Herb 531 Module 5 Flashcards


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1

__________ and __________ are molecular processes that convert genetic information into functional proteins.
a. Replication; mutation
b. Meiosis; mitosis
c. Transcription; translation
d. Semiconservative; replication
e. All of the choices are correct.

c. Transcription; translation

2

A backcross allow Gregor Mendel to identify
a. genotypes of F1 plants.
b. genotypes of plants brought in from the field.
c. genotypes of plants from the P generation.

a. genotypes of F1 plants.

3

A backcross is one in which both parents are homozygous.
true
false

false

4

A classmate in your botany class is unsure whether it is worth his time to learn the process of tissue culture. He is interested in a career in agriculture. What uses of tissue culture can you cite that would make this process of interest to him?
a. Rapidly increase the number of orchids for commercial sale
b. Culture protoplasts and propagate somatic hybrids
c. Grow plants from transgenic experiments
d. Propagate desirable somatic mutants such as navel oranges or seedless grapes
e. All of the choices are correct.

e. All of the choices are correct.

5

A mutation has occurred on a chromosome that originally had genes, each represented by a letter, in a sequence that read ABCDE. After the mutation, the sequence read ACBDE. What kind of mutation occurred?
a. Inversion
b. Translocation
c. Substitution
d. Deletion

a. Inversion

6

A reduction in the elongation of stems subject to mechanical stresses is called
a. cladorestriction.
b. xylar reduction.
c. thigmomorphogenesis.
d. internode compression.
e. skototropism.

c. thigmomorphogenesis.

7

A simple device that rotates a potted plant slowly about a horizontal axis is a __________.
a. graviscope
b. parallelostat
c. phytomotor
d. clinostat
e. None of the choices are correct.

d. clinostat

8

A single pair of genes controls red versus blue flower color in larkspurs, and red is dominant phenotype. Which of the following phenotypes should occur in the F3 generation if the parental generation was pure breeding strains for red and blue phenotypes?
a. All blue
b. All purple
c. Red and blue
d. Red, purple, and blue
e. All red

c. Red and blue

9

A step in respiration during which sugar is oxidized to pyruvic acid is called
a. phosphorylation.
b. sugar cleavage.
c. glycolysis
d. fermentation.
e. electron transport.

c. glycolysis

10

A theory that states that major evolutionary changes have taken place in spurts is referred to as
a. scientific creationism.
b. neo-Darwinism.
c. punctuated equilibrium.
d. Lamarckianism.
e. adaptive radiation.

c. punctuated equilibrium.

11

Active transport is the reverse of transpiration.
true
false

false

12

ADP molecules can become ATP molecules if a phosphate "group" is added to them.
true
false

true

13

Agents such as ultraviolet light and certain chemicals called __________ can alter DNA sequences and permanently change the genome.
a. mutagens
b. fertilization and sexual reproduction
c. chromosome addition or loss
d. mis-match of chromatids during crossing over
e. errors in replication

a. mutagens

14

As part of an experiment to test the effect of a gene, your lab group has plan how to construct a recombinant plasmid. Your lab group is looking at you to take the lead. How should you tell them to proceed?
a. Use a machine called a protein sequencer.
b. Mix large numbers of DNA segments with fragments of the desired DNA.
c. Isolate recombinant plasmids from other plasmids.
d. Join two different plasmids together with repair enzymes.
e. Produce mutant bacteria with X-radiation.

b. Mix large numbers of DNA segments with fragments of the desired DNA.

15

As the manager of a nursery, during the winter months you need to cause your active plants to become dormant. What could you use to initiate this dormancy?
a. Cytokinin
b. Ethylene
c. Abscisic acid
d. Gibberellins
e. Auxin

c. Abscisic acid

16

At present the most widely accepted theory for movement of sugars in the phloem is called the
a. pressure-flow hypothesis.
b. cohesion-tension-transpiration theory.
c. translocation theory.
d. water-potential theory.
e. imbibition-guttation hypothesis.

a. pressure-flow hypothesis.

17

At the end of Meiosis I, the total number of chromosomes in each daughter cell is ___________.
a. the same as the mother cell
b. doubled (2x the mother cell)
c. four times the number of the mother cell
d. reduced by ½ from the number of the mother cell
e. None of these

d. reduced by ½ from the number of the mother cell

18

Auxins promote the growth of the stem by

a. promoting cell division in the apical meristem.
b. promoting cell elongation.
c. promoting stomatal opening for greater photosynthesis.
d. inhibiting flowering.
e. inhibiting bud dormancy.

b. promoting cell elongation.

19

Bateson and Punnett could not adequately explain unusual genetic ratios that occurred as a result of linkage.
true
false

true

20

CAM photosynthesis occurs mostly in
a. aquatic plants.
b. arctic plants.
c. temperate forest plants.
d. tropical rain forest plants.
e. cacti and succulents.

e. cacti and succulents.

21

Chiasmata appear in
a. prophase I.
b. prophase II.
c. metaphase I.
d. metaphase II.
e. anaphase I.

a. prophase I.

22

Energy conversion in plants takes place with 100% efficiency unlike energy conversion in machines.
true
false

false

23

Evolutionary biologists, teamed up with anthropologists and medical researchers, have identified over ___________ species of plants that have been used by humans as medicines.
a. 20
b. 1,000
c. 5,000
d. 20,000
e. 250,000

d. 20,000

24

Gene banks are locations where __________.
a. national agencies maintain stocks of the most common plants grown in that country
b. plant breeders can deposit the germplasm of their new hybrids and crop varieties
c. plant breeders can borrow germplasm
d. samples of wild relatives and local populations (land races) of domesticated plants can be studied and stored for future incorporation into new breeds of crops
e. patented seeds can be stored

d. samples of wild relatives and local populations (land races) of domesticated plants can be studied and stored for future incorporation into new breeds of crops

25

Grass leaves may roll up in dry weather when certain cells lose their turgor.
true
false

true

26

If a species has diploid cells that contain 2 chromosomes, how many chromosomes would be present in a haploid cell of that species?
a. ½
b. 1
c. 2
d. 4
e. 8

b. 1

27

If auxin was unavailable commercially, what would be impacted?

a. Defoliate of forests
b. Induced fruit ripening
c. Dropping of fruit so ground harvesting can take place
d. Stimulation of the production of adventitious roots on stem and leaf cuttings
e. Stimulation of flowering

d. Stimulation of the production of adventitious roots on stem and leaf cuttings

28

If cytokinin is not present, the most significant impact of this loss would be on ___________.
a. cell division.
b. stomatal opening.
c. cell elongation.
d. flowering.
e. dormancy.

a. cell division.

29

If imbibition was inhibited, what would not occur?
a. Wilting of plants on sunny days
b. Breaking open of the seed coat of germinating seeds
c. Osmosis
d. Changes in turgor pressure in cells

b. Breaking open of the seed coat of germinating seeds

30

If the concentration of solutes outside of a plant cell is greater than the concentration on the inside, water will
a. move into the cell.
b. move in both directions equally.
c. move against a concentration gradient.
d. move out of the cell.
e. None of the choices are correct.

d. move out of the cell.

31

If the pollen of one species of orchid will not fit into the stigma of another species of orchid, the species are kept separate by a/an __________ isolating mechanism.
a. mechanical
b. geographic
c. ecological
d. behavioral

a. mechanical

32

If you need to produce somatic hybrids, you could form them by combining
a. egg and sperm nuclei.
b. egg and polar nuclei.
c. 2 parenchyma cells from different plants.
d. 2 parenchyma cells from the same plant.
e. None of the choices are correct.

c. 2 parenchyma cells from different plants.

33

If you want to improve an existing variety of a crop plant, what would you NOT do?
a. Use a mutant form
b. Promote hybridization
c. Use polyploids
d. Prune the plants
e. Subject the plants to tissue culture

d. Prune the plants

34

In a certain species of plant in which red flowers and hairy leaves are the dominant forms of genes carried on separate pairs of chromosomes, and yellow flowers and smooth leaves are their recessive counterparts, assume a cross has been made between a plant that is homozygous for red flowers and hairy leaves and a plant that is homozygous for yellow flowers and smooth leaves. If the F 2 generation involves thousands of individual plants that are carefully counted, and four different phenotypes in a ratio other than 9:3:3:1 are noted, which of the following would be suspected?
a. Absence of dominance
b. Linkage
c. Leakage of color
d. No crossing-over had occurred
e. Genes were not involved in the cross

b. Linkage

35

In a cross between a long and a globe-shaped radish, the F 1 generation consisted of 247 oval-shaped radishes. The F 2 generation consisted of 62 long radishes, 127 oval radishes, and 59 globe-shaped radishes. Which of the following pertaining to this cross is true?
a. Long is dominant.
b. Oval is dominant.
c. Globe-shaped is dominant.
d. Oval is recessive.
e. None of the shapes are recessive.

e. None of the shapes are recessive.

36

In a variety of cornflowers in which blue flowers and dwarf plants are the dominant forms of genes carried on separate pairs of chromosomes, and white flowers and tall plants are their recessive counterparts, assume a cross has been made between a homozygous blue, dwarf plant and a homozygous white, tall plant. Which of the following would be represented in the F 1 generation?
a. BBDD
b. BBdd
c. bbDD
d. BbDd
e. BbDD

d. BbDd

37

In garden peas, the production of anthocyanin—the pigment responsible for blue flowers—is activated by one specific protein. The allele that can successfully produce this protein ( A) is dominant to the allele that cannot ( a). Thus, blue-flowered plants could have which genotype? Select all that apply.
a. AA
b. Aa
c. aa

a. AA
b. Aa

38

In meiosis
a. the four (4) cells produced are identical to one another in all respects.
b. cells produced by meiosis always function as gametes.
c. the process doubles the chromosome number of the plant.
d. only the first division resembles mitosis.
e. the process allows for a contribution of genes from both parents.

e. the process allows for a contribution of genes from both parents.

39

In the field of evolutionary medicine, researchers apply the process of natural selection to understand, and eventually prevent, the evolution __________.
a. of pathogenic bacteria resistant to all known antibiotics
b. and development of new antibiotics
c. of sterile techniques in medical labs
d. of non-pathogenic bacteria
e. None of the choices is correct.

a. of pathogenic bacteria resistant to all known antibiotics

40

In the life cycle of sexually reproducing plants, the diploid body is commonly referred to as the
a. gametophyte.
b. egg or sperm.
c. meiocyte.
d. syngamy.
e. sporophyte.

e. sporophyte.

41

In which situation will the rate of transpiration increase, assuming that no other variable changes?
a. An increase in the relative humidity
b. The plant is under water stress
c. The sun has just gone below the horizon (dusk)
d. The stomata are recessed below the surface of the leaf (stomatal crypts)
e. The air temperature increases

e. The air temperature increases

42

Lamarck is best known for his theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics.
true
false

true

43

Many studies leading to our present knowledge of translocation of food in plants utilized radioactive tracers and
a. cane sugar (sucrose).
b. aphids.
c. osmometers.
d. fungi.
e. algae.

b. aphids.

44

Most modern crops are grown from __________ seeds, which are produced by cross-breeding inbred lines.
a. hybrid
b. open pollinated
c. asexual
d. artificial
e heirloom

a. hybrid

45

Mutations can be induced by chemicals.
true
false

true

46

One aspect of Darwin's theory was that living organisms are unchanging, appearing today exactly as their ancestors have always appeared.
true
false

false

47

Organic evolution
a. is a change in an individual over its lifetime.
b. describes the changes that a culture undergoes over time.
c. describes the variation observed in a population of individuals during one time frame.
d. is a term synonymous with epigenetics.
e. is the accumulation of genetic changes in a population of living organisms over many generations.

e. is the accumulation of genetic changes in a population of living organisms over many generations.

48

Osmotic potential is the amount of pressure needed to make water rise in a narrow tube.
true
false

false

49

Outcrossing involves repeated self-pollination.
true
false

false

50

Photosynthesis can be defined as the conversion of light energy to biochemical energy.
true
false

true

51

Polyploidy is when flowering plants have more than two sets of chromosomes. true false

true

52

Predict the consequences of the emigration of a new plant species into an existing community.
a. Some alleles will increase in proportion in the existing community.
b. Some alleles will be lost from the existing community.
c. The genetic make up of the existing community will not change.
d.Any of the answers could be correct; it is impossible to answer this question without more information.

d.Any of the answers could be correct; it is impossible to answer this question without more information.

53

Predict what could affect plasmolysis.
a. Water potential
b. Vacuole
c. Plasma membrane
d. Protoplasm
e. All of the choices are correct.

e. All of the choices are correct.

54

Predict what would happen to the rate of photosynthesis if green light is not available.
a. The rate would be unaffected.
b. The rate would fall to zero.
c. The rate would be halved.
d. The rate would be doubled.

a. The rate would be unaffected.

55

Regarding plant movements, which of these statements is correct?
a. Turgor movements were the basis for Linnaeus' garden clock.
b. Nastic movements are a type of turgor movement in flat organs.
c. In plants or plant parts that show turgor movements, the entire plant moves.
d. In a pulvinus, water slowly moves out of the xylem into the surrounding area, causing movement.
e. A phototropism is a form of turgor movement.

a. Turgor movements were the basis for Linnaeus' garden clock.

56

Relatively uniform loss of color in leaves, occurring first on the older ones, is usually a sign of deficiency of
a. potassium.
b. iron.
c. nitrogen.
d. magnesium.
e. boron.

c. nitrogen.

57

Resins, gums, oils, and other substances may be manufactured during the process of assimilation.

true false

true

58

Since Mendel's time, types of inheritance that don't follow Mendel's rules have been discovered. Which of the following situations is NOT an exception to Mendel's rules?
a. A phenotype in the offspring is intermediate between the two parental phenotypes.
b. Phenotypes of the offspring show range of phenotypes rather that two distinct phenotypes.
c. When doing a dihybrid cross between two heterozygous F1 offspring, the ratio obtained is statistically different from the Mendelian ratio.
d. When an individual with a heterozygous phenotype for a trait is crossed with an individual with a homozygous recessive phenotype, the ratio of phenotypes of the offspring is 1:1.
e. Two or more gene pairs are involved in producing the phenotypes of a given trait.

d. When an individual with a heterozygous phenotype for a trait is crossed with an individual with a homozygous recessive phenotype, the ratio of phenotypes of the offspring is 1:1.

59

Six plant species provide 80% of the calories consumed by humans worldwide.
true
false

true

60

Tension in the leaf xylem is due to the adhesive and cohesive properties of water as well as transpiration.
true
false

true

61

The applications of certain gibberellins to a lawn can cause it to turn green earlier in the spring.
true
false

true

62

The cells of a sporophyte are diploid.
true
false

true

63

The citric acid cycle _________________.
a. may occur in cells where photosynthesis is also taking place
b. takes place as a part of the light independent reactions of photosynthesis
c. consists of a breakdown of glucose to a simpler compound
d. is the final step of the respiration process
e. takes place primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum

a. may occur in cells where photosynthesis is also taking place

64

The citric acid cycle takes place in the ___________________.
a. dictyosome
b. chloroplast
c. nucleus
d. cytoplasm
e. mitochondria

e. mitochondria

65

The current distribution of eastern and western species of redbud (Cercis sp.) is an example of ________.
a. a pre-zygotic barrier leading to reproductive isolation
b. a post-zygotic barrier
c. the impact of mutations
d. sympatric distribution
e. ecological isolation

a. a pre-zygotic barrier leading to reproductive isolation

66

The direction of movement of food molecules in plants is __________.
a. only from the top of the plant to the root system
b. from the roots to the shoot system
c. from sink to source
d. from source to sink
e. None of these answers are correct.

d. from the source to the sink

67

The energy "currency" of the cell is
a. NAD + .
b. water.
c. FADH 2.
d. ATP.
e. glucose.

d. ATP.

68

The energy released from a glucose molecule during fermentation is only a fraction of the energy released during aerobic respiration.
true
false

true

69

The pigment phytochrome has only one role in plant development; that role is involvement in plant photoperiodism.
true
false

false

70

The primary force that enables water to move to the top of very tall trees is root pressure.
true
false

false

71

The terms quiescence and dormancy both indicate that the embryo of a seed does not grow even if the conditions for growth are favorable.
true
false

false

72

Transgenic plants that produce biodegradable polymers can reduce the use of nonrenewable plastics.
true
false

true

73

Two chromosomes that are morphologically similar, but potentially carry different versions of each gene, are referred to as ______________.
a. chromatids
b. centromeres
c. homologues
d. spindle fiber elements
e. gene pairs

c. homologues

74

Two common types of transgenic plants widely grown in North America have genes for __________ and/or __________ incorporated in their genome.
a. frost resistance; potato blight resistance
b. insect resistance; wheat rust resistance
c. herbicide resistance; insect resistance
d. antifreeze genes; seedless fruit production
e. No transgenic plants are grown in North America.

c. herbicide resistance; insect resistance

75

What leads to senescence?
a. The breakdown of cell parts
b. Excessive photosynthesis
c. Previous dormancy
d. The germination of a seed

a. The breakdown of cell parts

76

What plant movement is due solely to an external stimulus?

a. Helical (spiraling) movement
b. Nodding movement
c. Twining movement
d. Gravitropism
e. None of the choices are correct.

d. Gravitropism

77

When a stock has a considerably greater diameter than that of a scion, cleft grafting is the most commonly employed grafting method.
true
false

true

78

Which of the following is an effect of light on auxin?
a. It develops into a more complex substance.
b. It disintegrates completely.
c. It migrates away from the light against a diffusion gradient.
d. It is increased in quantity.
e. It produces a stronger response.

c. It migrates away from the light against a diffusion gradient.

79

Which of the following is NOT known for the pioneer experiments and theories that led to the development of the science of genetics?
a. Linnaeus
b. Correns
c. Mendel
d. de Vries
e. Morgan

a. Linnaeus

80

Which of the following statements is a CORRECT comparison between photosynthesis and respiration?
a. Photosynthesis occurs only in plants whereas respiration occurs only in animals—not plants.
b. Photosynthesis is a metabolic pathway of many reactions whereas respiration occurs in a single step.
c. In plants, photosynthesis occurs only during the light whereas respiration occurs only during the dark.
d. Photosynthesis is an energy storing process whereas respiration is an energy releasing process.
e. Photosynthesis uses a metabolic pathway to make sugars whereas respiration uses the same metabolic pathway to breakdown sugars.

d. Photosynthesis is an energy storing process whereas respiration is an energy releasing process.

81

Which of the following statements pertaining to sexual reproduction is true?
a. The first cell of a sporophyte generation is normally a gamete.
b. The change from a gametophyte generation to a sporophyte generation occurs immediately after meiosis.
c. The offspring are nearly always identical with the parents.
d. The first cell of a gametophyte generation is normally a spore.
e. Asexual cells fuse in pairs.

d. The first cell of a gametophyte generation is normally a spore.

82

Which of these describes the function of DNA in a cell?
a. Storage of genetic information
b. Copying genetic information for each turn of the cell cycle
c. Control of the activities of the cell through gene expression
d. Mutations or changes in the genetic information content
e. All of the choices are correct.

e. All of the choices are correct.

83

Which wavelength of light has the highest energy?
a. 400nm
b. 500nm
c. 600nm
d. 700nm

a. 400nm

84

Your classmate has indicated that she wants to experiment with growing tomatoes hydroponically. She is planning to grow the plants in water. What could you suggest to increase her chances of success with the hydroponic method?
a. Grow the tomatoes in a lake orstream
b. Grow the tomatoes in soil that is watered daily with distilled water
c. Grow the tomatoes ina nutrient solution containing all the essential elements
d. Grow the tomatoes in soil that is watered daily with a macronutrient solution
e. Grow the tomatoes in soil that iswatered with only micronutrients

c. Grow the tomatoes ina nutrient solution containing all the essential elements

85

Your lab partner is upset because she loves nasturtium flowers, but she cannot get her dormant nasturtium seeds to germinate. As you examine the seeds, you note a very thick seed coat on the seeds. What might you suggest to her to improve germination?
a. File the seed coat to allow water to enter.
b. Apply a granular fertilizer to the seeds.
c. Put the seeds in the freezer before planting them.
d. Try another source for seeds; this batch must be nonviable

a. File the seed coat to allow water to enter.