Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 18 The Endocrine System Flashcards


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1

1) Which of the following is true of the endocrine system?
A) It responds rapidly to stimuli.
B) It responds specifically to digestive stimuli.
C) It communicates by the release of neurotransmitters.
D) It responds with motor output.
E) It responds slowly but effectively for maintaining homeostatic functions.

E) It responds slowly but effectively for maintaining homeostatic functions.

2

2) Endocrine cells
A) are a type of nerve cell.
B) release their secretions onto an epithelial surface.
C) release their secretions directly into body fluids such as blood.
D) contain few vesicles.
E) are modified connective tissue cells.

C) release their secretions directly into body fluids such as blood.

3

3) ________ are chemical messengers that are released by cells and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues.
A) Hormones
B) Neuropeptides
C) Neurotransmitters
D) Humoral antibodies
E) Antigens

A) Hormones

4

4) A hormone might
A) alter a membrane channel by changing its shape, thereby affecting what can go through it.
B) depolarize a skeletal muscle cell.
C) interfere with norepinephrine at a neuronal synapse.
D) inactivate glucose so it cannot be used by a cell.
E) block the production of a cell membrane.

A) alter a membrane channel by changing its shape, thereby affecting what can go through it.

5

5) Which of the following is not true regarding target cells?
A) They have receptors for a specific hormone.
B) They can be anywhere in the body.
C) They are associated with synapses.
D) They can respond to more than one hormone if they have receptors for each one.
E) If a target cell lacks receptors for a hormone then it cannot bind that hormone.

C) They are associated with synapses.

6

6) Hormones known as ʺcatecholaminesʺ are
A) lipids.
B) peptides.
C) steroids.
D) derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine.
E) derivatives of reproductive glands.

D) derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine.

7

7) Peptide hormones are
A) composed of amino acids.
B) produced by the adrenal glands.
C) derived from the amino acid tyrosine.
D) lipids.
E) chemically related to cholesterol.

A) composed of amino acids.

8

8) A kinase is an enzyme that performs
A) phosphorylation.
B) as a membrane channel.
C) active transport.
D) protein synthesis.
E) as an antibody.

A) phosphorylation.

9

9) Calcium ions serve as messengers, often in combination with the intracellular protein
A) calcitonin.
B) calcitriol.
C) calmodulin.
D) calcium-binding globulin.
E) calcitropin.

C) calmodulin.

10

10) Which of the following substances activates protein kinases and thus acts as a second messenger?
A) insulin
B) ACTH
C) epinephrine
D) cyclic AMP
E) TSH

D) cyclic AMP

11

11) All of the following are true of steroid hormones except that they
A) are produced by the adrenal medulla.
B) are derived from cholesterol.
C) are produced by reproductive glands.
D) bind to receptors within the cell.
E) are lipids.

A) are produced by the adrenal medulla.

12

12) Each of the following hormones is an amino acid derivative except
A) epinephrine.
B) norepinephrine.
C) thyroid hormone.
D) testosterone.
E) melatonin.

D) testosterone.

13

13) Membrane receptors are used by which of the following types of hormones?
A) catecholamines
B) peptide hormones
C) eicosanoids
D) thyroid
E) catecholamines, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids

E) catecholamines, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids

14

14) Steroid hormones
A) are proteins.
B) cannot diffuse through cell membranes.
C) bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells.
D) act on target cells by activating second messenger cascades.
E) are transported in the blood dissolved in the plasma.

C) bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells.

15

15) When a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, the
A) hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm.
B) cell membrane becomes depolarized.
C) second messenger appears in the cytoplasm.
D) cell becomes inactive.
E) hormone is transported to the nucleus where it alters the activity of DNA.

C) second messenger appears in the cytoplasm.

16

16) Hormones can be divided into different groups based on their chemistry. These categories include all of the following except
A) peptides.
B) steroids.
C) eicosanoids.
D) amino acid derivatives.
E) acetylcholine derivatives.

E) acetylcholine derivatives.

17

17) Hormonal actions on cells affect all of the following except
A) quantities of enzymes.
B) activities of enzymes.
C) synthesis of enzymes.
D) gating of ion channels.
E) thickness of the plasma membrane.

E) thickness of the plasma membrane.

18

18) The link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is usually
A) cAMP.
B) cGMP.
C) adenyl cyclase.
D) a G protein.
E) calcium ion levels.

D) a G protein.

19

19) When adenyl cyclase is activated,
A) ATP is consumed.
B) cAMP is formed.
C) cAMP is broken down.
D) ATP is produced.
E) ATP is consumed and cAMP is formed.

E) ATP is consumed and cAMP is formed.

20

20) After a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an active complex,
A) adenyl cyclase is activated.
B) cyclic nucleotides are formed.
C) G proteins are phosphylated.
D) gene transcription is initiated.
E) protein kinases are activated.

D) gene transcription is initiated.

21

21) The humoral control of hormone release may be triggered which of the following factors?
A) blood level of an ion like calcium
B) blood level of a pituitary hormone
C) blood level of a hypothalamic hormone
D) nervous stimuli
E) neurotransmitter activation

A) blood level of an ion like calcium

22

22) Which of the following hormones is/are water soluble and therefore bind(s) to extracellular receptors?
A) insulin
B) epinephrine
C) cortisol
D) calcitriol
E) insulin and epinephrine

E) insulin and epinephrine

23

23) If the adenyl cyclase activity of liver cells were missing, which of these hormones could no longer stimulate release of glucose?
A) progesterone
B) glucagon
C) cortisol
D) thyroxine
E) leptin

B) glucagon

24

24) Increased activity of phosphodiesterase in a target cell would decrease its level of
A) testosterone.
B) estrogen.
C) thyroid hormone.
D) cAMP.
E) progesterone.

D) cAMP.

25

25) The intracellular protein ________ binds calcium ion. This complex can then activate enzymes.
A) prostaglandin
B) phosphodiesterase
C) cyclic AMP
D) calmodulin
E) kinase

D) calmodulin

26

26) Receptors for ________, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids are found in the cell membranes of target cells.
A) catecholamines
B) carbohydrates
C) kinases
D) genes
E) acetylcholine

A) catecholamines

27

27) Cells that respond to a hormone are called ________ cells.
A) stem
B) pluripotent
C) germ
D) target
E) peripheral

D) target

28

28) One cause for insulin resistance in non-insulin dependent (Type II) diabetes is
A) insulin receptor up-regulation.
B) decreased insulin secretion.
C) decreased cortisol secretion.
D) insulin receptor down-regulation.
E) cortisol receptor up-regulation.

D) insulin receptor down-regulation.

29

29) Which of the following is not a characteristic of the second-messenger mechanism of hormone
action?
A) Hormone effects are amplified.
B) G proteins and cAMP are used.
C) Receptors are on the cell surface.
D) Cellular operations are altered by direct stimulation of a gene.
E) Kinases may phosphorylate proteins.

D) Cellular operations are altered by direct stimulation of a gene.

30

30) Upon binding of a single first messenger to a plasma membrane, thousands of second messengers may become activated. This effect is known as
A) receptor down-regulation.
B) receptor up-regulation.
C) amplification.
D) humoral stimuli.
E) synergism.

C) amplification.

31

31) Intracellular calcium stores open in response to intracellular activation of
A) protein kinase C, diacylglycerol, and inositol triphosphate.
B) calmodulin.
C) leukotrienes.
D) adenylate cyclase.
E) phosphodiesterase, adenylate cyclase, and prostacyclins.

A) protein kinase C, diacylglycerol, and inositol triphosphate.

32

32) Leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes are all examples of
A) amino acid derivatives.
B) eicosanoids.
C) tyrosine derivatives.
D) glycoproteins.
E) steroid hormones.

B) eicosanoids.

33

33) Which hormone is not correctly matched?
A) epinephrine: amino acid derivative
B) insulin: peptide hormone
C) testosterone: amino acid derivative
D) cortisol: lipid derivative
E) eicosanoids: lipid derivative

C) testosterone: amino acid derivative

34

34) The hypothalamus acts as both a neural and a(n) ________ organ.
A) endocrine
B) cardiovascular
C) renal
D) muscular
E) hepatic

A) endocrine

35

35) The most complex endocrine responses involve the
A) thyroid gland.
B) pancreas.
C) adrenal glands.
D) hypothalamus.
E) thymus gland.

D) hypothalamus.

36

36) Destruction of the supra-optic nucleus of the hypothalamus would have which of the following results?
A) loss of ADH secretion
B) loss of GH secretion
C) loss of melatonin secretion
D) loss of thyroid stimulating hormone secretion
E) loss of prolactin secretion

A) loss of ADH secretion

37

37) If the hypophyseal portal system is destroyed, the hypothalamus would no longer be able to control the secretion of which of the following hormones?
A) TSH
B) ACTH
C) PRL
D) ADH and OXT
E) TSH, ACTH, PRL

E) TSH, ACTH, PRL

38

38) Changes in blood osmotic pressure would most affect the secretion of
A) ACTH.
B) ADH.
C) oxytocin.
D) TSH.
E) LH.

B) ADH.

39

39) The hypothalamus controls secretion in the adenohypophysis by
A) direct neural stimulation.
B) indirect osmotic control.
C) secreting releasing and inhibiting hormones into the hypophysealportal system.
D) altering ion concentrations and pH in the anterior pituitary.
E) gap synaptic junctions.

C) secreting releasing and inhibiting hormones into the hypophysealportal system.

40

40) Neurons of the supra-optic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture
A) CRF and GnRH.
B) TSH and FSH.
C) ADH and oxytocin.
D) FSH and PRL.
E) GHIH and GHRH.

C) ADH and oxytocin.

41

41) The main action of antidiuretic hormone is
A) increased water conservation by kidneys.
B) to stimulate kidney cells to secrete renin.
C) increase urine output to remove excess fluid.
D) increased blood pressure by increased Na+ reabsorption.
E) inhibition of aldosterone.

A) increased water conservation by kidneys.

42

42) Excess secretion of growth hormone during early development will cause
A) dwarfism.
B) rickets.
C) gigantism.
D) acromegaly.
E) diabetes insipidus.

C) gigantism.

43

43) Which of the following hormones may lead to acromegaly if hypersecreted after closure of the epiphyseal plates?
A) cortisol
B) parathyroid hormone
C) insulin
D) growth hormone
E) epinephrine

D) growth hormone

44

44) The hormone produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis during early childhood is
A) FSH.
B) ADH.
C) TSH.
D) MSH.
E) ACTH.

D) MSH.

45

45) Each of the following hormones is produced by the pars distalis of the adenohypophysis except
A) FSH.
B) oxytocin.
C) TSH.
D) corticotropin.
E) somatotropin.

B) oxytocin.

46

46) All of the following are true of oxytocin except?
A) It promotes uterine contractions.
B) It is responsible for milk expression from the mammary glands.
C) It triggers prostate gland contraction.
D) It is produced in the hypothalamus.
E) It is stored in the anterior pituitary.

E) It is stored in the anterior pituitary.

47

47) Growth hormone does all of the following except
A) promote bone growth.
B) promote muscle growth.
C) promote cortisol release.
D) spare glucose.
E) promote amino acid uptake by cells.

C) promote cortisol release.

48

48) Liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called
A) gonadotrophins.
B) prostaglandins.
C) hepatic hormones.
D) somatomedins.
E) glucocorticoids.

D) somatomedins.

49

49) The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is
A) TSH.
B) ACTH.
C) FSH.
D) LH.
E) GH.

A) TSH.

50

50) The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex is
A) TSH.
B) ACTH.
C) FSH.
D) LH.
E) GH.

B) ACTH.

51

51) The pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in
testes is
A) TSH.
B) ACTH.
C) FSH.
D) LH.
E) GH.

C) FSH.

52

The pituitary hormone that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is
A) TSH.
B) ACTH.
C) FSH.
D) LH.
E) GH.

D) LH.

53

The pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is
A) TSH.
B) ACTH.
C) growth hormone.
D) FSH.
E) prolactin.

E) prolactin.

54

The pituitary hormone that stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating protein synthesis is
A) ACTH.
B) MSH.
C) prolactin.
D) insulin.
E) growth hormone.

E) growth hormone.

55

55) After brain surgery, a patient receiving postoperative care in an intensive care unit began to pass large volumes of very dilute urine. The ICU nurse administered a medicine that mimics one of the following hormones. Which one?
A) aldosterone
B) epinephrine
C) renin
D) ADH
E) cortisol

D) ADH

56

56) The term used to describe excess production of urine is
A) polyuria.
B) polydipsia.
C) hematuria.
D) glycosuria.
E) polyphagia.

A) polyuria.

57

57) The two lobes of the pituitary gland together produce or store how many hormones?
A) 3
B) 5
C) 7
D) 9
E) 16

D) 9

58

58) The hormone(s) that may be slowly administered by intravenous drip to accelerate labor and delivery is/are
A) oxytocin.
B) prolactin.
C) luteinizing hormone.
D) follicle stimulating hormone.
E) both oxytocin and luteinizing hormone.

A) oxytocin.

59

59) The posterior lobe of the pituitary is also known as the
A) basal ganglion.
B) infundibulum.
C) adenohypophysis.
D) mesencephalon.
E) neurohypophysis.

E) neurohypophysis.

60

60) The anterior lobe of the pituitary is also known as the
A) basal ganglion.
B) infundibulum.
C) adenohypophysis.
D) mesencephalon.
E) neurohypophysis.

C) adenohypophysis.

61

61) The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland can be divided into three parts: the pars distalis, the pars intermedia, and the pars
A) tuberalis.
B) nervosa.
C) pinea.
D) intermedia.
E) magnus.

A) tuberalis.

62

62) Hormones produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that regulate the male and female reproductive organs are collectively called
A) tropic hormones.
B) androgens.
C) somatotropins.
D) immunogens.
E) gonadotropins.

E) gonadotropins.

63

63) Abnormally low production of LH and FSH results in
A) diabetes insipidus.
B) a diabetogenic effect.
C) hypogonadism.
D) a glucose-sparing effect.
E) hypocortisolism.

C) hypogonadism.

64

64) Vasopressin is a common term for this hormone.
A) ADH
B) GH
C) oxytocin
D) prolactin
E) TSH

A) ADH

65

65) The pituitary gland is located within this structure.
A) the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone
B) hypoglossal canal
C) crista galli
D) sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
E) petrous part of the temporal bone

D) sella turcica of the sphenoid bone

66

66) Milk production is stimulated by ________, milk ejection is stimulated by ________.
A) somatomedin; MSH
B) prolactin; oxytocin
C) oxytocin; prolactin
D) MSH; somatomedin
E) LH; FSH

B) prolactin; oxytocin

67

67) All of the following are functions of LH except
A) triggering ovulation.
B) stimulating secretion of testosterone.
C) stimulating the formation of the corpus luteum.
D) stimulating the secretion of progesterone.
E) stimulating follicle development.

E) stimulating follicle development.

68

68) A tumor in the pituitary gland could directly result in all of the following except
A) hypercortisolism.
B) pituitary dwarfism.
C) diabetes insipidus.
D) gigantism.
E) hypogonadism.

A) hypercortisolism.

69

69) Hormones that stimulate endocrine glands to release other hormones are
A) humoral.
B) tropic.
C) reflexive.
D) up-regulators.
E) paracrine factors.

B) tropic.

70

70) Hypophyseal portal system capillaries are
A) lined by tight junctions.
B) lined by microglial cells.
C) fenestrated.
D) impermeable.
E) lined by podocytes.

C) fenestrated.

71

76) Which of the following elements is necessary for the production of thyroid hormone?
A) sodium
B) iodine
C) potassium
D) iron
E) colloid

B) iodine

72

77) Activity of which of the following cells is inhibited by calcitonin release?
A) alpha cells
B) osteoclasts
C) osteoblasts
D) C cells
E) all cells in the body

B) osteoclasts

73

78) All of the following are known effects of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissues except
A) increased oxygen consumption.
B) increased heart rate.
C) increased sensitivity to autonomic stimulation.
D) increased body temperature.
E) decreased cellular metabolism.

E) decreased cellular metabolism.

74

79) Mental and physical sluggishness and low body temperature may be signs of
A) hyperthyroidism.
B) hypothyroidism.
C) hyperparathyroidism.
D) hypoparathyroidism.
E) diabetes insipidus.

B) hypothyroidism.

75

80) The hormone that plays a pivotal role in setting the metabolic rate and thus impacting body temperature is
A) somatotropin.
B) thyroxine.
C) calcitonin.
D) parathyroid hormone.
E) glucagon.

B) thyroxine.

76

81) A hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is
A) parathyroid hormone.
B) thyroxine.
C) calcitonin.
D) glucagon.
E) oxytocin.

C) calcitonin.

77

82) The C cells of the thyroid gland produce
A) thyroxine.
B) TSH.
C) calcitonin.
D) PTH.
E) triiodothyronine.

C) calcitonin.

78

83) Increased levels of the hormone ________ will lead to decreased levels of calcium ion in the blood via inhibition of ________.
A) thymosin; osteocytes
B) calcitonin; osteoclasts
C) PTH; osteocytes
D) aldosterone; osteoclasts
E) cortisol; osteoblasts

B) calcitonin; osteoclasts

79

84) Where does the chemical reaction between thyroglobulin and iodine take place?
A) in lysosomes
B) in rough endoplasmic reticulum
C) in the follicle cavity
D) in pinocytotic vesicles
E) in apical microvilli

C) in the follicle cavity

80

85) TSH plays a key role in the ________ of thyroid hormones.
A) inhibition
B) synthesis
C) release
D) inhibition and secretion
E) synthesis and release

E) synthesis and release

81

86) The control of calcitonin excretion is an example of direct ________ regulation.
A) endocrine
B) pancreatic
C) homeostatic
D) hepatic
E) vascular

A) endocrine

82

87) Thyroxine and calcitonin are secreted by the
A) kidneys.
B) heart.
C) thyroid gland.
D) gonads.
E) pituitary gland.

C) thyroid gland.

83

88) Which of the following is not an action of TSH?
A) stimulates T3 and T4 secretion
B) stimulates iodide trapping by thyroid follicle cells
C) inhibits T3 and T4 secretion
D) stimulates pinocytosis of colloid by thyroid follicle cells
E) increases cyclic AMP concentration within thyroid follicle cells

C) inhibits T3 and T4 secretion

84

89) The two lobes of the thyroid gland are connected by the
A) isthmus.
B) pars intermedia.
C) commissure.
D) aqueduct.
E) infundibulum.

A) isthmus.

85

90) The thyroid gland is composed of many ________ that produce and store thyroid hormone.
A) tubules
B) follicles
C) ducts
D) capillaries
E) plexuses

B) follicles

86

91) Thyroid hormones are structural derivatives of the amino acid
A) glutamic acid.
B) epinephrine.
C) iodine.
D) tyrosine.
E) glycine.

D) tyrosine.

87

92) The specific target cells of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine are
A) the cells of the parathyroid glands.
B) the cells of the pituitary gland.
C) all cells of the body.
D) the cells of the ovaries and testes.
E) the cells of the thymus gland.

C) all cells of the body.

88

93) Follicle cells synthesize a protein called
A) calcitonin.
B) thyroglobulin.
C) transthyretin.
D) albumin.
E) colloid.

B) thyroglobulin.

89

94) The majority of thyroid hormones are secreted as ________ but small amounts of ________ is also secreted from the follicle.
A) transthyretin; calcitonin
B) T3; calcitonin
C) T4; T3
D) thyroglobulin; transthyretin
E) calcitonin; colloid

C) T4; T3

90

95) Thyroid hormone may increase cellular ATP production by binding to
A) the cytoplasm.
B) the outer surface of the plasma membrane.
C) the inner surface of the plasma membrane.
D) the mitochondria.
E) the vesicles.

D) the mitochondria.

91

96) If dietary iodine levels are deficient you would expect that plasma TSH levels would be ________ and that plasma thyroxine levels would be ________.
A) high; low
B) low; high
C) unchanged; low
D) low; unchanged
E) low; low

A) high; low

92

97) Before the discovery of these glands, thyroid surgery often led to a rapid drop in blood calcium levels, which triggered muscle contractions and cardiac arrhythmias. What glands are these and which hormone is lacking?
A) thyroid glands; calcitonin
B) parathyroid glands; calcitonin
C) parathyroid glands; parathyroid hormone
D) thyroid glands; levothyroxine
E) parathyroid glands; levothyroxine

C) parathyroid glands; parathyroid hormone

93

98) Parathyroid hormone does all of the following except
A) stimulate osteoclast activity.
B) inhibit osteoblast activity.
C) build up bone.
D) stimulate the formation and secretion of calcitriol at the kidneys.
E) enhance the reabsorption of calcium at the kidneys.

C) build up bone.

94

99) The hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin is
A) insulin.
B) glucagon.
C) growth hormone.
D) parathyroid hormone.
E) thyroid hormone.

D) parathyroid hormone.

95

100) The parathyroid glands produce a hormone that
A) stimulates the formation of white blood cells.
B) increases the level of calcium ions in the blood.
C) increases the level of sodium ions in the blood.
D) increases the level of potassium ions in the blood.
E) increases the level of glucose in the blood.

B) increases the level of calcium ions in the blood.

96

101) A tumor present on the parathyroid gland causing hyperparathyroidism may lead to
A) osteoporosis and kidney stones.
B) diabetes mellitus and hypercortisolism.
C) diabetes mellitus.
D) diabetes insipidus.
E) hypogonadism.

A) osteoporosis and kidney stones.

97

102) The zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex produces
A) androgens.
B) glucocorticoids.
C) mineralocorticoids.
D) epinephrine.
E) norepinephrine.

A) androgens.

98

103) The zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex produces
A) androgens.
B) glucocorticoids.
C) mineralocorticoids.
D) epinephrine.
E) norepinephrine.

B) glucocorticoids.

99

104) The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex produces
A) androgens.
B) glucocorticoids.
C) mineralocorticoids.
D) epinephrine.
E) norepinephrine.

C) mineralocorticoids.

100

105) The adrenal medulla produces
A) androgens.
B) glucocorticoids.
C) mineralocorticoids.
D) catecholamines.
E) corticosteroids.

D) catecholamines.

101

106) A hormone that promotes gluconeogenesis in the liver is
A) aldosterone.
B) erythropoietin.
C) thymosin.
D) cortisol.
E) calcitonin.

D) cortisol.

102

107) A hormone that helps to regulate the sodium ion content of the body is
A) cortisol.
B) parathormone.
C) thymosin.
D) somatotropin.
E) aldosterone.

E) aldosterone.

103

108) Cushingʹs disease results from an excess of
A) growth hormone.
B) parathyroid hormone.
C) ADH.
D) glucocorticoids.
E) epinephrine.

D) glucocorticoids.

104

109) Reduction of fluid losses at the kidneys due to the retention of Na+ is the action of
A) antidiuretic hormone.
B) calcitonin.
C) aldosterone.
D) cortisone.
E) oxytocin.

C) aldosterone.

105

110) The adrenal medulla produces the hormones
A) synephrine and neosynephrine.
B) epinephrine and norepinephrine.
C) corticosterone and testosterone.
D) androgens and progesterone.
E) cortisone and cortisol.

B) epinephrine and norepinephrine.

106

111) Damage to cells of the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex would result in
A) the loss of axillary and pubic hair.
B) increased volume of urine formation.
C) decreased levels of sodium ion in the blood.
D) decreased ability to convert amino acids to glucose.
E) increased water retention.

D) decreased ability to convert amino acids to glucose.

107

112) A rise in cortisol would cause an increase in each of the following except
A) the rate of glucose synthesis by the liver.
B) the rate of glycogen formation by the liver.
C) the level of fatty acids in the blood.
D) fatty acid metabolism by muscle cells.
E) ACTH levels.

E) ACTH levels.

108

113) If a patient is administered a powerful glucocorticoid (such as prednisone) to suppress the immune system, what unintended effects might this have on blood chemistry?
A) increase of sodium
B) decrease of sodium
C) increase of blood glucose
D) decrease of blood glucose
E) both an increase in insulin and an increase in glucose

E) both an increase in insulin and an increase in glucose

109

114) Hyposecretion of cortisol causes
A) goiter.
B) diabetes mellitus.
C) diabetes insipidus.
D) Addisonʹs disease.
E) Cushingʹs disease.

D) Addisonʹs disease.

110

115) A hormone that is synergistic to growth hormone is
A) aldosterone.
B) insulin.
C) cortisol.
D) calcitonin.
E) renin.

C) cortisol.

111

116) Which of the following hormones increases and prolongs effects of the sympathetic nervous system?
A) cortisol
B) parathyroid hormone
C) insulin
D) growth hormone
E) acetylcholine

A) cortisol

112

117) Which gland is called the ʺemergency glandʺ and helps the body adjust to stress?
A) thyroid
B) adrenal (suprarenal)
C) pituitary
D) pancreas
E) thymus

B) adrenal (suprarenal)

113

118) Which group of hormones cause an anti-inflammatory action?
A) thyroglobulins
B) mineralocorticoids
C) pancreatic hormones
D) antidiuretic hormones
E) glucocorticoids

E) glucocorticoids

114

119) Hormones from the adrenal cortex that regulate electrolyte balance are
A) antidiuretics.
B) calcitonin and parathyroid hormone.
C) mineralocorticoids.
D) androgens.
E) glucocorticoids.

C) mineralocorticoids.

115

120) During dehydration the body would increase production of
A) aldosterone and cortisol.
B) cortisol and ADH.
C) epinephrine and cortisol.
D) aldosterone and ADH.
E) epinephrine and ADH.

D) aldosterone and ADH.

116

121) Which hormone may be prescribed in chronic inflammatory disorders such as Lupus?
A) aldosterone
B) cortisol
C) androgens
D) calcitonin
E) insulin

B) cortisol

117

122) The adrenal medulla primarily secretes
A) epinephrine.
B) norepinephrine.
C) dopamine.
D) cortisol.
E) aldosterone.

A) epinephrine.

118

123) Excess production of hormones by the zona reticularis may lead to which disorder?
A) aldosteronism
B) gigantism
C) pheochromocytoma
D) adrenogenital syndrome
E) Cushingʹs disease

D) adrenogenital syndrome

119

124) A patient is receiving exogenous cortisol in the form of hydrocortisone shots for a sinus infection. Their natural adrenal secretion of cortisol will decrease due to negative feedback on the ________ reducing the secretion of ________.
A) hypothalamus; ACTH
B) anterior pituitary; CRH
C) hypothalamus; cortisol
D) anterior pituitary; cortisol
E) anterior pituitary; ACTH

E) anterior pituitary; ACTH

120

125) Which of the following is false concerning melatonin?
A) Exposure to light inhibits production.
B) Exposure to light stimulates production.
C) It inhibits releases of GnRH.
D) It is produced by pinealocytes.
E) It is made from serotonin.

B) Exposure to light stimulates production.

121

126) Melatonin is produced by the
A) thymus.
B) pineal gland.
C) kidneys.
D) skin.
E) heart.

B) pineal gland.

122

127) Each of the following is true of the pineal gland except that it
A) is a component of the epithalamus.
B) is a component of the hypothalamus.
C) secretes melatonin.
D) contains pinealocytes.
E) responds to light and darkness.

B) is a component of the hypothalamus.

123

128) The condition known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD) may be caused by
A) increased levels of melanin.
B) increased levels of melatonin.
C) increased levels of melanocyte-stimulating hormone.
D) increased levels of gonadotrophins.
E) decreased levels of testosterone.

B) increased levels of melatonin.

124

129) All of the following may be functions of melatonin except that it
A) can act as an antioxidant.
B) protects against free-radicals.
C) may maintain circadian rhythms.
D) can act as an insulin synergist.
E) may influence sexual maturation.

D) can act as an insulin synergist.

125

130) Alpha cells are to ________ as beta cells are to ________.
A) glucagon; insulin
B) somatostatin; insulin
C) insulin; glucagon
D) glucagon; somatostatin
E) pancreatic polypeptide; insulin

A) glucagon; insulin

126

131) If a diabetic patient received too much insulin, the low blood sugar could be corrected by injecting
A) glucagon.
B) GHIH.
C) thyroid hormone.
D) aldosterone.
E) antidiuretic hormone.

A) glucagon.

127

132) The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to fall is
A) cortisol.
B) somatotropin.
C) insulin.
D) glucagon.
E) aldosterone.

C) insulin.

128

133) In persons with untreated diabetes mellitus all of the following are true, except
A) blood glucose levels are very high.
B) excessive thirst is shown.
C) glucose is present in the urine in large amounts.
D) a large excretion of urine occurs.
E) intracellular and tissue levels of glucose is very high.

E) intracellular and tissue levels of glucose is very high.

129

134) Which of the following might occur in an overdose of insulin?
A) glycosuria
B) ketoacidosis
C) high blood glucose
D) low blood glucose
E) polyuria

D) low blood glucose

130

135) Which of the following statements is true about the pancreas?
A) The pancreas lies over the top of the stomach.
B) The sole function of the pancreas is to produce hormones.
C) The pituitary gland produces stimulating hormones that control the pancreas.
D) The islets contain a variety of different cells producing different hormones.
E) The pancreas stores glucose, which can be released into the blood.

D) The islets contain a variety of different cells producing different hormones.

131

136) When blood glucose levels fall,
A) insulin is released.
B) glucagon is released.
C) peripheral cells take up more glucose.
D) protein synthesis increases.
E) calcitonin is secreted.

B) glucagon is released.

132

137) The beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce
A) insulin.
B) glucagon.
C) somatostatin.
D) cortisol.
E) peptide P.

A) insulin.

133

138) The delta cells of the pancreatic islets produce
A) insulin.
B) glucagon.
C) somatostatin.
D) cortisol.
E) peptide P.

C) somatostatin.

134

139) Type II diabetes is characterized by
A) a lack of response by target cells to insulin.
B) a decrease in secretion by pancreatic beta cells.
C) excessive secretion of glucagon.
D) inadequate insulin production.
E) low blood-glucose concentration.

A) a lack of response by target cells to insulin.

135

140) Which of the following hormones stimulates skeletal muscle fibers to take in glucose from the blood?
A) calcitonin
B) cortisol
C) insulin
D) glucagon
E) parathyroid hormone

C) insulin

136

141) Which of the following directly regulates the secretion of insulin?
A) parasympathetic nervous system
B) sympathetic nervous system
C) blood glucose concentration
D) hypothalamus
E) tropic hormones from the pituitary gland

C) blood glucose concentration

137

142) All of the pancreatic hormones are regulated by
A) the adenohypophysis.
B) the liver.
C) the neurohypophysis.
D) the thyroid gland.
E) nutrient concentrations in the blood.

E) nutrient concentrations in the blood.

138

143) Cells in the brain
A) can absorb glucose without insulin stimulation.
B) prefer fats to glucose for energy production.
C) are sensitive to insulin but not to glucagon.
D) are very sensitive to high concentrations of glucagon.
E) can store glycogen, to be used later for glucose release.

A) can absorb glucose without insulin stimulation.

139

144) Inability of the pancreas to produce insulin results in
A) acromegaly.
B) goiter.
C) diabetes mellitus.
D) diabetes insipidus.
E) Addisonʹs disease.

C) diabetes mellitus.

140

145) Which problem is related to untreated diabetes mellitus?
A) damage to the retina
B) neuropathy
C) gastric ulcers
D) goiter
E) retinal problems and nerve problems

E) retinal problems and nerve problems

141

146) Type 2 diabetes
A) can usually be controlled by diet and exercise rather than with medication.
B) is associated with an immune reaction to the pancreatic cells.
C) is a lack of insulin production.
D) is typically diagnosed in the very young.
E) is not as common as type 1 diabetes.

A) can usually be controlled by diet and exercise rather than with medication.

142

147) Which hormone is not produced by the pancreas?
A) glucagon
B) pancreatic polypeptide
C) somatostatin
D) calcitriol
E) insulin

D) calcitriol

143

148) At about 4pm in the afternoon, you could expect that ________ will be released if you have not eaten since 12pm.
A) insulin
B) glucagon
C) melatonin
D) pancreatic polypeptide
E) insulin and glucagon

B) glucagon

144

149) Which of the following is not true regarding Type 1 Diabetes?
A) pancreatic destruction of beta cells
B) need insulin injections or infusion
C) tissues exhibit insulin resistance
D) accounts for only about 5% of cases of diabetes
E) usually diagnosed in children or young adults

C) tissues exhibit insulin resistance

145

150) Poorly managed diabetes can adversely affect which organ(s)?
A) kidneys
B) eyes
C) heart and blood vessels
D) nerves
E) kidneys, eyes, nerves, heart and blood vessels

E) kidneys, eyes, nerves, heart and blood vessels

146

151) The interstitial endocrine cells of the testes produce
A) LH.
B) progesterone.
C) testosterone.
D) inhibin.
E) FSH.

C) testosterone.

147

152) Follicle cells in the ovary secrete ________ when stimulated by FSH.
A) estrogen
B) progesterone
C) testosterone
D) inhibin
E) gonadotropins

A) estrogen

148

153) A structure known as the corpus luteum secretes
A) testosterone.
B) progesterone.
C) aldosterone.
D) cortisone.
E) androstenedione.

B) progesterone.

149

154) The hormone that opposes the release of FSH in both males and females is
A) testosterone.
B) LH.
C) inhibin.
D) aldosterone.
E) somatostatin.

C) inhibin.

150

155) The hormones that are important for coordinating the immune response are
A) thymosins.
B) corticosteroids.
C) aldosterones.
D) thyroxines.
E) somatotropins.

A) thymosins.

151

156) Which of the following hormones increases production of red blood cells?
A) cortisol
B) erythropoietin
C) thymosin
D) aldosterone
E) atrial natriuretic peptide

B) erythropoietin

152

157) Cholecalciferol is synthesized within the
A) bone marrow of the skeletal system.
B) splenic pulp of the lymphatic system.
C) endothelial linings of the cardiovascular system.
D) hypothalamus of the nervous system.
E) epidermis of the integumentary system.

E) epidermis of the integumentary system.

153

158) The heart secretes the hormone
A) progesterone.
B) oxytocin.
C) thymosin.
D) thyroxine.
E) atrial natriuretic peptide.

E) atrial natriuretic peptide.

154

159) Adipocytes produce a peptide hormone called ________ that acts on the hypothalamus.
A) leptin
B) grehlin
C) lipase
D) glucagon
E) adipocin

A) leptin

155

160) The hormone related to appetite control is
A) thymosin.
B) brain natriuretic peptide.
C) melanin.
D) leptin.
E) erythropoietin.

D) leptin.

156

161) Why might someone want to take erythropoietin in a non-medical situation?
A) to increase muscle mass
B) to sleep
C) to increase oxygen-carrying capacity and increase stamina
D) to increase the chance of getting pregnant
E) to increase sex drive

C) to increase oxygen-carrying capacity and increase stamina

157

162) The effects of this hormone oppose aldosterone.
A) ADH
B) oxytocin
C) inhibin
D) atrial natriuretic peptide
E) renin

D) atrial natriuretic peptide

158

163) This hormone is released in response to PTH and its actions are synergistic to PTH.
A) calcitriol
B) calcitonin
C) inhibin
D) cholecystokinin
E) pancreatic polypeptide

A) calcitriol

159

164) Which is not a component of the RAAS and does not contribute to blood volume and electrolyte homeostasis?
A) renin
B) angiotensin
C) ADH
D) aldosterone
E) androgens

E) androgens

160

165) Increased aggressive and assertive behavior is associated with an increase in which of the following hormones?
A) somatostatin
B) thyroxine
C) growth hormone
D) androgens
E) insulin

D) androgens

161

166) The hormone that dominates during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is
A) testosterone.
B) aldosterone.
C) cortisol.
D) thyroid hormone.
E) epinephrine.

E) epinephrine.

162

167) You have just become the nurse manager of a nursing home and you are reminding yourself about what problems your nursing home population might have by studying your old pathophysiology books from nursing school. Many of the residents are tired and have problems with blood glucose levels. All of the following hormones might be related except
A) insulin.
B) cortisol.
C) thymosin.
D) thyroid hormones.
E) GH.

C) thymosin.

163

168) During the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS), there is
A) decreased blood flow to skeletal muscles and skin.
B) decreased mental alertness.
C) mobilization of energy reserves.
D) increased urine release.
E) decreased rate of respiration.

C) mobilization of energy reserves.

164

169) If stress lasts longer than a few hours, an individual will enter the ________ phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS).
A) alarm
B) resistance
C) exhaustion
D) extension
E) prolonged

B) resistance

165

170) Hormones that dominate during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) are the
A) mineralocorticoids.
B) androgens.
C) glucocorticoids.
D) catecholamines.
E) gonadotropins.

C) glucocorticoids.

166

171) During the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS),
A) lipid reserves are mobilized.
B) proteins are conserved.
C) blood glucose levels fall drastically.
D) levels of growth hormone decrease.
E) levels of insulin decrease.

A) lipid reserves are mobilized.

167

172) The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is characterized by
A) failure of electrolyte balance.
B) an increasing ability to produce glucose from glycogen.
C) increased pumping effectiveness of the heart.
D) a sharp increase in motivation and energy.
E) an increase in urine output.

A) failure of electrolyte balance.

168

173) Two hormones that have opposing effects are called
A) antagonists.
B) agonists.
C) resistors.
D) synergists.
E) adjuvants.

A) antagonists.

169

174) Two hormones that have additive effects are called
A) antagonists.
B) agonists.
C) resistors.
D) synergists.
E) adjuvants.

D) synergists.

170

175) Hormones that produce different but complementary results are called
A) permissive.
B) integrative.
C) radicals.
D) synergists.
E) antagonists.

B) integrative.

171

176) Normal growth is dependent on all of the following hormones except
A) thyroid hormones.
B) oxytocin.
C) growth hormone.
D) insulin.
E) glucocorticoids.

B) oxytocin.

172

177) Which of the following is not an antagonistic hormone pair?
A) glucagon; insulin
B) calcitonin; parathyroid hormone
C) leptin; thymosins
D) aldosterone; atrial natriuretic peptide
E) FSH; inhibin

C) leptin; thymosins

173

178) The absence of which hormone during development will cause the nervous system to develop abnormally and cause developmental delays?
A) thymosin
B) calcitriol
C) calcitonin
D) androgens
E) thyroxine

E) thyroxine

174

1) The regulatory hormones from the hypothalamus control secretion from endocrine cells, which are located where?
A) anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
B) posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
C) thalamus
D) cortex of the adrenal gland
E) medulla of the adrenal gland

A) anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

175

2) In a typical regulation pattern of endocrine secretion, which hormone is responsible for negative feedback?
A) the releasing hormone
B) hormone 1 from the pituitary gland
C) hormone 2 from the endocrine target gland
D) the inhibiting hormone
E) the posterior pituitary hormone

C) hormone 2 from the endocrine target gland

176

3) What hormones are released from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and how does their release differ from hormones released by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland?
A) melanocyte stimulating hormone and growth hormone; posterior pituitary hormones are released in response to circadian rhythms
B) LH and FSH; posterior pituitary hormones are released at puberty
C) epinephrine and norepinephrine; posterior pituitary hormones are released following neural stimulation by the SNS
D) ADH and oxytocin; posterior pituitary hormones are released following stimulation by hypothalamic releasing hormones
E) ADH and oxytocin; posterior pituitary hormones are released directly from the
hypothalamus

E) ADH and oxytocin; posterior pituitary hormones are released directly from the
hypothalamus

177

4) Which zone of the adrenal cortex produces mineralocorticoids and what is the primary mineralocorticoid? (Figure 18-14)
A) zona reticularis; cortisol
B) zona reticularis; aldosterone
C) zona fasciculata; epinephrine
D) zona glomerulosa; aldosterone
E) zona glomerulosa; cortisol

D) zona glomerulosa; aldosterone