Herb 531 Module 4 Flashcards


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1

A cell type that has thin primary cell walls, a large vacuole, and is living at maturity is a
a. sclereid.
b. parenchyma cell.
c. tracheid.
d. fiber.
e. vessel.

b. parenchyma cell.

2

A cluster of leaflets attached to the end of the petiole would be characteristic of a
a. pinnately compound leaf.
b. palmately compound leaf.
c. twice pinnately compound leaf.
d. whorled leaf.
e. simple leaf.

b. palmately compound leaf.

3

A colloid is a mixture of water and particles that are smaller than average molecules in size.
true
false

false

4

A leaf arrangement in which there are three or more leaves at a node is called
a. alternate.
b. opposite.
c. palmate.
d. whorled.
e. pinnate.

d. whorled.

5

A plasma membrane consists primarily of carbohydrate molecules.
true
false

false

6

A researcher has documented the presence of a mutation that decreases the amount of woody tissue in a plant. She asks your advice as a botanist to narrow down which tissue is affected by this mutation. You should answer that woody tissue is produced by the __________.
a. cork cambium
b. vascular cambium
c. procambium
d. apical meristems
e. callus tissue

b. vascular cambium

7

A solution that is slightly alkaline would have a pH in the range of
a. 8.5.
b. 7.5.
c. 7.0.
d. 6.5.
e. 2.0.

b. 7.5.

8

A wood's capacity to withstand decay organisms is referred to as its
a. density.
b. specific gravity.
c. durability.
d. seasoning capacity.
e. charcoal capacity.

c. durability.

9

Actively dividing cells can be found in
a. meristems.
b. xylem tissue.
c. epidermal tissue.
d. center of stems.
e. phloem tissue.

a. meristems.

10

All hormones and enzymes are lipids.
true
false

false

11

Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments found in vacuoles.
true
false

true

12

As part of a botany lab practical, you must quickly identify which cross section comes from the leaf of an aquatic plant. What is a distinctive feature of such a leaf?
a. Less xylem.
b. More phloem.
c. Distinct palisade mesophyll.
d. Distinct spongy mesophyll.

a. Less xylem.

13

As part of the laboratory practical exam in your botany class, you must point to the axillary buds. Where should you indicate these buds occur?
a. At angles between the petioles and the stem.
b. Along internodes.
c. At tips of stems.
d. On terminal buds.
e. On roots.

a. At angles between the petioles and the stem.

14

As part of your laboratory report, you must locate the stomata of a plant so you can include them on the sketch of the plant tissue that you are completing. The laboratory period is nearly over so you have to work quickly. Where should you look for the stomata?
a. Spongy mesophyll
b. Palisade mesophyll
c. Vascular bundles
d. Epidermis
e. Phloem parenchyma

d. Epidermis

15

As woody stems age, lenticels develop directly beneath the
outer xylem.
a. stomata.
b. axillary buds.
c. terminal buds.
d. outer phloem.

a. stomata.

16

As you work in your botany lab, your classmate states that he cannot understand why there are so many types of leaves. What can you tell him to help him to understand?

a. Leaf varieties increase with the number of available ecological niches.
b. Leaf shape is a random occurrence with many possible outcomes.
c. Leaf shape is entirely due to the different alleles in the plant population.

a. Leaf varieties increase with the number of available ecological niches.

17

Based on the structures of tracheids and vessels, you would expect water transport to be faster in tracheids than in vessels.

The vessel elements of xylem have adjacent companion cells that aid in the conduction of water.

true
false

false

18

Cell structures that apparently function in controlling the addition of cellulose to the cell wall, in steering vesicles from Golgi bodies to the cell wall, and in aiding movement within the cell are
a. Thylakoids.
b. Ribosomes.
c. Mitochondria.
d. Microtubules.
e. Lysosomes.

d. Microtubules.

19

Cells of the root cap ease the growth of young roots through the soil by __________.
a. secreting slippery lipids like waxes
b. producing oils
c. producing a mucilaginous lubricant
d. forcing a passage between soil particles
e. none of the above

c. producing a mucilaginous lubricant

20

Cells produced by the vascular cambium do NOT include
a. tracheids.
b. vessel elements.
c. phelloderm.
d. sieve-tube elements.
e. companion cells.

c. phelloderm.

21

Classes of proteins called __________ function as organic catalysts for chemical reactions in cells.
a. peptides
b. enzymes
c. thermal agents
d. disaccharides
e. hormones

b. enzymes

22

Chlorenchyma tissue is composed primarily of collenchyma cells.
true
false

false

23

Chromosomes shorten and thicken during this stage of the cell cycle.
a. Metaphase.
b. Anaphase.
c. Prophase.
d. Telophase.
e. Cytokinesis.

c. Prophase.

24

Cone-shaped stems surrounded by many scale like leaves that are modified for food storage are
a. bulbs.
b. corms.
c. tubers.
d. rhizomes.
e. stolons.

a. bulbs.

25

Corms and bulbs differ in that corms have fleshy leaves whereas bulbs do not.
true
false

false

26

Few, if any, drugs are obtained from leaves.
true
false

false

27

Following chromosome duplication, the 2 chromatids are held together at the
a. centrosome.
b. centromere.
c. telomere.
d. kinetochore.
e. centriole.

b. centromere.

28

Golgi bodies (dictyosomes) appear as branches of chloroplasts in the cell.
true
false

false

29

Grass leaves normally roll up if conditions are dry. In one plot, the leaves do not roll up even under the most arid conditions. The lack of ability to roll up can be traced to a malfunction in the
a. pulvinar cells.
b. collenchyma cells.
c. bulliform cells.
d. aerenchyma cells.
e. aridophile cells.

c. bulliform cells.

30

Horizontal stems that produce roots and shoots are
a. cladophylls.
b. stolons.
c. tubers.
d. bulbs.
e. corms.

b. stolons.

31

How do lateral roots differ from root hairs?
a. Lateral roots have a root cap; root hairs do not.
b. Lateral roots are formed of many cells; root hairs are a single cell.
c. Lateral roots form from the pericycle; root hairs develop in region of maturation.
d. Lateral roots may live for many months; root hairs live for a few days.
e. All of the above are true.

e. All of the above are true.

32

If gas exchange in a plant’s stem is taking place via lenticels, what is the stem’s outermost layer of cells called?
a. Cuticle.
b. Epidermis.
c. Lumen.
d. Periderm.

d. Periderm.

33

If nutrients cannot be conducted laterally in a stem, the __________ must be affected.
a. resin canals
b. laticifers
c. tyloses
d. lenticels
e. rays

e. rays

34

If the procambium becomes inactive, the most immediate effect would be the lack of production of
a. secondary xylem and phloem.
b. cortex.
c. pith.
d. epidermis.
e. primary xylem and phloem.

e. primary xylem and phloem.

35

If the radicle could no longer give rise to a new root system, which system could not be produced?
a. Adventitious.
b. Climbing.
c. Stem cutting.
d. Fibrous.
e. Taproot.

e. Taproot.

36

In addition to anchoring a plant, roots usually function directly in __________.
a. photosynthesis
b. production of new leaves
c. production of bud scales
d. absorption of minerals in solution

d. absorption of minerals in solution

37

In completing a survey of plant tissue types, you need to locate an intercalary meristem. Where should you look?
a. Apical regions.
b. Base of grass leaves.
c. Tips of leaves.
d. Tips of roots.
e. Shoot tips.

b. Base of grass leaves.

38

In lab, you need to quickly teach your assistants to differentiate between plant and animal cells. Which structure would not allow plant and animal cells to be differentiated?
a. Plasmodesmata.
b. Cell wall.
c. Centrioles.
d. Plastids.
e. Cell membrane.

e. Cell membrane.

39

In mature monocot and dicot seeds, the food-storing tissue is the endosperm.
true
false

false

40

In photosynthesis, light energy is converted into chemical energy plus heat energy. According to the first law of thermodynamics,
a. the amount light energy is greater than the amount of chemical energy and heat energy combined.
b. the amount of energy in heat plus chemical energy is greater than the amount of energy in light.
c. the amount of light energy is equal to the amount of chemical energy and heat energy combined.
d. the amount of light energy is equal to the amount of chemical energy, since both are forms of potential energy.

c. the amount of light energy is equal to the amount of chemical energy and heat energy combined.

41

In spring, as an avid gardener, you have planted a variety of plants in your garden. As spring progresses, the girth of your plants increases. As a student of botany, you can explain the increase in girth through activity in the __________.
a. vascular cambium.
b. secondary phloem.
c. periderm.
d. parenchyma.
e. collenchyma.

a. vascular cambium.

42

In traversing the root to the central xylem vessels, the last living tissue that water passes through before entering the xylem is the
a. endodermis.
b. pericycle.
c. cortex.
d. phloem.
e. epidermis.

b. pericycle.

43

In which phase of the cell cycle does replication (duplication) of the DNA take place?
a. Interphase.
b. Prophase.
c. Metaphase.
d. Anaphase.
e. Telophase.

a. Interphase.

44

In your biology open lab time, one of your classmates is trying to identify cells on a slide that has lost its label. He is sure the cells are eukaryotic, and has narrowed the possibilities down to a plant or an animal cell. You know you can help. Which feature can you tell him is always found in plant cells, but is never found in animal cells?
a. Cell wall.
b. Mitochondria.
c. Endoplasmic reticula.
d. Ribosomes.

a. Cell wall.

45

In your botany lab, if you need to quickly differentiate periderm in a section of a plant, what should you look for in abundance?
a. Parenchyma.
b. Collenchyma.
c. Cork.
d. Vessel elements.
e. Ray initials.

a. Parenchyma.

46

In your field botany class, you are examining the plants in a park near campus. To complete your assignment for the day, you need to photograph a dicot specimen in the field. How can you identify a dicot in the field?
a. The flower parts are in groups of four, five or multiples of four or five.
b. The flower parts in groups of three or multiples of three.
c. The plant has long slender leaves with parallel veins.
d. This cannot be distinguished without microscopic examination of the plant tissues.

a. The flower parts are in groups of four, five or multiples of four or five.

47

Insectivorous plants trap and digest insects and other small organisms to get nitrogen which is lacking in the soils of their environments.
true
false

true

48

Laws pertaining to energy are called laws of ___________________.
metabolism
a. aerodynamics
b. atomic fusion
c. thermodynamics
d. heredity

c. thermodynamics

49

Leaf mesophyll consists primarily of chlorenchyma tissue.
true
false

true

50

Leaf venation patterns in __________ leaves are usually netlike or reticulate.
a. dicot
b. monocot
c. grass
d. very small
e. large leaves such as banana

a. dicot

51

Leaves and buds are attached to the stem at the
a. internodes.
b. axils.
c. apex.
d. nodes.
e. sides.

d. nodes.

52

Leeuwenhoek is credited with applying the term cell to the boxlike compartments he saw in cork tissue.
true
false

false

53

Liming is used to counteract soil acidity.

true false

true

54

Modified leaves are used by insectivorous plants to trap insects. One such plant that has movable modified leaves is
a. Venus flytrap.
b. sun melon.
c. pitcher plant.
d. bladderwort.
e. Both Venus flytrap and pitcher plant are correct.

a. Venus flytrap.

55

Most grasses, trees and "weeds" are flowering plants that produce ______________ flowers.
a. large, conspicuous
b. colorful
c. fragrant
d. small, inconspicuous
e. few

d. small, inconspicuous

56

Multiple fruits, such as _______________, develop from an inflorescence of two or more flowers.
a. apple
b. pepos
c. pineapple
d. samaras
e. achenes

c. pineapple

57

Mycorrhizae roots are those that
a. have a symbiotic association with fungi.
b. have a symbiotic association with nitrogen fixing bacteria.
c. contain hyphae of parasitic fungi.
d. are above ground roots that serve to support the stem.
e. are propagative roots.

a. have a symbiotic association with fungi.

58

Nitrogenous bases refer to specific types of amino acids
true
false

false

59

Older, nonfunctioning xylem is called
a. sapwood.
b. summer wood.
c. springwood.
d. winter wood.
e. heartwood.

e. heartwood

60

On a field trip in your field botany course, you instructor has asked that you identify 10 different species of trees. One of your classmates is perplexed about this, because it is early spring and the trees do not yet have leaves. He does not understand how trees can be differentiated without leaves. What should you tell your classmate?
a. You agree that the assignment cannot be completed without seeing the leaves of the trees.
b. Trees can be specifically identified by scars and buds.
c. Trees can be specifically identified by where they grow.
d. Trees can be specifically identified by the growth patterns of their branches.

b. Trees can be specifically identified by scars and buds.

61

People harvest the storage roots of biennials such as __________ for their food value.
a. carrots
b. licorice
c. reserpine
d. rotenone
e. All of these answers are correct.

a. carrots

62

Peptide bonds link the building blocks of carbohydrates together.
true
false

false

63

Periderm is another name for epidermis.
true
false

false

64

Potential energy can be converted to kinetic energy.

true

false

true

65

Predict what would happen to a succulent plant with leaves that lack parenchyma cells.
a. Water storage would decrease.
b. Photosynthesis would increase.
c. Color change in autumn would intensify.
d. Abscission would not occur.

a. Water storage would decrease.

66

Primary meristems are produced by cell division in the __________.
a. shoot apical meristem
b. leaf primordia
c. vascular cambium
d. cork cambium
e. ray initials

a. shoot apical meristem

67

Protein synthesis takes place in the mitochondria.
true
false

false

68

Reproduction in living organisms results in __________________.
a. new individuals of the same species
b. new individuals that are always genetically identical to the parents
c. new individuals that are never genetically identical to the parents
d. overpopulation of the community by that species
e. loss of genetic variability in the population

a. new individuals of the same species

69

Retardation of water loss by cork cells is provided by
a. suberin and waxes.
b. lignin.
c. compressed tissue layers.
d. stomates.
e. Both compressed tissue layers and stomates are correct.

a. suberin and waxes.

70

Rhythmic cell divisions in young roots often
a. occur about once a week.
b. reach a peak once or twice a day.
c. peak several times during a 24-hour period.
d. result in a given root growing several meters a day.
e. do not occur in monocots.

b. reach a peak once or twice a day.

71

Seeds germinate immediately after dormancy is removed regardless of temperature, the light environment, or the exclusion of oxygen.
true
false

false

72

Siphonosteles occur in most
a. club mosses.
b. coniferous plants.
c. monocots.
d. ferns.
e. dicots.

d. ferns.

73

Some epidermal cells may be modified as glands.

true false

true

74

Specialized roots that permit aquatic plants to facilitate gas exchange are called
a. velamen roots.
b. water-storage roots.
c. buttress roots.
d. pneumatophores.
e. prop roots.

d. pneumatophores.

75

Of the two classes of flowering plants, monocots are the most common, comprising approximately 75% of all known flowering plants.
true
false

...

76

Specialized stems may function __________.
a. as photosynthetic organs
b. for food storage
c. for water storage
d. for protection
e. All of these are functions of certain specialized stems.

e. All of these are functions of certain specialized stems.

77

Structural and functional molecules making up a cell have a skeleton of __________.
a. carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
b. nitrogen and oxygen
c. silicon and oxygen
d. carbon and oxygen
e. calcium phosphate

a. carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

78

Sugars produced in photosynthesis are "loaded" into the __________ of the leaf for transport throughout the plant.
a. mesophyll
b. phloem
c. xylem
d. bundle fibers
e. cuticle

b. phloem

79

The __________ is derived from a simple flower having more than one pistil.
a. pome
b. pepo
c. multiple fruit
d. drupe
e. aggregate fruit

e. aggregate fruit

80

The bases of lost branches that have become covered over with new annual rings of wood are called
a. veneer.
b. traces.
c. seasoned wood.
d. knots.
e. lignum vitae.

d. knots.

81

The best soil for plant growth is
a. clay.
b. sand.
c. loam.
d. peat.
e. both clay and sand are correct.

c. loam.

82

The bonds that hold atoms together do so through the sharing or transfer of
a. atomic nuclei.
b. electrons.
c. protons.
d. neutrons.
e. molecules.

b. electrons.

83

The dormancy of some seeds may be broken by placing them in a refrigerator for a few weeks.
true
false

true

84

The element with the lowest atomic number and/or mass is
a. oxygen.
b. hydrogen.
c. boron.
d. nitrogen.
e. carbon.

b. hydrogen.

85

The epidermis of leaves normally is coated with
a. suberin.
b. lignin.
c. resin.
d. latex.
e. cutin.

e. cutin.

86

The flat fruits of a plant called showy ticktrefoil are covered in fine, hooked hairs. How are they dispersed?
a. Animal dispersal
b. Explosive dispersal
c. Water dispersal
d. Wind dispersal

a. Animal dispersal

87

The fleshy edible part of the strawberry is actually the
a. compound carpel.
b. multiple achenes.
c. pericarp.
d. fleshy petals.
e. receptacle.

e. receptacle.

88

The function of a protein will be either less effective or lost if the three-dimensional shape of the protein is altered.
true
false

true

89

The function of companion cells is:
a. to conduct food from one part of the plant to another.
b. to aid the associated sieve tube members with its cellular activities.
c. to conduct water and minerals from one part of the plant to another.
d. to conduct food laterally.
e. to do all of the functions listed.

b. to aid the associated sieve tube members with its cellular activities.

90

The growth of a seed embryo without any dormancy is known as
a. apomixis.
b. parthenocarpy.
c. vivipary.
d. stratification.
e. after-ripening.

c. vivipary.

91

The leaf pigments mostly responsible for gold to orange leaf colors in the fall are
a. xanthophylls.
b. anthocyanins.
c. betacyanins.
d. carotenes.
e. chlorophylls.

d. carotenes.

92

The leaves of __________ plants produce chemicals that affect the behavior and/or mood of people.
a. tobacco
b. tea
c.coca
d. marijuana
e. All of these answers are correct.

e. All of these answers are correct.

93

The nuclear envelope is porous to allow certain molecules to move between the nucleus and cytoplasm.
true
false

true

94

The number of naturally occurring amino acids is __________.
a. 20
b. 600
c. less than 10
d. 35
e. 64

a. 20

95

The outer boundary of living protoplasm in a plant cell is a
a. vacuolar membrane.
b. primary cell wall.
c. secondary cell wall.
d. middle lamella.
e. plasma membrane.

e. plasma membrane.

96

The parts of a flower that eventually become seeds are
a. ovaries.
b. styles.
c. stigmas.
d. ovules.
e. peduncles.

d. ovules.

97

The pericarp is the single layer of tissue closest to the seed.
true
false

false

98

The porous cell wall regions of food-conducting cells are called
a. ray initials.
b. pits.
c. albuminous cells.
d. sieve plates.
e. sieve tubes.

d. sieve plates.

99

The protective layer of an abscission zone serves to prevent water loss after the leaf falls off the plant.
true
false

true

100

The region of elongation is characterized by __________.
a. root hair production
b. development of the root cap
c. producing ground meristem
d. production of branch roots
e. increase in size of cells

e. increase in size of cells

101

The secondary cell wall forms __________.
a. after the cell reaches mature size and shape
b. in some, but not all plant cells
c. forms between the cell membrane and the primary cell wall
from cellulose and lignin
d. All answer choices are correct.

d. All answer choices are correct.

102

The stomata of a plant that you are observing are no longer able to open and close. What might be off in the guard cells to create this malfunction?
a. Salt.
b. Chlorophyll.
c. Water.
d. Acid.
e. Sodium.

c. Water.

103

The venation that forks repeatedly in leaves is termed
a. pinnate.
b. palmate.
c. dichotomous.
d. bilateral.
e. parallel.

c. dichotomous.

104

This tissue (region) is present in monocot roots but absent in dicot roots.
a. Phloem.
b. Epidermis.
c. Cortex.
d. Xylem.
e. Pith.

e. Pith.

105

To quickly propagate a walking fern, you could look for new plants
a. at the tips of the leaves of existing plants.
b. in the flowerpot leaves of an existing plant.
c. along the bracts of an existing plant.
d. at the base of insect-trapping leaves of an existing plant.

a. at the tips of the leaves of existing plants.

106

Underground epidermal cells may have the exterior cell wall extended into a long, thin thread-like structure called __________.
a. a glandular hair
b. a secretory cell
c. a root hair
d. lenticels
e. cuticle

c. a root hair

107

Viability (retention of capacity to germinate) of seeds may be extended by
a. low humidity.
b. higher temperatures.
c. high oxygen.
d. lack of oxygen.
e. high carbon dioxide.

d. lack of oxygen.

108

What is NOT a form of metabolism?
a. Respiration
b. Photosynthesis
c. Diffusion
d. Digestion
e. Assimilation

c. Diffusion

109

What is the function of collenchyma tissue?
a. Metabolism.
b. Conduction of food.
c. Provide strength to growing organs.
d. Prevent water loss.
e. Photosynthesis.

c. Provide strength to growing organs.

110

When a seed germinates, the part of the embryo that develops into the first root is called a radicle.
true
false

true

111

When comparing woody stems to herbaceous stems, woody stems typically __________.
a. have no vascular cambium
b. produce new growth each season
c. normally live only one season
d. are usually green and soft
e. Both produce new growth each season and are usually green and soft are correct.

b. produce new growth each season

112

When examining a plant section, you note a region with especially abundant root hairs. What does this tell you about the identification of the region that you are observing?
a. Root cap.
b. Apical meristem.
c. Region of elongation.
d. Root axils.
e. Region of maturation.

e. Region of maturation.

113

When moisture enters a seed, a physical process called ______ causes the tissues to swell with tremendous expansion forces.
a. vivipary
b. imbibition
c. dehiscence
d. dehydration
e. osmosis

b. imbibition

114

Which is a product of a woody stem?
a. Lumber.
b. Turpentine.
c. Bottle corks.
d. Paper pulp.
e. All of these answers are correct.

e. All of these answers are correct.

115

Which microscope would be best to see the details of the creatures that live in pond water that are too small to be seen with the naked eye?
a. Compound microscope.
b. Dissecting microscope.
c. Transmission electron microscope.
d. Scanning electron microscope.

a. Compound microscope.

116

Which of the following are primary constituents of cell membranes?
a. Nucleotides.
b. Phospholipids.
c. Proteins.
d. Carbohydrates.
e. Steroids.

b. Phospholipids.

117

Which of the following drugs is NOT obtained from leaves?
a. Cocaine.
b. Penicillin.
c. Belladonna.
d. Digitalis.
e. Lobeline sulphate.

b. Penicillin.

118

Which of the following is a type of sclerenchyma cell?
a. Companion cell.
b. Sieve-tube element.
c. Procambium cell.
d. Ray cell.
e. Fiber.

e. Fiber.

119

Which of the following is absent in dicot roots?
a. Xylem.
b. Phloem.
c. Epidermis.
d. Cortex.
e. Node.

e. Node.

120

Which of the following is known to be modified as a tendril?
a. Rachis.
b. Leaflet.
c. Stipule.
d. Petiole.
e. All of these answers are correct.

e. All of these answers are correct

121

Which of the following is NOT an attribute of ALL living organisms?
a. Response to stimuli
b. Metabolism
c. Nervous system
d. Reproduction
e. Growth

c. Nervous system

122

Which of the following may be found in plant cell vacuoles?
a. Water-soluble pigments.
b. Crystals.
c. Salts.
d. Sugars.
e. All of these answers are correct.

e. All of these answers are correct.

123

Which of the following may cause pectins in the middle lamella of cells of the separation layer to break down in the fall?
a. Decreasing daylengths.
b. Lower temperatures.
c. Decreasing light intensities.
d. Lack of adequate water.
e. All of these answers are correct.

e. All of these answers are correct.

124

Which of the following specialized leaves are found in plants living in arid environments?
a. Window leaves.
b. Flowerpot leaves.
c. Reproductive leaves.
d. Succulent leaves.
e. Both window leaves and succulent leaves.

e. Both window leaves and succulent leaves.

125

Which of the following structures found in living cells is not bound by a membrane or membranes?
a. Golgi bodies (dictyosomes).
b. plastids.
c. ribosomes.
d. endoplasmic reticulum.
e. nucleus.

c. ribosomes.

126

Which of the following tissues has sugar conduction as a primary function?
a. Epidermis.
b. Parenchyma.
c. Sclerenchyma.
d. Collenchyma.
e. Phloem.

e. Phloem.

127

Which of the pairs is mismatched?
a. Chloroplast; photosynthesis
b. Nucleus; chromosomes
c. Microtubule; movement
d. Mitochondrion; energy production
e. Ribosome; digestion

e. Ribosome; digestion

128

Which of these groups of fruits are drupes?
a. Oranges, lemons, and limes
b. Strawberries, blackberries, and raspberries
c. Apples, pears, and quinces
d. Pineapples, mulberries, and figs
e. Plums, apricots, and coconuts

e. Plums, apricots, and coconuts

129

Which plants produce siliques or silicles for fruits?
a. Milkweeds and magnolias
b. Cabbage, broccoli, and radishes
c. Lilies and irises
d. Peanuts, peas, and beans
e. Coconut palms and walnut trees

b. Cabbage, broccoli, and radishes

130

Which statement about venation is INCORRECT?
a. Venation refers to arrangement of the veins within a leaf.
b. Venation patterns include pinnate, palmate and dichotomous.
c. Some flowering plants have leaves that lack venation even though the stems and roots have vascular bundles.
d. In general, monocots exhibit parallel venation.
e. Venation is important for delivering water to leaf cells and taking sugars to the stem.

c. Some flowering plants have leaves that lack venation even though the stems and roots have vascular bundles.

131

Which tissue is derived from the apical meristem?
a. Protoderm.
b. Cork cambium.
c. Periderm.
d. Secondary phloem.
e. Secondary xylem.

a. Protoderm.

132

While you are observing a tree, you note that it is able to produce leaves, but due to a genetic mutation, the attachment site for the leaves is malformed, and the leaves do not stay attached for an expected amount of time. What part of the tree does this mutation impact?
a. Adventitious buds.
b. Internodes.
c. Petiole.
d. Petiolule.
e. Bud scales.

c. Petiole.

133

While you are using a microscope to examine some unknown cells, you see a structure that immediately makes you realize that the cells cannot be bacteria. What is this structure?
a. Nucleus
b. DNA
c. Cell wall
d. Cell membrane

a. Nucleus

134

Why is the pH scale so named?
a. It is based on the potential for hydrogen.
b. The scale was formulated by Phillip Hemingway.
c. Acids and bases provide plenty of hydrogen.

a. It is based on the potential for hydrogen.

135

You can determine whether an unknown plant structure that you dig up is a stem or root by __________.
a. determining whether it is divided into nodes and internodes
b. checking for the presence of a root cap
c. checking for the presence of woody tissue and bark
d. determining if the structure has protoderm, ground meristem, and procambium
e. checking to see if it produces lateral roots with root hairs

a. determining whether it is divided into nodes and internodes

136

Your lab group has been growing wheat seedlings for an experiment. Even though your lab group used extreme care in giving the seedlings the same light, soil, temperature, and other variables, some of the seedlings are thriving while others have not grown. What is the most likely explanation for this difference?
a. The seedlings differ genetically.
b. Some of the seedlings must have been exposed to a contaminant.
c. Some of the seedlings must have contracted a disease.
d. Some of the seedlings used more nutrients than others.

a. The seedlings differ genetically.

137

Your lab partner is mystified by your botany assignment that requires the differentiation of guard cells from other epidermal cells. You know you can help your lab partner, because use know that guard cells differ from other epidermal cells in having
a. uniformly thickened walls.
b. no nucleus.
c. chloroplasts.
d. surface hairs.
e. large pores in the walls.

c. chloroplasts.