Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology: bio 202 exam 1 Flashcards


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1

The spinal cord is part of the ________ nervous system.

  1. A) peripheral
  2. B) somatic
  3. C) central
  4. D) autonomic
  5. E) afferent

CENTRAL

2

The adult spinal cord typically ends between vertebrae

  1. A) T12-L1.
  2. B) S4-S5.
  3. C) L5-S1.
  4. D) L1-L2.

L1-L2

3

Arrange the spinal meninges from innermost layer to outermost layer.

  1. A) dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
  2. B) dura mater, pia mater, arachnoid mater
  3. C) arachnoid mater, pia mater, dura mater
  4. D) pia mater, dura mater, arachnoid mater
  5. E) pia mater, arachnoid mater, dura mater

pia mater, arachnoid mater, dura mater

4

Enlarged area of the spinal cord from which nerves to the shoulder and upper limbs arise.

  1. A) cervical enlargement
  2. B) lumbar enlargement
  3. C) thoracic region
  4. D) conus medullaris
  5. E) sacral region

cervical enlargement

5

These structures extending from the pia mater through to the dura mater support the spinal cord by preventing lateral movement.

  1. A) coccygeal ligament
  2. B) rami communicantes
  3. C) cauda equina
  4. D) denticulate ligaments
  5. E) spinal ligaments

denticulate ligaments

6

The conus medullaris anchors the spinal cord to the coccygeal ligament via a strand of fibrous tissue called the

A) denticulate ligament.

B) filum terminale.

C) spinal ligament.

D) meningeal ligament.

E) dura mater.

filum terminale.

7

Spinal nerves are

  1. A) purely sensory.
  2. B) purely motor.
  3. C) both sensory and motor.
  4. D) interneuronal.
  5. E) involuntary.

both sensory and motor.

8

If the posterior root of a spinal nerve is severed,

  1. A) output to skeletal muscles would be blocked.
  2. B) output to visceral organs would be blocked.
  3. C) efferent fibers would be blocked.
  4. D) the brain would not be able to communicate with that level of the spinal cord.
  5. E) sensory input would be blocked.

sensory input would be blocked.

9

Bill contracts a viral disease that destroys cells in the posterior gray horns in his spinal cord. As a result, which of the following would you expect?

  1. A) loss of sensation in his torso
  2. B) inability to breathe
  3. C) problems with moving his arms
  4. D) uncontrollable sweating of his feet
  5. E) problems moving his legs

loss of sensation in his torso

10

Bundles of axons in the central nervous system are known as

  1. A) tracts.
  2. B) ganglia.
  3. C) nuclei.
  4. D) horns.
  5. E) commissures.

tracts.

11

Axons cross from one side of the spinal cord to the other through the

  1. A) lateral white column.
  2. B) posterior gray horn.
  3. C) central canal.
  4. D) posterior median sulcus.
  5. E) anterior white commissure.

anterior white commissure.

12

The large anterior gray horns of the spinal cord contain mainly

  1. A) somatic sensory nuclei.
  2. B) somatic motor nuclei.
  3. C) visceral motor nuclei.
  4. D) visceral sensory nuclei.
  5. E) sympathetic nuclei.

somatic motor nuclei.

13

Nerve tracts or fasciculi make up the

  1. A) central canal.
  2. B) posterior gray horns.
  3. C) gray commissures.
  4. D) white columns.
  5. E) anterior gray horns.

white columns.

14

Axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other within the gray matter are found in the

  1. A) anterior gray horns.
  2. B) lateral gray horns.
  3. C) posterior gray horns.
  4. D) gray commissures.
  5. E) white commissures.

gray commissures.

15

Regional loss of sensory or motor function from nerve trauma or compression is termed

  1. A) shingles.
  2. B) dermatome.
  3. C) peripheral neuropathy.
  4. D) hemisection.
  5. E) areflexia.

peripheral neuropathy.

16

Loss of feeling in the thumb and first two fingers is most likely due to a damaged ________ nerve.

  1. A) radial
  2. B) musculocutaneous
  3. C) ulnar
  4. D) median
  5. E) axillary

radial

17

Muscles of the neck and shoulder are innervated by spinal nerves from the ________ region.

  1. A) cervical
  2. B) thoracic
  3. C) lumbar
  4. D) sacral
  5. E) coccygeal

cervical

18

The preganglionic fibers that connect a spinal nerve with an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic and lumbar region of the spinal cord and carries visceral motor fibers that are myelinated form the

  1. A) white rami communicantes.
  2. B) gray rami communicantes.
  3. C) posterior ramus.
  4. D) anterior ramus.
  5. E) dermatomes.

white rami communicantes.

19

Recognized neuronal circuit patterns include all of the following except

  1. A) convergent.
  2. B) divergent.
  3. C) multipolar.
  4. D) reverberating.
  5. E) parallel processing.

multipolar.

20

You are sitting at a Mexican restaurant waiting for your food. The waiter brings a very hot plate, telling you to be careful about touching it. You touch it anyway, producing a pain sensation in your fingers, a withdrawal of your hand, and an auditory comment of what you are thinking. This scenario represents a ________ neuronal circuit.

  1. A) parallel processing
  2. B) reverberating
  3. C) serial processing
  4. D) convergent
  5. E) divergent

parallel processing

21

Which of the following is not a way that reflexes are classified?

  1. A) innate/acquired
  2. B) somatic/visceral
  3. C) sympathetic/parasympathetic
  4. D) monosynaptic/polysynaptic
  5. E) spinal/cranial

sympathetic/parasympathetic

22

Reflexes based on synapses formed during development are ________ reflexes.

  1. A) visceral
  2. B) innate
  3. C) acquired
  4. D) somatic
  5. E) intersegmental

innate

23

The neural "wiring" of a single reflex is called a(n)

  1. A) reflex arc.
  2. B) ramus.
  3. C) ganglion.
  4. D) tract.
  5. E) circuit.

reflex arc.

24

All of the following are true of muscle spindles except they

  1. A) are found within skeletal muscle.
  2. B) consist of specialized fibers called intrafusal fibers.
  3. C) are found in tendons.
  4. D) are the receptor for the stretch reflex.
  5. E) are innervated by gamma motor neurons.

are found in tendons.

25

The reflex that prevents a muscle from exerting too much tension is the ________ reflex.

  1. A) stretch
  2. B) tendon
  3. C) flexor
  4. D) crossed extensor
  5. E) reciprocal

tendon

26

Spinal interneurons inhibit antagonist motor neurons in a process called

  1. A) a crossed extensor reflex.
  2. B) a stretch reflex.
  3. C) a tendon reflex.
  4. D) reciprocal inhibition.
  5. E) reverberating circuits.

reciprocal inhibition.

27

Place the following events of a reflex arc in the correct order:

1) motor neuron activation,

2)sensory neuron activation,

3) sensory receptor activation,

4) Information processing,

5) effector response.

  1. A) 3, 2, 1, 5, 4
  2. B) 3, 2, 4, 1, 5
  3. C) 2, 3, 4, 5, 1
  4. D) 4, 3, 1, 2, 5
  5. E) 1, 5, 3, 2, 4

3, 2, 4, 1, 5

28

Which of the following is not true about a positive Babinski reflex?

  1. A) normal in newborns
  2. B) abnormal in adults
  3. C) a sign of injury to descending spinal tracts
  4. D) clinicians test this when a peripheral nerve injury is suspected
  5. E) flaring of the toes when the sole is stroked

clinicians test this when a peripheral nerve injury is suspected

29

The adult human brain contains almost ________ of the body's neural tissue.

  1. A) 15 percent
  2. B) 25 percent
  3. C) 68 percent
  4. D) 97 percent
  5. E) 35 percent

97 percent

30

During embryonic development, which of the following secondary brain vesicles will form the cerebrum?

  1. A) telencephalon
  2. B) diencephalon
  3. C) mesencephalon
  4. D) metencephalon
  5. E) myelencephalon

telencephalon

31

Which of the following lies between the cerebrum and the brain stem?

  1. A) medulla oblongata
  2. B) pons
  3. C) mesencephalon
  4. D) diencephalon
  5. E) cerebellum

diencephalon

32

The tracts that connect the cerebellum to the brain stem are located in the

  1. A) medulla oblongata.
  2. B) pons.
  3. C) mesencephalon.
  4. D) diencephalon.
  5. E) thalamus.

pons.

33

Autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion are located in the

  1. A) medulla oblongata.
  2. B) pons.
  3. C) midbrain.
  4. D) diencephalon.
  5. E) cerebellum.

medulla oblongata.

34

Sensory information is processed and relayed to the cerebrum by the

  1. A) medulla oblongata.
  2. B) pons.
  3. C) midbrain.
  4. D) thalamus.
  5. E) cerebellum.

thalamus.

35

As you ascend from the medulla oblongata to the cerebrum, the functions of each successive level becomes

  1. A) more complex.
  2. B) simpler.
  3. C) better understood.
  4. D) more crucial to visceral functions.
  5. E) critical to reflexes.

more complex.

36

The ________ provides the principal link between the nervous and endocrine systems.

  1. A) cerebellum
  2. B) medulla oblongata
  3. C) cerebrum
  4. D) pons
  5. E) hypothalamus

hypothalamus

37

The ventricle associated with the pons and upper medulla is the

  1. A) first.
  2. B) second.
  3. C) third.
  4. D) fourth.
  5. E) lateral.

fourth.

38

When you perform a physical activity that you have not done in a while, such as riding a bike, which area of your brain coordinates your movements with learned experiences?

  1. A) thalamus
  2. B) pons
  3. C) midbrain
  4. D) cerebellum
  5. E) medulla oblongata

cerebellum

39

The lateral ventricles are found

  1. A) in the cerebellar hemispheres.
  2. B) between the pons and the midbrain.
  3. C) in the cerebral hemispheres.
  4. D) in the diencephalon.
  5. E) in the spinal cord.

in the cerebral hemispheres.

40

Which of the following is not a property of the blood-brain barrier?

  1. A) The capillary endothelial cells are interconnected by tight junctions.
  2. B) It is very permeable to many water and lipid-soluble compounds.
  3. C) Astrocytes surround the CNS capillaries.
  4. D) It is absent in portions of the hypothalamus.
  5. E) It is intact except in areas known as circumventricular organs.

It is very permeable to many water and lipid-soluble compounds.

41

Cerebrospinal fluid

  1. A) is secreted by ependymal cells.
  2. B) is formed by a passive process.
  3. C) is normally produced twice as fast as it is removed.
  4. D) has almost the same composition as blood plasma.
  5. E) contains blood cells and blood plasma.

is secreted by ependymal cells.

42

Tony hit his head in a car accident. The physicians diagnosed him with a subdural hemorrhage. Which of the following correctly states where the bleeding has occurred in his brain?

  1. A) Blood is between the dura mater and the skull.
  2. B) Blood is between the pia mater and arachnoid mater.
  3. C) Blood is between the pia mater and the brain.
  4. D) Blood is between the superior sagittal sinus and inferior sagittal sinus.
  5. E) Blood is between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater.

Blood is between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater.

43

Jane, a 79-year-old woman, has been diagnosed with a tumor in the brain. She has lost some sensory and motor functions associated with the face, like control of facial muscles for emotion and various sensory functions like taste. In addition, she has some hearing loss and balance problems. The location of the tumor is likely to be the

  1. A) cerebellum.
  2. B) cerebrum.
  3. C) medulla.
  4. D) thalamus.
  5. E) pons.

pons.

44

Descending fibers from the pons to the cerebellum pass through these structures of the midbrain?

  1. A) substantia nigra
  2. B) reticular formation
  3. C) superior colliculus
  4. D) corpora quadrigemina
  5. E) cerebral peduncles

cerebral peduncles

45

The medulla oblongata relays auditory stimuli to the

  1. A) substantia nigra.
  2. B) red nuclei.
  3. C) cerebral peduncles.
  4. D) superior colliculi.
  5. E) inferior colliculi.

inferior colliculi.

46

Nerve fiber bundles on the ventrolateral surface of the mesencephalon are the

  1. A) tectum.
  2. B) corpora quadrigemina.
  3. C) cerebral peduncles.
  4. D) superior colliculi.
  5. E) inferior colliculi.

cerebral peduncles.

47

The reflex movement of the head toward a loud noise is directed by the mesencephalon. Which nuclei accomplish this?

  1. A) substantia nigra
  2. B) red nuclei
  3. C) tectum
  4. D) superior colliculi
  5. E) inferior colliculi

inferior colliculi

48

Damage to the corpora quadrigemina would interfere with

  1. A) control of autonomic function.
  2. B) regulation of body temperature.
  3. C) visual and auditory reflex movements of the head and neck.
  4. D) conscious control of skeletal muscles.
  5. E) control of breathing.

visual and auditory reflex movements of the head and neck.

49

The mesencephalon contains the headquarters of the ________, a specialized component of the reticular formation that controls alertness and attention.

  1. A) falx cerebri
  2. B) Wernicke's area
  3. C) general association area
  4. D) reticular activating system
  5. E) basal ganglia

reticular activating system

50

Which hypothalamic nucleus is responsible for regulating circadian rhythms?

  1. A) suprachiasmatic nucleus
  2. B) preoptic area
  3. C) autonomic nucleus
  4. D) paraventricular nucleus
  5. E) tuber cinereum

suprachiasmatic nucleus

51

Overseeing the postural muscles of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium are functions of the

  1. A) cerebrum.
  2. B) thalamus.
  3. C) cerebellum.
  4. D) pons.
  5. E) medulla oblongata.

cerebellum.

52

The cerebellum can be permanently damaged by stroke or temporarily affected by drugs or alcohol. The resulting disturbance in motor control is known as

  1. A) ataxia.
  2. B) aphasia.
  3. C) dysphagia.
  4. D) Parkinson's.
  5. E) epilepsy.

ataxia.

53

The hypothalamus produces which two hormones?

  1. A) ADH and epinephrine
  2. B) epinephrine and norepinephrine
  3. C) ADH and oxytocin
  4. D) growth hormone and melatonin
  5. E) oxytocin and melatonin

ADH and oxytocin

54

Which of the following is true regarding the pineal gland?

  1. A) It is part of the epithalamus and secretes melatonin.
  2. B) It is part of the hypothalamus and secretes oxytocin.
  3. C) It is part of the thalamus.
  4. D) It is part of the limbic system.
  5. E) It controls heart rate and blood pressure.

It is part of the epithalamus and secretes melatonin.

55

The thalamus is often called the "air traffic controller" of the brain because it

  1. A) controls the autonomic functions of the body, such as the fight-or-flight response.
  2. B) determines what can enter the brain from the blood.
  3. C) controls reflexes.
  4. D) determines the routing of incoming sensory information to the correct cerebral cortex area.
  5. E) passes motor information on to the cerebellum.

determines the routing of incoming sensory information to the correct cerebral cortex area.

56

Stimulation of the ________ within the hypothalamus produces the sensation of hunger.

  1. A) satiety center
  2. B) feeding center
  3. C) thirst center
  4. D) limbic system
  5. E) hormone center

feeding center

57

The system that functions in tying together emotions, motivation and memory is the

  1. A) reticular activating system.
  2. B) circadian system.
  3. C) limbic system.
  4. D) hypothalamic system.
  5. E) apneustic system.

limbic system.

58

Which of the following is not a property of the limbic system?

  1. A) primarily a functional grouping
  2. B) functions in maintaining homeostasis in cold weather
  3. C) located between the border of the cerebrum and diencephalon
  4. D) links conscious functions of the cerebral cortex with unconscious functions of the brain stem
  5. E) functions in emotions, learning, and memory

functions in maintaining homeostasis in cold weather

59

The ________ is important in storage and recall of new long-term memories.

  1. A) amygdaloid body
  2. B) cingulate gyrus
  3. C) mammillary bodies
  4. D) hippocampus
  5. E) fornix

hippocampus

60

A person touches you lightly with a feather. What two areas of the brain allow you to feel and interpret this touch?

  1. A) primary motor cortex and the primary sensory cortex
  2. B) primary sensory cortex and the somatic sensory association area
  3. C) primary sensory cortex and the visceral sensory association area
  4. D) primary motor cortex and the somatic motor association area
  5. E) gustatory cortex and the gustatory association area

primary sensory cortex and the somatic sensory association area

61

Which of the following nerves is purely sensory?

  1. A) vagus
  2. B) trochlear
  3. C) abducens
  4. D) optic
  5. E) hypoglossal

optic

62

Sensory innervation of the lower teeth and gums is by the ________ nerve.

  1. A) ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal
  2. B) maxillary branch of the trigeminal
  3. C) mandibular branch of the trigeminal
  4. D) glossopharyngeal
  5. E) hypoglossal

mandibular branch of the trigeminal

63

A patient suffers an inability to shrug their shoulders. The nerve most likely to be damaged is The

  1. A) vagus.
  2. B) accessory.
  3. C) facial.
  4. D) trigeminal
  5. E) vestibulocochlear.

accessory.

64

The term general senses refers to sensitivity to all of the following, except

  1. A) temperature.
  2. B) taste.
  3. C) touch.
  4. D) vibration.
  5. E) pain.

taste.

65

The sensory receptors, neurons and pathways make up the ________ division of the nervous system.

  1. A) voluntary
  2. B) efferent
  3. C) afferent
  4. D) involuntary
  5. E) somatic

afferent

66

The ________ nervous system carries impulses to skeletal muscles.

  1. A) somatic
  2. B) sympathetic
  3. C) parasympathetic
  4. D) afferent
  5. E) autonomic

somatic

67

The conversion of the stimulus into an action potential to be interpreted by the brain is called

  1. A) transformation.
  2. B) transduction.
  3. C) translation.
  4. D) transcription.
  5. E) transpotential.

transduction.

68

General sense receptors are typically the

  1. A) dendrites of motor neurons.
  2. B) dendrites of sensory neurons.
  3. C) axons of motor neurons.
  4. D) axons of sensory neurons.
  5. E) cell bodies of sensory neurons.

dendrites of sensory neurons.

69

Your brain is not constantly bombarded with signals telling it that you are wearing socks. This is because the touch receptors around your ankle are

  1. A) tonic receptors.
  2. B) tonic receptors and slow-adapting.
  3. C) phasic receptors and slow-adapting.
  4. D) phasic receptors and fast-adapting.
  5. E) nociceptors.

phasic receptors and fast-adapting.

70

Sensory encoding of the perceived location of a stimulus depends on

  1. A) the frequency of action potentials.
  2. B) which labeled line is active.
  3. C) the specific location of the cortical neuron that is stimulated.
  4. D) the specific sensitivity of the peripheral receptor.
  5. E) the number of receptors stimulated.

the specific location of the cortical neuron that is stimulated.

71

Action potentials from receptors involved in general sensations are interpreted in the

  1. A) premotor cortex.
  2. B) primary sensory cortex.
  3. C) general interpretive area.
  4. D) mesencephalon.
  5. E) reticular activating system.

primary sensory cortex.

72

Sensory information from all parts of the body is routed to

  1. A) the prefrontal cortex.
  2. B) the cerebellum.
  3. C) the primary motor cortex.
  4. D) the somatosensory cortex.
  5. E) Broca's area.

the somatosensory cortex.

73

A mechanoreceptor in the papillary layer of the dermis that responds to fine touch is a

  1. A) tactile (Merkel) disc.
  2. B) root hair plexus.
  3. C) free nerve ending.
  4. D) Bulbous corpuscle.
  5. E) tactile (Meissner) corpuscle.

tactile (Meissner) corpuscle.

74

Endorphins can reduce perception of sensations initiated by

  1. A) nociceptors.
  2. B) mechanoreceptors.
  3. C) thermoreceptors.
  4. D) chemoreceptors.
  5. E) proprioceptors.

nociceptors.

75

All of the following pathways require third-order neurons synapsing in the thalamus except

  1. A) the lateral spinothalamic tract.
  2. B) the anterior spinothalamic tract.
  3. C) the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts.
  4. D) the gracile fasciculus.
  5. E) the cuneate fasciculus.

the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts.

76

Which of the following is true of all the sensory pathways?

  1. A) They all have third-order neurons.
  2. B) They all synapse in the thalamus.
  3. C) They all synapse in the cerebellum.
  4. D) They all enter through dorsal roots.
  5. E) Axons in each pathway decussate.

They all enter through dorsal roots.

77

The spinal tract that relays information concerning pain and temperature to the CNS is the

  1. A) gracile fasciculus.
  2. B) cuneate fasciculus.
  3. C) posterior spinocerebellar.
  4. D) lateral spinothalamic.
  5. E) anterior spinothalamic.

lateral spinothalamic.

78

Each of the following is an ascending tract in the spinal cord except the

  1. A) gracile fasciculus.
  2. B) cuneate fasciculus.
  3. C) posterior spinocerebellar.
  4. D) reticulospinal tract.
  5. E) anterior spinothalamic.

reticulospinal tract.

79

The afferent neuron that carries the sensation and enters the CNS is a ________ neuron.

  1. A) receptor
  2. B) first-order
  3. C) second-order
  4. D) third-order
  5. E) fourth-order

first-order

80

Sensory neurons synapse in the CNS with an interneuron known as a

  1. A) first-order neuron.
  2. B) second-order neuron.
  3. C) third-order neuron.
  4. D) motor neuron.
  5. E) efferent neuron.

second-order neuron.