Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology: Bio 202 Exam 2 Flashcards


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Ch. 16-18
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1

The ________ division of the autonomic nervous system is said to function during "rest and digest."

  1. A) sympathetic
  2. B) parasympathetic
  3. C) thoracolumbar
  4. D) visceral
  5. E) somatomotor

parasympathetic

2

The sympathetic division of the ANS is also known as which of the following?

  1. A) somatic division
  2. B) craniosacral division
  3. C) resting division
  4. D) thoracolumbar division
  5. E) lumbosacral division

thoracolumbar division

3

Preganglionic fibers leave the CNS and then synapse on

  1. A) postganglionic fibers.
  2. B) visceral reflex responses.
  3. C) motor neurons.
  4. D) ganglionic neurons.
  5. E) afferent neurons.

ganglionic neurons.

4

Which statement is true regarding the somatic nervous system as compared to the autonomic nervous system?

  1. A) Both divisions carry outgoing motor information.
  2. B) Both divisions carry information to visceral organs.
  3. C) The somatic NS requires more neurons than the autonomic pathways.
  4. D) There are no reflexes within the somatic NX, while there are many within the autonomic NS.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Both divisions carry outgoing motor information.

5

Ganglionic neurons innervate such things as

  1. A) smooth muscle.
  2. B) cardiac muscle.
  3. C) adipose tissue.
  4. D) glands.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

All of the answers are correct.

6

The parasympathetic nervous system is especially active during which physiological state?

  1. A) exertion
  2. B) trauma
  3. C) digestion
  4. D) stress
  5. E) exercise

digestion

7

Sympathetic preganglionic neurons are ________ and have ________ axons.

  1. A) short; myelinated
  2. B) short; unmyelinated
  3. C) long; myelinated
  4. D) long; unmyelinated
  5. E) intermediate; small

short; myelinated

8

Clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons lying along either side of the spinal cord are called sympathetic ________ ganglia.

  1. A) intramural
  2. B) collateral
  3. C) chain
  4. D) prevertebral
  5. E) suprarenal

chain

9

Clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons that innervate organs in the abdominopelvic region are called ________ ganglia.

  1. A) intramural
  2. B) collateral
  3. C) chain
  4. D) paravertebral
  5. E) suprarenal

collateral

10

Injury to the neurons of a collateral ganglion would affect the function of the

  1. A) heart.
  2. B) pupils.
  3. C) sweat glands.
  4. D) digestive tract.
  5. E) arrector pili muscles.

digestive tract.

11

Postganglionic axons usually are

  1. A) myelinated.
  2. B) unmyelinated.
  3. C) larger than preganglionic fibers.
  4. D) located in the brain.
  5. E) located in the spinal cord.

unmyelinated.

12

Stimulation of the neurons in the celiac ganglion would lead to

  1. A) relaxation of the urinary sphincter.
  2. B) increased heart rate.
  3. C) conversion of liver glycogen reserves into glucose.
  4. D) activation of ventral sweat glands.
  5. E) increased gastric motility.

conversion of liver glycogen reserves into glucose.

13

Collateral ganglia contain neurons that innervate tissues and organs in which cavity?

  1. A) thoracic
  2. B) pelvic
  3. C) abdominal
  4. D) craniosacral
  5. E) abdominopelvic

abdominopelvic

14

Sympathetic nerves

  1. A) provoke feelings of sympathy.
  2. B) allow us to relax, rest, and recover.
  3. C) contains short preganglionic fibers and longer postganglionic fibers.
  4. D) control swallowing.
  5. E) stimulate gastric secretion.

contains short preganglionic fibers and longer postganglionic fibers.

15

The suprarenal medullae secrete

  1. A) medullin.
  2. B) epinephrine.
  3. C) norepinephrine.
  4. D) renin.
  5. E) both epinephrine and norepinephrine.

both epinephrine and norepinephrine.

16

During sympathetic activation, ________ occurs.

  1. A) elevated heart rate
  2. B) elevated blood pressure
  3. C) sweating
  4. D) elevated blood glucose
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

All of the answers are correct.

17

Specialized ganglionic sympathetic neurons that release hormones into the bloodstream are found within the

  1. A) intramural ganglia.
  2. B) collateral ganglia.
  3. C) chain ganglia.
  4. D) brain stem.
  5. E) suprarenal medullae.

suprarenal medullae.

18

Postganglionic fibers that innervate targets in the body wall or thoracic cavity originate on neurons within

  1. A) intramural ganglia.
  2. B) collateral ganglia.
  3. C) sympathetic chain ganglia.
  4. D) suprarenal ganglia.
  5. E) white rami.

sympathetic chain ganglia.

19

Drugs known as beta-blockers may be useful for treating

  1. A) constipation.
  2. B) diarrhea.
  3. C) excessive salivation.
  4. D) excessive heart rate.
  5. E) prostate disorders.

excessive heart rate.

20

Postganglionic sympathetic axons can release the neurotransmitter ________ at their effector junctions.

  1. A) acetylcholine
  2. B) nitric oxide
  3. C) norepinephrine
  4. D) ACh
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

All of the answers are correct.

21

The neurotransmitter ACH is

  1. A) always excitatory when used in the synapses of the sympathetic nervous system.
  2. B) secreted by the postganglionic nervous.
  3. C) going to reduce the activity of the other neurotransmitter norepinephrine.
  4. D) broken down by monoamine oxidase.
  5. E) a chemical similar to the structure of adrenalin.

always excitatory when used in the synapses of the sympathetic nervous system.

22

Parasympathetic stimulation

  1. A) increases heart rate.
  2. B) increases gastric motility.
  3. C) causes sweat glands to secrete.
  4. D) causes blood vessels in the skin to dilate.
  5. E) causes the pupils to dilate.

increases gastric motility.

23

The statement "Its postganglionic axons always use acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter" is

  1. A) true only for the parasympathetic nervous system.
  2. B) true only for the sympathetic nervous system.
  3. C) true for both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.
  4. D) not true for either the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous systems.
  5. E) true only for the somatic nervous system.

true only for the parasympathetic nervous system.

24

Nicotinic receptors

  1. A) respond to epinephrine.
  2. B) respond to norepinephrine.
  3. C) open chemically-gated sodium ion channels.
  4. D) can be either excitatory or inhibitory in function.
  5. E) are found at synaptic junctions of the sympathetic nervous system.

open chemically-gated sodium ion channels.

25

Olfactory glands

  1. A) house the sense of smell.
  2. B) support the olfactory epithelium.
  3. C) react to aromatic molecules.
  4. D) coat the olfactory epithelium with a pigmented mucus.
  5. E) group as olfactory bulbs.

coat the olfactory epithelium with a pigmented mucus.

26

Olfactory information is first received by which part of the brain?

  1. A) frontal lobe
  2. B) cerebellum
  3. C) parietal lobe
  4. D) cerebrum
  5. E) medulla oblongata

cerebrum

27

Before an olfactory receptor can detect an odorant, it has to

  1. A) contact a basal cell.
  2. B) bind to receptors in olfactory cilia.
  3. C) open ion channels.
  4. D) respond to applied pressure.
  5. E) be transported to the olfactory bulbs.

bind to receptors in olfactory cilia.

28

Some neural tissues retain stem cells and thus the capacity to divide and replace lost neurons. Which of these special senses can replace its damaged neural receptors?

  1. A) olfaction
  2. B) hearing
  3. C) equilibrium
  4. D) proprioception
  5. E) vision

olfaction

29

Olfactory receptors send axons through the cribriform plate. They synapse on neurons in the

  1. A) medulla oblongata.
  2. B) medial geniculate.
  3. C) cerebral cortex.
  4. D) olfactory bulb.
  5. E) olfactory tract.

olfactory bulb.

30

The function of gustatory receptors parallels that of

  1. A) light receptors in the eye.
  2. B) mechanoreceptors in the ear.
  3. C) olfactory receptors.
  4. D) lamellated corpuscles.
  5. E) Meissner corpuscles.

olfactory receptors.

31

Destruction to your left glossopharyngeal nerve would result in

  1. A) inability to sense sweetness at the tip of your tongue.
  2. B) a reduction in ability to identify sour and bitter foods.
  3. C) anosmia, also called nose blindness.
  4. D) perceiving taste sensations where is no real stimulus.
  5. E) identifying all foods as too salty.

a reduction in ability to identify sour and bitter foods.

32

Stimulation of nociceptive receptors within the trigeminal nerve might produce a perception of

  1. A) intensely sweet.
  2. B) intensely sour.
  3. C) quite salty.
  4. D) peppery hot.
  5. E) bitter.

peppery hot.

33

Taste receptors are distributed in which of the following places?

  1. A) portions of the larynx
  2. B) anterior tip of the tongue
  3. C) portions of the pharynx
  4. D) surface of the tongue
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

All of the answers are correct.

34

All of the following are terms describing the epithelial projections found on the tongue except ________ papillae.

  1. A) fungiform
  2. B) circumvallate
  3. C) filiform
  4. D) gustatory
  5. E) lingual

gustatory

35

A patient who experienced head trauma has lost the ability to taste spicy food. You should expect damage to cranial nerve

  1. A) VII.
  2. B) III.
  3. C) IX.
  4. D) V.
  5. E) XII.

V.

36

Which of the following is not one of the six primary taste sensations?

  1. A) sweet
  2. B) peppery
  3. C) sour
  4. D) salty
  5. E) umami

peppery

37

Which of the following is false concerning lacrimal glands?

  1. A) They produce a strongly hypertonic fluid.
  2. B) They produce most of the volume of tears.
  3. C) They produce lysozyme.
  4. D) They produce watery, slightly alkaline secretions.
  5. E) They are located in recesses in the frontal bones.

They produce a strongly hypertonic fluid.

38

What structure changes the shape of the lens for far and near vision?

  1. A) aqueous humor
  2. B) ciliary body
  3. C) iris
  4. D) extrinsic eye muscles
  5. E) None; the lens is rigid.

ciliary body

39

The palpebrae

  1. A) are controlled by a cranial nerve.
  2. B) contain tarsal glands.
  3. C) cover and protect the eye.
  4. D) are lined with a conjunctiva.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

All of the answers are correct.

40

The space between the iris and ciliary body and the lens is the

  1. A) anterior chamber.
  2. B) posterior chamber.
  3. C) pupil.
  4. D) canal of Schlemm.
  5. E) vitreous body.

posterior chamber.

41

The neural tunic of the eye

  1. A) contains ganglion cells.
  2. B) contains the photoreceptor cells.
  3. C) contains bipolar cells.
  4. D) is the deepest layer of the eyeball.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

All of the answers are correct.

42

The human lens focuses light on the photoreceptor cells by

  1. A) moving up and down.
  2. B) moving in and out.
  3. C) changing shape.
  4. D) opening and closing.
  5. E) dilating and constricting.

changing shape.

43

The vitreous body

  1. A) fills the posterior chamber.
  2. B) helps to stabilize the eye and holds the retina up against the eyewall.
  3. C) is replaced at the rate of 20 percent per year until middle age.
  4. D) circulates through the pupil.
  5. E) holds the retina against the lens for proper refraction.

helps to stabilize the eye and holds the retina up against the eyewall.

44

The space between the cornea and the iris is the

  1. A) anterior chamber.
  2. B) posterior chamber.
  3. C) canal of Schlemm.
  4. D) aqueous humor.
  5. E) pupil.

anterior chamber.

45

The shape of the lens is controlled by the

  1. A) pupillary sphincter muscles.
  2. B) pupillary radial muscles.
  3. C) ciliary muscles.
  4. D) iris.
  5. E) cornea.

ciliary muscles.

46

The ________ covers most of the exposed surface of the eye.

  1. A) conjunctiva
  2. B) cornea
  3. C) iris
  4. D) anterior chamber
  5. E) canthus

conjunctiva

47

The transparent portion of the fibrous tunic is the

  1. A) conjunctiva.
  2. B) cornea.
  3. C) iris.
  4. D) pupil.
  5. E) canthus.

cornea.

48

The opening in the iris through which light passes is the

  1. A) conjunctiva.
  2. B) cornea.
  3. C) pupil.
  4. D) anterior chamber.
  5. E) posterior chamber.

pupil.

49

In the human eye, most refraction occurs when light passes through the

  1. A) iris.
  2. B) cornea.
  3. C) lens.
  4. D) aqueous humor.
  5. E) vitreous humor.

cornea.

50

The ciliary muscle contracts to

  1. A) control the amount of light reaching the retina.
  2. B) adjust the shape of the lens for distant vision.
  3. C) adjust the shape of the lens for near vision.
  4. D) control the production of aqueous humor.
  5. E) adjust the shape of the cornea and vitreous.

adjust the shape of the lens for near vision.

51

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term aqueous humor?

  1. A) gelatinous fluid that fills anterior chamber
  2. B) secreted in bright light
  3. C) excessive production may lead to glaucoma
  4. D) converts to vitreous humor with age
  5. E) provides the liquid component of lacrimal secretions

excessive production may lead to glaucoma

52

Which of the following is a function of tears?

  1. A) lubricate the eye
  2. B) wash away debris
  3. C) provide oxygen
  4. D) nourish the cornea and conjunctiva
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

All of the answers are correct.

53

An area of the retina that contains only cones and is the site of sharpest vision is the

  1. A) outer segment.
  2. B) inner segment.
  3. C) fovea.
  4. D) optic disc.
  5. E) tapetum lucidum.

fovea.

54

Which of the following description applies to the term myopia?

  1. A) farsightedness
  2. B) nearsightedness
  3. C) normal vision
  4. D) astigmatism
  5. E) age-related decline in accommodation

nearsightedness

55

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term otoliths?

  1. A) move up and down when the stapes moves back and forth
  2. B) transmit movement of the tympanic membrane to the inner ear
  3. C) bending these produces receptor potential in hair cells
  4. D) tiny weights necessary for the static sense of equilibrium
  5. E) seal the oval window

tiny weights necessary for the static sense of equilibrium

56

The auditory ossicles connect the

  1. A) tympanic membrane to the oval window.
  2. B) tympanic membrane to the round window.
  3. C) oval window to the round window.
  4. D) stapedius to the tympanic membrane.
  5. E) otitis to the media.

tympanic membrane to the oval window.

57

The vibrations received by the tympanic membrane are transferred to the oval window by the

  1. A) auditory ossicles.
  2. B) cochlea.
  3. C) oval window.
  4. D) tensor tympani.
  5. E) stapedius muscle.

auditory ossicles.

58

The senses of equilibrium and hearing are provided by receptors in the

  1. A) membranous endolymph.
  2. B) organ of Schlemm.
  3. C) Organ of Corti.
  4. D) bony labyrinth.
  5. E) perilymph.

Organ of Corti.

59

The sensory receptors of the semicircular canals are located in the

  1. A) saccules.
  2. B) ampullae.
  3. C) perilymph.
  4. D) utricles.
  5. E) cupulae.

ampullae.

60

Endocrine cells

  1. A) are a type of nerve cell.
  2. B) release their secretions onto an epithelial surface.
  3. C) release their secretions directly into body fluids such as blood.
  4. D) contain few vesicles.
  5. E) are modified connective-tissue cells.

release their secretions directly into body fluids such as blood.

61

________ are chemical messengers that are released by cells and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues.

  1. A) Hormones
  2. B) Neuropeptides
  3. C) Neurotransmitters
  4. D) Humoral antibodies
  5. E) Antigens

Hormones

62

A hormone might

  1. A) alter a membrane channel by changing its shape, thereby affecting what can go through it.
  2. B) depolarize a skeletal muscle cell.
  3. C) interfere with norepinephrine at a neuronal synapse.
  4. D) inactivate glucose so it cannot be used by a cell.
  5. E) block the production of a cell membrane.

alter a membrane channel by changing its shape, thereby affecting what can go through it.

63

Peptide hormones are
A) composed of amino acids.
B) produced by the suprarenal glands.
C) derived from the amino acid tyrosine.
D) lipids.
E) chemically related to cholesterol.

composed of amino acids.

64

A kinase is an enzyme that performs

  1. A) phosphorylation.
  2. B) as a membrane channel.
  3. C) active transport.
  4. D) protein synthesis.
  5. E) as an antibody.

phosphorylation.

65

An activated G protein can trigger

  1. A) the activation of adenyl cyclase.
  2. B) the opening of calcium ion channels in the membrane.
  3. C) the release of calcium ions from intracellular stores.
  4. D) a fall in cAMP levels.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

All of the answers are correct.

66

Why is it that steroid hormones use receptors inside of target cells, whereas protein, peptide, and amino acid hormones do not?

  1. A) Steroids can cross the cell membrane because they are lipids and the membrane is lipid.
  2. B) Amino acids and peptide hormones do not have a 3 dimensional structure that can bind to internal receptors.
  3. C) Cells are full of steroid molecules so it is easy for steroid molecules to enter.
  4. D) The target cells affected by steroid hormones have all of their receptors in the cell cytoplasm.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Steroids can cross the cell membrane because they are lipids and the membrane is lipid.

67

The hypothalamus acts as both a neural and a(n) ________ organ.

  1. A) endocrine
  2. B) cardiovascular
  3. C) renal
  4. D) muscular
  5. E) hepatic

endocrine

68

A simple endocrine reflex involves ________ hormone(s).

  1. A) one
  2. B) two
  3. C) hypothalamic
  4. D) gonadotropic
  5. E) tropic

one

69

Hormones can be divided into different groups based on their chemistry. These categories include

  1. A) peptides.
  2. B) steroids.
  3. C) eicosanoids.
  4. D) amino acid derivatives.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

All of the answers are correct.

70

All target cells

  1. A) have hormone receptors.
  2. B) respond to electrical signals.
  3. C) secrete hormones.
  4. D) produce their own hormones.
  5. E) are in the blood.

have hormone receptors.

71

The primary function of ADH is to

  1. A) increase the amount of sodium lost at the kidneys.
  2. B) decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys.
  3. C) decrease blood pressure.
  4. D) increase digestive absorption.
  5. E) delay urination.

decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys.

72

If the hypophyseal portal system is destroyed, the hypothalamus would no longer be able to control the secretion of which of the following hormones?

  1. A) TSH
  2. B) ACTH
  3. C) PRL
  4. D) ADH and OXT
  5. E) TSH, ACTH, PRL

TSH, ACTH, PRL

73

The hypothalamus controls secretion in the adenohypophysis by

  1. A) direct neural stimulation.
  2. B) indirect osmotic control.
  3. C) secreting releasing and inhibiting factors into a tiny portal system.
  4. D) altering ion concentrations and pH in the anterior pituitary.
  5. E) gap synaptic junctions.

secreting releasing and inhibiting factors into a tiny portal system.

74

Secretory cells of the adenohypophysis release

  1. A) FSH.
  2. B) TSH.
  3. C) ACTH.
  4. D) GH.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

All of the answers are correct.

75

The hypophyseal portal system

  1. A) is a blood connection between the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary.
  2. B) has two capillary plexuses connected by short veins.
  3. C) carries neurosecretions to the anterior lobe of the pituitary.
  4. D) carries ADH and oxytocin.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

All of the answers are correct.

76

Excess secretion of growth hormone during early development will cause

  1. A) dwarfism.
  2. B) rickets.
  3. C) gigantism.
  4. D) acromegaly.
  5. E) diabetes insipidus.

gigantism.

77

One cause for insulin resistance in non-insulin dependent (Type II) diabetes is

  1. A) insulin receptor up-regulation.
  2. B) decreased insulin secretion.
  3. C) decreased cortisol secretion.
  4. D) insulin receptor down-regulation.
  5. E) cortisol receptor up-regulation.

insulin receptor down-regulation.

78

Which of the following organs contain target cells for oxytocin?

  1. A) prostate
  2. B) ductus deferens
  3. C) mammary glands
  4. D) uterus
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

All of the answers are correct.

79

The posterior pituitary gland secretes

  1. A) FSH.
  2. B) TSH.
  3. C) ACTH.
  4. D) ADH.
  5. E) MSH.

ADH.

80

The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is

  1. A) TSH.
  2. B) ACTH.
  3. C) FSH.
  4. D) LH.
  5. E) GH.

TSH.

81

Activity of which of the following cells is inhibited by calcitonin release?

  1. A) alpha cells
  2. B) osteoclasts
  3. C) osteoblasts
  4. D) C cells
  5. E) all cells in the body

osteoclasts