Herb 531 Module 6 Flashcards


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Taxonomy, mosses, ferns, algae, and seed plants
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1

_________ are being investigated for their potential to help clean up oil spills along beaches and in marine waters.
Diatoms
a. Water molds
b. Lichens
c. Fungi
d. Bread mold

c. Fungi

2

A favorite growing medium for orchid growers comes from
a. fern fronds.
b. fern "bark."
c. dried club mosses.
d. dried horsetail stems.
e. quillwort leaves.

b. fern "bark."

3

A flower that can be split vertically through its axis into two equal halves but has unequal halves if split in any other way is said to
a. be radially symmetrical.
b. have an inferior ovary.
c. have a superior ovary.
d. be bilaterally symmetrical.
e. have a half-inferior ovary.

d. be bilaterally symmetrical.

4

A peat moss can absorb water many times its weight.
true
false

true

5

A strobilus (pl. strobili) is __________.
a. an asexual reproductive structure
b. part of the gymnosperm gametophyte
c. compact, spirally-arranged group of sporophylls
d. found in liverworts
e. found in flowering plants

c. compact, spirally-arranged group of sporophylls

6

A structure in which eggs are produced in algae is called an antheridium.
true
false

false

7

A virus that attacks a bacterium is called a/an
a. vector.
b. interferon.
c. bactovirus.
d. phage.
e. aggressoparticle.

d. phage.

8

Albuminous cells of pines apparently perform the same function as
a. tracheids.
b. companion cells.
c. laticifers.
d. vessel elements.
e. parenchyma cells.

b. companion cells.

9

Algin is used primarily by medical laboratories for culturing bacteria.
You Answered
true
false

false

10

Algae and plants that become attached to other organisms without parasitizing them are termed
a. epiphytes.
b. lichens.
c. bryophytes.
d. symbionts.
e. subleechophytes.

a. epiphytes.

11

Algae populations are often commonly observed in aquatic or moist environments. They have many common names, including _______________.
a. seaweeds
b. pond scum
c. fish tank films
d. "green" swimming pools
e. All of these may be used to refer to populations of algae.

e. All of these may be used to refer to populations of algae.

12

All organisms with prokaryotic cells are assigned to Kingdom Fungi.
true
false

false

13

Ancient relatives of both club mosses and horsetails were large and treelike.
true
false

true

14

Approximately __________ of bacteria are either harmless or useful to humans.
a. 10%
b. 20%
c. 50%
d. 70%
e. 90%

e. 90%

15

As part of a lab exercise, you need assess the features of both non-seed producing and seed-producing plants. To identify a plant that has a significant adaptive benefit for seed production, which feature would you seek?
a. A protective seed coat surrounding the embryo
b. A supply of food
c. Ability to remain dormant
d. Ability to survive extreme drought
e. All of the choices are correct.

e. All of the choices are correct.

16

As you are examining a culture in lab, you note that zygotes form and rapidly increase in size before the rigid wall around the cell is present. What are you observing?
a. Diatoms
b. Golden-brown algae
c. Yellow-brown algae
d. Euglenoids

e. Chlorella

d. Euglenoids

17

As you are studying groups of fungi and fungi-like organisms, you encounter a specimen that does NOT have chitin in its cell wall.To which group does this specimen belong?
a. bread molds
b. cup fungi
c. club fungi
d. water molds
e. imperfect fungi

d. water molds

18

As you are studying various algal groups, you encounter one that has silicon dioxide as part of the cell wall. Identify this algae.
a. Dinoflagellates
b. Euglenoids
c. Diatoms
d. Desmids
e. Cryptomonads

c. Diatoms

19

As you examine a moss sporophyte, you observe a structure that has the most direct contact with the gametophyte. What is this structure?
a. operculum
b. peristome
c. foot
d. sporangium
e. seta

c. foot

20

At a station on your laboratory practical exam, the microscope is focused on cells that are diploid. Of these choices, which is the only correct identification of these cells?
a. Ulothrix holdfast
b. Chlamydomonas cells
c. Spirogyra filament cells
d. Oedogonium filament cells
e. Diatom cells

e. Diatom cells

21

At a station on your laboratory practical exam, you see a leaf with more than one vein and a leaf trace. You should identify this as a
a. compound leaf.
b. megaphyll.
c. simple leaf.
d. pinnate leaf.
e. microphyll.

b. megaphyll.

22

Bacillus thuringiensis is used to control a variety of plant-eating caterpillars (larvae).
true
false

true

23

Bacteria may be classified by
a. Gram staining.
b. shape.
c. colored pigments.
d. size.
e. Both Gram staining and shape are correct.

e. Both Gram staining and shape are correct.

24

Bacteria that are spherical in shape are
a. cocci.
b. bacilli.
c. spherilli.
d. spirilli.
e. globilli.

a. cocci.

25

Because some plant groups readily hybridize with other plant groups, which species conceptis not very useful in defining plant species?
a. Interbreeding species concepts
b. Morphological species concepts
c. Phylogenetic species concepts
d. Ecological species concepts

a. Interbreeding species concepts

26

Biologists who study fungi are known as __________.
a. phycologists
b. physiologists
c. mycologists
d. ecologists
e. microbiologists

c. mycologists

27

Bird-pollinated flowers tend to be white or dull in color.
true
false

false

28

Blue-green bacteria, as well as certain other bacteria, can fix nitrogen.
true
false

true

29

Both antheridia and archegonia are found on the same gametophyte in a species that is heterosporous.
true
false

false

30

Common names for plants (such as squirrel corn) are __________.
a. based on unique, recognizable features of the plant
b. in the local language
c. often different in different regions of the country
d. often used for different plants
e. All of the choices are correct.

e. All of the choices are correct.

31

Determine the environmental impact of the elimination of cyanobacteria.
a. Nitrogen levels would decrease.
b. Carbon dioxide levels would decrease.
c. Oxygen levels would increase.
d. Cellulose levels would increase.

a. Nitrogen levels would decrease.

32

Cycad leaves are fan-shaped and deciduous.
true
false

false

33

During a lab study of bryophytes, you note a specimen with sporophytes that have a central rod-like axis surrounded by spore mother cells above a basal meristem. Identify this organism.
a. peat moss
b. true moss
c. bog moss
d. hornwort
le. iverwort

d. hornwort

34

Each diamond-shaped segment of a liverwort thallus contains a single
a. pore.
b. pair of guard cells.
c. chloroplast.
d. starch grain.
e. hydathode.

a. pore.

35

Embryos are not produced by ferns. Ferns only produce spores.
true
false

false

36

Endosperm is the principal food-storage tissue of all seeds.
true
false

false

37

Except for vitamin C, Chlorella contains most of the vitamins needed in human nutrition, giving it the potential for becoming an important protein source in many parts of the world.
true
false

true

38

Explain how to make nutrients available to Rhizopus.
a. Provide a nutrient-rich solution that Rhizopus can absorb
b. Provide light so that Rhizopus can undergo photosynthesis
c. Provide a host organism that Rhizobus can parasitize
d. Provide protists for Rhizopus to consume

a. Provide a nutrient-rich solution that Rhizopus can absorb

39

Explain why the "leaves" of mosses are unlike the leaves of plants.
a. Most leaves lack stomata.
b. Moss leaves lack petioles.
c. Moss leaves lack mesophyll.
d. Moss leaves lack veins.
e. All of the choices are correct.

e. All of the choices are correct.

40

Fern fronds are often subdivided into pinnae.
true
false

true

41

Filamentous algae increase in length through cell division.
true
false

true

42

Flowers that are pollinated by beetles tend to
a. have yeasty, spicy, or fruity odors.
b. have foul, rotten meat odors.
c. have delicate, sweet odors.
d. be bright blue or bright yellow in color.
e. be bright red in color.

a. have yeasty, spicy, or fruity odors.

43

Fruticose lichens mostly resemble small fruits.
true
false

false

44

Giant kelp is an important resource because it is
a. renewable.
b. a source of algin.
c. capable of rapid growth.
d. All of the choices are correct.

a. renewable.

45

Herbarium is another name for a greenhouse.

true false

false

46

Hornworts reproduce asexually as a result of lobes of the thallus becoming separated.
true
false

true

47

Hydroids are specialized water conducting cells in some mosses that resemble hollow tubes; however, most water travels up the outside of the plant by capillarity.
true
false

true

48

Hyphae at the tips of which spores are produced externally (as opposed to within a sporangium) are called
a. sporangiophores.
b. conidiophores.
c. gametophores.
d. progametangia.
e. pseudophores.

b. conidiophores.

49

If seeds that develop from ovules are no longer developing, whichpart of the compound ovary must have stopped functioning?
a. carpel
b. style
c. integument
d. peduncle
e. None of the choices are correct.

a. carpel

50

If two dissimilar organisms both benefit by associating with one another, the relationship is called __________.
a. fraternization
b. conjugality
c. heterosexuality
d. parasitism
e. mutualism

e. mutualism

51

If you see a plant that you do not recognize in your garden, and you identify the plant by matching it to a photograph in a field guide, you are using the
a. morphological species concepts.
b. ecological species concepts.
c.phylogenetic species concepts.
d.nominalistic species concepts.
e. interbreeding species concepts.

a. morphological species concepts.

52

If you are examining unknown specimens and you observe that each one has a gullet, you could identify the organisms as
a. diatoms.
b. dinoflagellates.
c. Chlamydomonas.
d. euglenoids.
e. desmids.

d. euglenoids.

53

If you are teaching a botany class and you want to show your students living plants that is believed to bear the most resemblance to the first plants to produce seeds, you should show them
mosses.
a. horsetails.
b. pines.
c. quillworts.
d. ferns.

d. ferns.

54

If you must select the characteristic that makes a plant the most likely candidate to survive a terrestrial habitat without drying out, which characteristic would you seek?
a. leaf system
b. cuticle
c. stomata
d. flowering system
e. Both cuticle and stomata are correct.

e. Both cuticle and stomata are correct.

55

If you want to collect some cyanobacteria quickly, what would be the least likely location in which to find a sample?
a. A polluted pond
b. An acidic pond
c. In the fissure of a desert rock
d. On a turtle shell

b. An acidic pond

56

If you want to make the argument that members of Kingdom Plantae and Phylum Chlorophyta share an ancient common ancestor, what characters could you use to support your idea?
a. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and the carotenoids
b. Primary food reserve stored as starch
c. Cell walls primarily cellulose
d. Same means of forming the cell plate during cell division
e. All of the choices are correct.

e. All of the choices are correct.

57

Imagine that you begin to dissect a lichen thallus by cutting into the outer layer. Which layer are you cutting?
a. upper cortex
b. algal layer
c. medulla
d. lower cortex

a. upper cortex

58

Imagine you are unsure whether a viroid or a prion is present in a sample. What would immediately allow you to rule out a prion and to state that viroids are present in the sample?
a. RNA
b. Tail spikes
c. DNA
d. Protein

a. RNA

59

In Linnaeus' book, Species Plantarum, all known plants were
classified according to their evolutionary relationships.
a. arranged according to their families and orders.
b. listed by their Latin phrase names, with abbreviated names in the margins.
c. limited to three words or fewer per phrase.
d. lumped into two large classes.

b. listed by their Latin phrase names, with abbreviated names in the margins.

60

In the common rockweed Fucus,determine which structure would need to be removed to prevent the production of gametangia.
a. Oogonia
b. Antheridia
c. Receptacles
d. Spermatangia
e. Conceptacles

e. Conceptacles

61

In the life cycle of a typical conifer (e.g., a pine)
a. pollen is produced in woody cones.
b. pollen is produced in inconspicuous flowers.
c. seeds are produced in woody cones.
d. the pollen tube grows down through the style to reach the archegonium.
e. there are two integuments surrounding the embryo sac.

a. pollen is produced in woody cones.

62

In the past, all organisms were classified in two kingdoms. Who proposed a three-kingdom system in the 1860s?
a. Linnaeus
b. Hogg and Haeckel
c. H. F. Copeland
d. Theophrastus
e. Tertius Kingston

b. Hogg and Haeckel

63

In this question, assume that the life cycle of a flowering plant begins with the germination of a seed and ends with the development of a fruit. Two events that occur in the life cycle are the fusion of sperm and central cell nuclei and the fusion of egg and sperm. In what order do these events occur?
a. The fusion of sperm and central cell nuclei precedes the fusion of egg and sperm.
b. The fusion of egg and sperm precedes the fusion of sperm and central cell nuclei.
c. Both events occur more or less simultaneously.

c. Both events occur more or less simultaneously.

64

In your laboratory, you are studying a group of plants to determine how many species are present within the group. After considering different methodologies, you decide to determine species-level classification based on variations in the structure of the flowers. Which species concept are you utilizing?
a. Phylogenetic species concepts
b. Ecological species concepts
c. Eclectic species concepts
d. Nominalistic species concepts

a. Phylogenetic species concepts

65

Lichens do not fit easily into any of the classification schemes because a lichen is made up of two organisms that live together. true false

true

66

Linnaeus developed the first taxonomic key, a tool that ________________.
a. described and named all plants known to him
b. was based on the phrase name for each species
c. allowed other workers to identify plants previously unknown to them
d. allowed people to name plants unknown to Linnaeus
is still in use today

c. allowed other workers to identify plants previously unknown to them

67

Linnaeus organized all known plants into 24
a. classes.
b. families.
c. orders.
d. genera.
e. divisions.

a. classes.

68

Liverworts and hornworts are members of the
a. bryophytes.
b. Anthocerophyta.
c. Hepaticophyta.
d. Bryophyta.
e. vascular plants.

a. bryophytes.

69

Many chytrids reproduce only asexually.
true
false

true

70

Mosses are found in several different phyla.
true
false

false

71

Most gymnosperms are wind pollinated. The exception is the __________, where pollen is transferred from microsporangiate strobili to megasporangiate strobili by beetles.
a. pines
b. joint firs
c. cycads
d. juniper
e. redwood

c. cycads

72

Most species of liverworts produce a flattened body called a thallus.
true
false

false

73

Naval stores is a general term given to
a. amber.
b. dammar.
c. fence posts made of conifer wood.
d. turpentine and rosin.
e. decay-resistant wood used for building sailing ships.

d. turpentine and rosin.

74

None of the mosses have any economic importance.
true
false

false

75

Pine leaf fascicles (clusters) usually
a. remain for most of the life of the tree.
b. are angular on all sides.
c. all fall off, a few at a time, every growing season.
d. consist of four to eight leaves or needles in all except one or two species.
e. fall off within two to five years of their maturing.

e. fall off within two to five years of their maturing.

76

Pollen grains adhere to the __________ of the flower.
a. stigma
b. style
c. carpel
d. stamen
e. anther

a. stigma

77

Predict the immediate effect if the fungal component was removed from a lichen.
a. Water would not be retained.
b. Photosynthesis would not occur.
c. Minerals would not be maintained.
d. Water and minerals would not be retained.
e. All of the choices are correct.

a. Water would not be retained.

78

Predict which of these would NOT be impacted by a chemical agent that destroys cup (sac) fungi?
a. Ethyl alcohol
b. Yeasts
c. Vitamins
d. Common edible mushrooms
e. Truffles

d. Common edible mushrooms

79

Predict what would happen to a specimen of brown algae if holdfast were to become nonfunctional.
a. It would be unable to anchor to rocks on the bottom of the ocean.
b. It would be unable to absorb nutrients from the ocean bottom and conduct them to the upper portions of the thallus.
c. It would be unable to carry out the reactions of photosynthesis.
d. It would be unable to get light for photosynthesis.
e. All of the choices are correct.

a. It would be unable to anchor to rocks on the bottom of the ocean.

80

Resins have a number of uses for human activities but are of no use to the plants that produce the resins.
true
false

false

81

Slime molds are known to cause diseases in
a. watercress.
b. potatoes.
c. cabbages.
d. All of the choices are correct.

a. watercress.

82

So-called fern allies (relatives of ferns) include several phyla of plants related to ferns. Which of these are fern allies?
a. Club mosses
b. Hornworts
c. Liverworts
d. Tree ferns
e. Lichens

a. Club mosses

83

Some gymnosperms produce only a single seed in their female cones.
true
false

true

84

The algae most responsible for bioluminescence in tropical ocean waters are
a. red algae.
b. diatoms.
c. brown algae.
d. dinoflagellates.
e. euglenoids.

d. dinoflagellates.

85

The bright green prokaryotic organisms associated with sea squirts are called
a. filterable viruses.
b. prochlorobacteria.
c. green sulphur bacteria.
d. rickettsias.
e. Koch's jewels.

b. prochlorobacteria.

86

The dung-inhabiting Pilobolus fungus is __________, and can catapult sporangia up to 8 meters (26 feet) away from the from the dung pile where they are growing.
a. moisture sensitive
b. temperature sensitive
c. sensitive to grazing animals
d. light sensitive
e. dangerous

d. light sensitive

87

The fern gametophyte is typically _____________________.
a. large and long-lived
b. nonphotosynthetic and saprobic
c. attached to the sporophyte
d. small and photosynthetic
e. used in landscaping

d. small and photosynthetic

88

The floral parts are attached to an apical portion of the flowering stem called the
a. carpel.
b. receptacle.
c. stamen.
d. corolla.
e. inflorescence.

b. receptacle.

89

The form of the reproductive structure of the Basidiomycota give this phylum the common name of
a. club fungi.
b. water molds.
c. bread molds.
d. sac fungi.
e. imperfect fungi.

a. club fungi.

90

The foundation of any classification system is the species level. Which of these is accepted as a way of classifying species?
a. Species are based on structural and morphological features of the plant body.
b. Species is a population capable of interbreeding within the population, and reproductively isolated from other groups.
c. Species are based on phylogenetic history; individuals with a common evolutionary background are species.
d. Species are groups of related individuals that occupy unique ecological niches.
e. All of the choices are correct.

e. All of the choices are correct.

91

The image of a compression fossil is called an imprint.
true
false

true

92

The mature male gametophyte of an angiosperm consists of __________.
a. a photosynthetic sheet of cells called a prothallus
b. a germinated pollen grain with a vegetative nucleus and two sperm nuclei
c. a multicellular cylinder of cells living as a saprobe
d. a multicellular structure that produces sperm in an antheridium
a young pollen grain

b. a germinated pollen grain with a vegetative nucleus and two sperm nuclei

93

The plant kingdom is considered to be most closely related to the Chlorophyta, as compared to the other algae phyla.
true
false

true

94

The pores and cavities of the thalli of liverworts are filled with
a. air.
b. mucilage.
c. nitrogen-fixing blue-green bacteria.
d. food-storage cells.
e. reproductive cells.

a. air.

95

The presence of which feature would make it impossible to distinguish between Chlamydomonas cells and Ulothrix zoospores?
a. Contractile vacuoles
b. Ribbonlike chloroplasts
c. Conjugation tubes
d. Paramylon
e. A pellicle

a. Contractile vacuoles

96

The scientist who became known for his investigations of tuberculosis and anthrax, and who formulated "postulates" for indicating that a particular microorganism is the cause of a particular disease was
a. Edward Jenner.
b. Benjamin Jesty.
c. Christian Gram.
d. Robert Koch.
e. Charles Chamberland.

d. Robert Koch.

97

The singular of species is specie.
true
false

false

98

The tiny pegs on which basidiospores are produced are
a. gills.
b. sterigmata.
c. asci.
d. suspensors.
e. rhizoids.

b. sterigmata.

99

The traditional approach separates flowering plants into two classes that are based on
a. the number of cotyledons.
b. DNA sequence analysis.
c. RNA sequence analysis.
d. the presence or absence of vascularization.

a. the number of cotyledons.

100

To select the correct answer to this question, assume that the life cycle of a flowering plant begins with the germination of a seed and ends with the development of a fruit. Two events that occur in the life cycle are the division of a microspore nucleus and the formation of sculptured wall. Which event occurs first?
a. The division of a microspore nucleus precedes the formation of sculptured wall.
b. The formation of a sculptured wall precedes the division of a microspore nucleus.
c. Both events occur more or less simultaneously.

c. Both events occur more or less simultaneously.

101

To view an organism that most closely resembles ancient land plants, one should examine
a. brown algae.
b. green algae.
c. cyanobacteria.
d. bacteria.
e. bryophytes.

b. green algae.

102

To which group of algae do desmids and mermaid's wineglass belong?
a. Green algae
b. Golden-brown algae
c. Dinoflagellates
d. Brown algae
e. Red algae

a. Green algae

103

To which kingdom do viruses belong?
a. Kingdom Monera
b. Kingdom Protoctista
c. Kingdom Fungi
d. Kingdom Plantae
e. Viruses are not grouped into a kingdom.

e. Viruses are not grouped into a kingdom.

104

Uncompressed rocklike fossils in which the original cell structure has been preserved are
a. molds.
b. petrifactions.
c. casts.
d. unaltered fossils.
e. imprints.

b. petrifactions.

105

Upright hyphae that produce sporangia at their tips are known as
a. asci.
b. basidia.
c. zygospores.
d. columellae.
e. sporangiophores.

e. sporangiophores.

106

What appears more promising than bacteria for the production of interferon?
a. Viruses
b. Algal cells
c. Yeast cells
d. "Sunbean" cells
e. All of the choices are correct.

c. Yeast cells

107

What do ginkgoes and pines have in common?
a. flagellated sperm
b. broad leaves
c. soft wood
d. male and female trees
e. antheridia

c. soft wood

108

What led to changes at the kingdom and domain level of classification?
a. New tools such as microscopes that allow scientists to see more structural and morphological detail.
b. Techniques in molecular biology that allow scientists to compare genetic characteristics.
c. Discovery of different physiology and behaviors of species.
d. Changes in the way data obtained from various sources is analyzed.
d. All of the choices are correct.

d. All of the choices are correct.

109

What probably did NOT occur when a shift from aquatic to terrestrial habitats took place millions of years ago?
a. Sterile jackets of cells developed around gametangia.
b. Embryos developed within protective tissues.
c. A cuticle appeared.
d. Chlorophyll appeared.
e. All of the choices are correct.

d. Chlorophyll appeared.

110

When a slime mold spore germinates, the active cell that emerges is known as either a myxamoeba or a ________________________.
a. myxospore
b. swarm cell
c. amoebospore
d. pseudoplasmodium
e. zoospore

b. swarm cell

111

Which category includes the other 3 categories?
a. Class
b. Order
c. Family
d. Genus

a. Class

112

Which commercially important product comes from red algae?
a. Funori
b. Carrageenan
c. Oriental food
d. Agar
e. All of the choices are correct.

e. All of the choices are correct.

113

Which Is NOT a product of bacterial activity?
a. Limburger and Brie cheese
b. Buttermilk
c. Acetone
d. Tanned leather
e. Vanilla flavoring

d. Tanned leather

114

Which is NOT similar to chlorophyll of higher plants?
a. Chlorophyll b
b. Bacteriochlorophyll
c. Chlorophyll c
d. Chlorobium chlorophyll
e. Chlorophyll d

d. Chlorobium chlorophyll

115

Which of the following bacteria are NOT autotrophic?
a. Saprobic bacteria
b. Prochlorobacteria
c. Purple nonsulphur bacteria
d. Purple sulphur bacteria
e. Green sulphur bacteria

a. Saprobic bacteria

116

Which of the following economically important products come(s) from diatoms?
a. Algin
b. Agar
c. Jelly beans
d. Human food
e. Polishes and reflectorized paint

e. Polishes and reflectorized paint

117

Which of these bryophytes are in some cases edible?
a. Rock mosses
b. True mosses
c. Peat mosses
d. Liverworts
e. None of the choices are correct.

e. None of the choices are correct.

118

Which of these do sexually reproducing water molds and Oedogonium have in common?
a. Conidia
b. Coenocytic hyphae
c. Oogonia and antheridia
d. Ascocarps and basidiocarps

c. Oogonia and antheridia

119

Which of these gymnosperms have fleshy seeds?
a. Podocarps
b. California nutmeg
c. Yew
d. Ginkgo
e. All of the choices are correct.

e. All of the choices are correct.

120

Which of these is NOT a phylum of gymnosperms?
a. Pinophyta
b. Ginkgophyta
c. Polypodiophyta
d. Gnetophyta
e. Cycadophyta

c. Polypodiophyta

121

Which of these is NOT associated with conifers?
a. Hypodermis
b. Resin canals
c. Albuminous cells
d. Vessel elements and fibers
e. Soft wood

d. Vessel elements and fibers

122

Which of these is used commercially as a soil conditioner?
a. Marchantia
b. Mnium
c. Cladonia
d. Sphagnum
e. Polytrichum

d. Sphagnum

123

Which pollinators rely more on vision than on smell in seeking floral energy sources?
a. Beetles
b. Bees
c. Flies
d. Hummingbirds
e. Moths

d. Hummingbirds

124

Which statement about Koch's postulates is INCORRECT?
a. Koch's postulates are a set of rules to identify the microorganism that causes a particular disease.
b. The microorganism that supposedly causes the disease must be present in all incidences of the disease.
c. If a microorganism is isolated and purified from a diseased individual and subsequently causes disease symptoms when injected into a healthy host, there is suggestive evidence that the microorganism causes the disease.
d. Isolation of a microorganism from a diseased individual is sufficient evidence for that organism being the causative agent of the disease.
e. The final step of Koch's rules is to compare the original pure culture with the culture isolated from the experimentally injected host..

d. Isolation of a microorganism from a diseased individual is sufficient evidence for that organism being the causative agent of the disease.

125

With over 250,000 species known, the phylum __________ is the largest phylum in the plant kingdom.
a. Gnetophyta
b. Ginkgophyta
c. Coniferophyta
d. Magnoliophyta
e. Psilotophyta

d. Magnoliophyta

126

Yeasts are a source of __________
a. ingredients for explosives.
b. medicinal drugs.
c. high protein cattle feed.
d. B vitamins.
e. All of the choices are correct.

e. All of the choices are correct.

127

Your botany study group has made a goal of learning all of the native plants around campus. One of your classmates would like to focus on learning the common names of the plants. How should you respond?
a. This is the best approach because many common names are already familiar.
b. This is the best approach because learning common names is easier.
c. This is not the best approach, because the same common name can be present in multiple species.
d. This is not the best approach, because common names do not have any important information associated with them.

c. This is not the best approach, because the same common name can be present in multiple species.