compact bone.

a. endosteum.

85

The part of the bone where muscles, tendons, or ligaments are attached is called:
a. a foramina.
b. the meatus.
c. the fossa.
d. a tuberosity.

d. a tuberosity.

86

Near the center of all long bones is a specific opening in the periosteum called the:
a. foramen.
b. nutrient foramen.
c. medullary cavity.
d. epiphyseal plate.

b. nutrient foramen.

87

The area of the bone indicated on the figure above is the:
a. periosteum.
b. endosteum.
c. compact bone.
d. epiphyseal line.

d. epiphyseal line.

88

The area of the bone indicated on the figure above is the:
a. spongy bone.
b. compact bone.
c. medullary cavity.
d. medullary cavity.

c. medullary cavity.

89

The piece of cartilage that separates the end of a developing long bone from the central shaft is called the:
a. diaphysis.
b. epiphysis.
c. epiphyseal line.
d. epiphyseal plate.

d. epiphyseal plate.

90

Near the age of 21, full ossification occurs between the ends and the central shaft of long bones. The moderately visible area where
the bones join is called the:
a. epiphyseal line.
b. epiphyseal plate.
c. primary center of ossification.
d. secondary center of ossification.

a. epiphyseal line.

91

The bone shown in the illustration above is an example of a(n) _____ bone.
a. long
b. short
c. irregular
d. sesamoid

c. irregular

92

The study of joints or articulations is known as:
a. arthrology.
b. osteology.
c. radiology.
d. radiography

a. arthrology.

93

How many specific types of joints are contained within the structural classification of joints?
a. 3
b. 4
c. 6
d. 11

d. 11

94

The syndesmosis, suture, and gomphosis joints belong to which structural joint group?
a. Hinge joints
b. Fibrous joints
c. Synovial joints
d. Cartilaginous joints

b. Fibrous joints

95

Which structural joint group contains joints that are all freely movable?
a. Hinge joints
b. Fibrous joints
c. Synovial joints
d. Cartilaginous joints

c. Synovial joints

96

Which specific type of joint permits only flexion and extension?
a. Hinge
b. Gliding
c. Pivot
d. Saddle

a. Hinge

97

The small, rounded, elevated process on a bone is called a(n):
a. malleolus.
b. tubercle.
c. epicondyle.
d. protuberance.

b. tubercle.

98

A tubelike passageway running within a bone is called a:
a. fossa.
b. groove.
c. meatus.
d. foramen.

c. meatus.

99

Which of the following terms refers to the covering of an organ?
a. External
b. Internal
c. Visceral
d. Parietal

c. Visceral

100

Which of the following terms refers to the back part of a body or organ?
a. Ventral
b. Dorsal
c. Distal
d. Proximal

b. Dorsal

101

Reference toward the head of the body is termed:
a. external.
b. proximal.
c. caudad.
d. cephalad.

d. cephalad.

102

The term that refers to parts farthest from the point of attachment, point of reference, or away from the center of the body is:
a. distal.
b. proximal.
c. caudad.
d. cephalad.

a. distal.

103

A fracture that does not break through the skin is called a(n) _____ fracture.
a. open
b. closed
c. displaced
d. nondisplaced

b. closed

104

A serious fracture in which the broken bone or bones project through the skin is called a(n) _____ fracture.
a. open
b. closed
c. displaced
d. nondisplaced

a. open

105

A serious fracture in which the bones are not in anatomic alignment is called:
a. impacted.
b. compression.
c. displaced.
d. nondisplaced

c. displaced.

106

When a fractured bone retains its normal alignment, it is called:
a. greenstick.
b. compound.
c. displaced.
d. nondisplaced

d. nondisplaced

107

When a fractured bone is shattered into many pieces, it is called:
a. spiral.
b. transverse.
c. compression.
d. comminuted.

d. comminuted.

108

The body position in the illustration above is:
a. prone.
b. Fowler’s.
c. Trendelenburg’s.
d. anteroposterior.

b. Fowler’s.

109

The projection shown in the illustration above is:
a. AP.
b. PA.
c. AP axial.
d. PA axial

b. PA.

110

Movement or positioning of the hand toward the radius or ulna is termed:
a. abduction.
b. eversion.
c. supination.
d. deviation.

d. deviation.

111

Tipping or slanting a body part slightly is termed:
a. extension.
b. eversion.
c. tilting.
d. oblique

c. tilting.

112

The plane indicated in the figure above is:
a. sagittal.
b. coronal.
c. oblique.
d. horizontal.

a. sagittal.

113

The plane indicated in the figure above is:
a. sagittal.
b. coronal.
c. oblique.
d. horizontal.

c. oblique.

114

The body plane indicated in the figure above is:
a. midcoronal.
b. midsagittal.
c. horizontal.
d. transverse.

b. midsagittal.

115

The body plane indicated in the figure above is:
a. sagittal.
b. coronal.
c. midsagittal.
d. midcoronal

d. midcoronal

116

When the hand is turned toward the radial side, it is termed:
a. radial deviation.
b. ulnar deviation.
c. abduction.
d. adduction.

a. radial deviation.

117

When the hand is turned toward the ulnar side, it is termed:
a. adduction.
b. abduction.
c. ulnar deviation.
d. radial deviation.

b. abduction.

118

Sesamoid bones are found:
1. behind the knee.
2. on the posterior elbow.
3. on the palmar aspect of the thumb.
a. 1 and 2
b. 1 and 3
c. 2 and 3
d. 1, 2, and 3

c. 2 and 3

119

The portion of the abdominal cavity labeled as D above is the _____ quadrant.
a. right upper.
b. left upper.
c. left upper.
d. left lower.

d. left lower.

120

The portion of the abdominal cavity labeled as B above is the _____ quadrant.
a. right upper.
b. left upper.
c. left upper.
d. left lower.

a. right upper.

121

The portion of the abdominal cavity labeled as C above is the _____ quadrant.
a. right upper.
b. left upper.
c. left upper.
d. left lower.

b. left upper.

122

In which quadrant of the abdomen is the appendix usually located?
a. RUQ
b. RLQ
c. LUQ
d. LLQ

b. RLQ

123

The vertebra located at approximately the same level as the xiphoid process is:
a. C7-T1.
b. T1-T2.
c. T9-T10.
d. L2-L3.

c. T9-T10.

124

Which of the following might an imaging professional palpate to locate the pubic symphysis?
a. Coccyx
b. ASIS
c. Iliac crest
d. Greater trochanter

d. Greater trochanter