Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 28 Reproductive System Flashcards


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1

1) The reproductive system includes all of the following except
A) gonads and external genitalia.
B) ducts that receive and transport the gametes.
C) accessory glands and organs that secrete fluids.
D) organs for copulation.
E) glands and organs that produce and store urine.

E) glands and organs that produce and store urine.

2

2) The reproductive organ that produces gametes is called a
A) duct.
B) gland.
C) gonad.
D) womb.
E) girdle.

C) gonad.

3

3) The male gonad is called a(n)
A) seminal vesicle.
B) epididymis.
C) rete.
D) testis.
E) prostate.

D) testis.

4

4) Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens (vas deferens) by
A) hydrostatic force.
B) ciliary action.
C) peristaltic contractions.
D) suction.
E) hydraulic action.

C) peristaltic contractions.

5

5) Arrange the four structures listed below into the order in which sperm pass from the testis to
the external urethral orifice.
1. ductus deferens
2. urethra
3. ejaculatory duct
4. epididymis
A) 1, 3, 4, 2
B) 4, 3, 1, 2
C) 4, 1, 2, 3
D) 4, 1, 3, 2
E) 1, 4, 3, 2

D) 4, 1, 3, 2

6

6) The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged
sperm, and is the site of sperm maturation is the
A) ductus deferens.
B) rete testis.
C) seminal gland (seminal vesicle).
D) epididymis.
E) prostate gland.

D) epididymis.

7

7) The organ that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra is the
A) ductus deferens (vas deferens).
B) epididymis.
C) seminal gland (seminal vesicle).
D) ejaculatory duct.
E) corpus cavernosum.

A) ductus deferens (vas deferens).

8

8) Inward projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septa testis, divide the testis into
A) seminiferous tubules.
B) straight tubules.
C) lobules.
D) rete testis.
E) the epididymis and the testis proper.

C) lobules.

9

9) Straight tubules originate at the seminiferous tubules and form a network of passageways
called the
A) epididymis.
B) ductus deferens.
C) rete testis.
D) efferent ducts.
E) vas deferens.

C) rete testis.

10

10) The spermatic cord is
A) a bundle of tissue that contains the ductus deferens, blood vessels, nerves, and
lymphatics that serve the testis.
B) a narrow opening that links the scrotal chamber with the peritoneal cavity.
C) the external marking of the boundary between the two chambers of the scrotum.
D) a layer of smooth muscle in the skin of the scrotal sac.
E) a dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds the testis.

A) a bundle of tissue that contains the ductus deferens, blood vessels, nerves, and
lymphatics that serve the testis.

11

11) Interstitial endocrine cells produce
A) sperm.
B) inhibin.
C) nutrients.
D) testosterone.
E) androgen-binding protein.

D) testosterone.

12

12) Sperm production occurs in the
A) ductus deferens.
B) seminiferous tubules.
C) epididymis.
D) seminal glands (seminal vesicles).
E) rete testis.

B) seminiferous tubules.

13

13) The organ that produces a secretion that contains fructose, prostaglandins, and fibrinogen is
the
A) prostate gland.
B) bulbo-urethral gland.
C) seminal gland (seminal vesicle).
D) corpus cavernosum.
E) preputial gland.

C) seminal gland (seminal vesicle).

14

14) The organ that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the
A) seminal gland (seminal vesicle).
B) bulbo-urethral gland.
C) prostate gland.
D) preputial gland.
E) Bartholinʹs gland.

C) prostate gland.

15

15) The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the
A) seminal vesicles.
B) prostate glands.
C) preputial glands.
D) Bartholin glands.
E) bulbo-urethral glands.

E) bulbo-urethral glands.

16

16) Semen contains all of the following except
A) sperm.
B) seminal fluid.
C) prostaglandins.
D) spermatogonia.
E) fibrinogen.

D) spermatogonia.

17

17) The external marking of the boundary between the two testes is the
A) spermatic cord.
B) raphe.
C) tunica albuginea.
D) acrosome.
E) dartos muscle.

B) raphe.

18

18) The organ that delivers semen into the female reproductive tract is the
A) urethra.
B) ejaculatory duct.
C) penis.
D) corpus cavernosum.
E) corpus spongiosum.

C) penis.

19

19) The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the
A) ejaculatory duct.
B) foreskin.
C) corpus cavernosum.
D) corpus spongiosum.
E) penile urethra.

B) foreskin.

20

20) The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the
A) membranous urethra.
B) penile urethra.
C) glans penis.
D) corpus spongiosum.
E) corpora cavernosa.

D) corpus spongiosum.

21

21) The paired erectile bodies in the penis are the
A) membranous urethra.
B) penile urethra.
C) corpus spongiosum.
D) corpora cavernosa.
E) foreskin.

D) corpora cavernosa.

22

22) Which of the following glands contributes the most volume to semen?
A) prostate gland
B) rete testis
C) seminal gland (seminal vesicle)
D) bulbo-urethral gland
E) foreskin

C) seminal gland (seminal vesicle)

23

23) The delicate layer of serous membrane that covers the testis is called the
A) median raphe.
B) tunica vaginalis.
C) tunica albuginea.
D) dartos.
E) lamina propria.

B) tunica vaginalis.

24

24) The PSA test is used for diagnosis of
A) testicular cancer.
B) penile cancer.
C) prostatitis.
D) premature puberty.
E) prostate cancer.

E) prostate cancer.

25

25) A typical ejaculation releases approximately ________ sperm.
A) 1 million
B) 250 million
C) 100,000
D) 20 million
E) 800 million

B) 250 million

26

26) If the prostate stopped secreting fluid, this would result in semen
A) that lacked sperm.
B) with a higher than normal pH.
C) with less fructose.
D) with no mucus.
E) that was rich in prostaglandins.

B) with a higher than normal pH.

27

27) A vasectomy would interfere with a manʹs ability to
A) secrete testosterone.
B) make sperm.
C) ejaculate.
D) produce semen.
E) deliver sperm to the ejaculatory duct.

E) deliver sperm to the ejaculatory duct.

28

28) Contraction of the cremaster muscles
A) tenses the scrotum.
B) pulls the testes closer to the body cavity.
C) propels sperm through the urethra.
D) moves sperm through the ductus deferens.
E) tenses the scrotum and pulls the testes closer to the body cavity.

E) tenses the scrotum and pulls the testes closer to the body cavity.

29

29) Contraction of the dartos muscle
A) tightens the scrotum.
B) produces an erection.
C) propels sperm through the urethra.
D) moves sperm through the ductus deferens.
E) initiates seminal emission.

A) tightens the scrotum.

30

30) Functions of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system include all of the following
except
A) production of sperm.
B) meeting the nutrient needs of sperm for motility.
C) propelling sperm and fluids along the reproductive tract.
D) producing buffers.
E) activating the sperm.

A) production of sperm.

31

31) A normal sperm count ranges from approximately ________ sperm per milliliter.
A) 10 million
B) 100-150 million
C) 1-2 million
D) 500 million
E) 20-100 million

E) 20-100 million

32

32) Why are inguinal hernias generally associated with males?
A) Males have a gene on the Y chromosome that codes for inguinal hernia, whereas women do not have the Y chromosome.
B) Women have a thicker set of skeletal muscles in the abdominal wall compared to men.
C) Males work more strenuously than women, thereby damaging the abdominal wall.
D) Males have a canal through the abdominal wall that the testes move through, and it often does not close up properly.
E) The groin area is genetically weaker in men than in women because of the presence of the penis and testes.

D) Males have a canal through the abdominal wall that the testes move through, and it often does not close up properly.

33

33) The portion of the urethra that passes through the pelvic cavity floor is called the
A) membranous urethra.
B) bulbo-urethral.
C) penile urethra.
D) ureter.
E) prostatic urethra.

E) prostatic urethra.

34

34) The portion of the urethra that penetrates the urogenital diaphragm is the
A) membranous urethra.
B) penile urethra.
C) corpus spongiosum.
D) spongy urethra.
E) vascular urethra.

A) membranous urethra.

35

35) The surgical removal of the foreskin is called
A) circumcision.
B) orchidectomy.
C) tubectomy.
D) vasectomy.
E) pupectomy.

A) circumcision.

36

36) The ________ carries fluid from the seminal gland (seminal vesicle) through the prostate.
A) ejaculatory duct
B) vas deferens
C) ductus deferens
D) epididymis
E) rete

A) ejaculatory duct

37

37) The ductus deferens passes through the ________ to enter the pelvic cavity.
A) canaliculi
B) mesiobuccal canal
C) epididymis
D) inguinal canal
E) urinary bladder

D) inguinal canal

38

38) The organ inferior to the urinary bladder and contains the urethra in the middle is the ________ gland.
A) prostate
B) bulbo-urethral
C) Cowperʹs
D) seminal vesicle
E) seminiferous tubular

A) prostate

39

39) The cremaster muscle can raise and lower the testes to regulate
A) temperature.
B) expansion.
C) erection.
D) pH.
E) size.

A) temperature.

40

40) The pampiniform plexus of the testicular vein is found within the
A) epididymis.
B) raphe.
C) spermatic cord.
D) cremaster muscle.
E) rete testis.

C) spermatic cord.

41

41) For normal sperm development, the testes must be kept about
A) the same temperature as the brain.
B) 1.1°C cooler than core body temperature.
C) 1.1°C warmer than core body temperature.
D) 4.8°C cooler than core body temperature.
E) 4.8°C warmer than core body temperature.

B) 1.1°C cooler than core body temperature.

42

42) Each lobule contains approximately ________ seminiferous tubules.
A) 4
B) 100
C) 400
D) 800
E) 1500

D) 800

43

43) The rete testis is connected to the epididymis by
A) efferent ductules.
B) the spermatic cord.
C) the tunica albuginea.
D) the tunica vaginalis.
E) the straight tubules.

A) efferent ductules.

44

44) Frank is experiencing difficulty urinating, painful urination, low back pain and a slight fever. The doctor prescribes antibiotics and Frank recovers. It is likely that Frank suffered from
A) impotence.
B) prostate cancer.
C) prostatitis.
D) a vasectomy.
E) a circumcision.

C) prostatitis.

45

45) Which of the following does not contribute to seminal fluid?
A) seminal glands
B) prostate gland
C) nurse cells and epididymis
D) spermatic cords
E) bulbo-urethral glands

D) spermatic cords

46

46) Which of the following are not important enzymes found in seminal fluid?
A) proteases, help dissolve mucus in the vagina
B) seminalplasmin, an antibiotic enzyme
C) fibrinolysin, dissolves the semen clot after 15-30 minutes
D) coagulating enzymes, form a semen clot after ejaculation
E) hydrolases, remove water and concentrate semen

E) hydrolases, remove water and concentrate semen

47

47) The erectile tissue that extends down into the glans penis is the
A) corpus spongiosum.
B) corpora cavernosa.
C) preputial glands.
D) smegma.
E) crus of penis.

A) corpus spongiosum.

48

48) Kevin has been experiencing difficulty urinating now that he is over the age of 60. The doctor examines his prostate gland and finds no evidence of inflammation. Furthermore, Kevinʹs PSA test is normal. It is most likely that Kevin is suffering from
A) impotence.
B) prostate cancer.
C) benign prostatic hypertrophy.
D) prostatitis.
E) male climacteric.

C) benign prostatic hypertrophy.

49

59) The nurse cells of the seminiferous tubules do all of the following except
A) maintain the blood testis barrier.
B) support spermiogenesis.
C) secrete inhibin.
D) secrete testosterone.
E) secrete androgen-binding protein.

D) secrete testosterone.

50

60) Sperm develop from stem cells called
A) spermatogonia.
B) primary spermatocytes.
C) secondary spermatocytes.
D) spermatids.
E) sperm.

A) spermatogonia.

51

61) When spermatogonia divide, the daughter cells are called
A) spermatogonia.
B) spermatocytes.
C) spermatids.
D) sperm.
E) Sertoli cells.

B) spermatocytes.

52

62) The cells that are formed during spermatogenesis by meiosis I are called
A) spermatogonia.
B) primary spermatocytes.
C) secondary spermatocytes.
D) spermatids.
E) sperm.

C) secondary spermatocytes.

53

63) The process of spermiogenesis produces
A) spermatogonia.
B) primary spermatocytes.
C) secondary spermatocytes.
D) spermatids.
E) sperm.

E) sperm.

54

64) The role of FSH in males is to
A) stimulate the interstitial endocrine cells to produce testosterone.
B) stimulate the growth of male accessory glands.
C) initiate sperm production in the testes.
D) develop and maintain secondary sex characteristics.
E) influence sexual behaviors and sex drive.

C) initiate sperm production in the testes.

55

65) The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial endocrine cells to secrete testosterone is
A) FSH.
B) LH.
C) ACTH.
D) GnRH.
E) GH.

B) LH.

56

66) A primary spermatocyte matures into ________ spermatids having ________ chromosomes.
A) millions of; 46
B) four; 23
C) one; 46
D) millions of; 23
E) four; 46

B) four; 23

57

67) The special type of cell division required to produce gametes is called
A) mitosis.
B) meiosis.
C) maturation.
D) capacitation.
E) fertilization.

B) meiosis.

58

68) Sperm are functionally matured within the
A) epididymis.
B) straight tubules.
C) rete testes.
D) seminiferous tubules.
E) seminal gland (seminal vesicle).

A) epididymis.

59

69) During meiosis I, maternal and paternal chromosomes come together during the process called ________ to form a ________.
A) synapsis; chromatid
B) prophase I; chromatid
C) synapsis; spermatid
D) metaphase II; tetrad
E) synapsis; tetrad

E) synapsis; tetrad

60

70) In a mature human sperm, the
A) acrosome is next to the flagellum.
B) midpiece contains the chromosomes.
C) tail contains the mitochondria.
D) head contains 23 chromosomes.
E) head is diploid.

D) head contains 23 chromosomes.

61

71) Secondary spermatocytes each contain
A) 23 chromosomes.
B) 23 pairs of chromosomes.
C) twice the diploid number of chromosomes.
D) 46 pairs of chromosomes.
E) 46 chromosomes.

A) 23 chromosomes.

62

72) Testosterone is secreted by the
A) hypothalamus.
B) anterior pituitary.
C) nurse cells.
D) interstitial endocrine cells.
E) adrenal cortex.

D) interstitial endocrine cells.

63

73) Where in the male reproductive system would you expect to find the most mature sperm?
A) in the seminiferous tubules
B) in the head of the epididymis
C) near the tail of the epididymis
D) in the seminal gland
E) in the prostate gland

C) near the tail of the epididymis

64

74) A boy has a genetic mutation such that FSH is not produced, but LH is normal. After the boy
grows to maturity, it is likely he will
A) not develop secondary sex characteristics.
B) be sterile.
C) be impotent.
D) have impaired function of the interstitial endocrine cells.
E) produce large amounts of inhibin.

B) be sterile.

65

75) A male bodybuilder starts taking injections of testosterone (an anabolic steroid on a daily basis. After three weeks, you expect to observe all of the following, except
A) increased sex drive.
B) decreased levels of GnRH.
C) decreased levels of LH and FSH.
D) increased muscle mass.
E) decreased nurse cell stimulation.

E) decreased nurse cell stimulation.

66

76) Spermatids mature into sperm by the process of
A) spermiogenesis.
B) meiosis II.
C) spermatogenesis.
D) cytokinesis.
E) meiosis I.

A) spermiogenesis.

67

77) The ________ is the part of the sperm that contains the DNA.
A) head
B) neck
C) acrosome
D) zona pellucida
E) corona radiata

A) head

68

78) The middle piece of the sperm contains the ________ in a spiral arrangement.
A) nucleosome
B) chromosomes
C) mitochondria
D) flagella
E) acrosome

C) mitochondria

69

79) The ________ of a sperm contains the enzymes essential for fertilization.
A) acrosome
B) flagellum
C) nucleosome
D) neck
E) nucleus

A) acrosome

70

80) The most important androgen is
A) dihydrotestosterone.
B) androstenedione.
C) dehydroepiandrosterone.
D) progesterone.
E) testosterone.

E) testosterone.

71

81) The hormone that stimulates spermatogenesis in males is
A) PTH.
B) FSH.
C) LH.
D) GH.
E) MSH.

B) FSH.

72

82) The interstitial endocrine cells in the testes produce
A) dihydrotestosterone.
B) androstenedione.
C) growth hormone.
D) progesterone.
E) testosterone.

E) testosterone.

73

83) The level of testosterone is kept high locally in the seminiferous tubules by activation of
A) LH.
B) FSH.
C) androgen-binding protein.
D) dihydrotestosterone.
E) GnRH.

C) androgen-binding protein.

74

84) Which of the following is not found within the seminiferous tubule?
A) spermatogonia
B) spermatocytes
C) nurse cells
D) interstitial endocrine cells
E) spermatids

D) interstitial endocrine cells

75

85) The complete process of spermatogenesis takes approximately how many days?
A) 14
B) 28
C) 45
D) 64
E) 120

D) 64

76

86) At the end of meiosis II, one spermatogonium has formed
A) 2 fully functional sperm.
B) 4 fully functional sperm.
C) 2 spermatids.
D) 4 spermatids.
E) 1 sperm and 3 polar bodies.

D) 4 spermatids.

77

87) Which of the following is not true of meiosis I?
A) reductional division occurs
B) 4 haploid gametes are formed
C) number of chromosomes is reduced from 46 to 23 in daughter cells
D) diploid daughter cells form
E) daughter cells contain sister chromatids

B) 4 haploid gametes are formed

78

88) The role of inhibin in male reproduction is to
A) decrease the production of testosterone.
B) keep testosterone levels high inside the seminiferous tubule.
C) stimulate the testes to descend.
D) stimulate spermiogenesis.
E) provide negative feedback regulation of FSH and GnRH secretion.

E) provide negative feedback regulation of FSH and GnRH secretion.

79

89) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term endometrium?
A) thick layer of smooth muscle cells
B) supports the uterus anteriorly
C) supports the uterus laterally
D) consists of a functional zone and a basilar zone of epithelium
E) After ovulation, the ovum is captured by it.

D) consists of a functional zone and a basilar zone of epithelium

80

90) The broad ligament is a(n)
A) extensive mesentery that encloses the ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterus.
B) thickened fold of mesentery that supports and stabilizes the position of the ovary.
C) pocket formed between the posterior wall of the uterus and the anterior surface of the rectum.
D) structure that anchors the ovary to the recto-uterine pouch.
E) structure that extends from the lateral surface of the ovary to the pelvic wall.

A) extensive mesentery that encloses the ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterus.

81

91) The organ that transports the ovum to the uterus is the
A) uterosacral ligament.
B) vagina.
C) uterine (Fallopian) tube.
D) infundibulum.
E) myometrium.

C) uterine (Fallopian) tube.

82

92) The organ that provides mechanical protection and nutritional support for the developing embryo is the
A) vagina.
B) uterine tube.
C) ovary.
D) uterus.
E) cervix.

D) uterus.

83

93) The round ligaments extend from the
A) base of the uterus and vagina to the lateral walls of the pelvis.
B) lateral surface of the uterus to the anterior surface of the sacrum.
C) lateral margins of the uterus, through the inguinal canal to the external genitalia.
D) body of the uterus to the fundus.
E) cervix of the uterus to the vagina.

C) lateral margins of the uterus, through the inguinal canal to the external genitalia.

84

94) The inferior one-third portion of the uterus that projects into the vagina is the
A) isthmus.
B) vaginal fornix.
C) fundus.
D) body.
E) cervix.

E) cervix.

85

95) The thick muscular layer of the uterus is the
A) endometrium.
B) perimetrium.
C) myometrium.
D) uterometrium.
E) sarcometrium.

C) myometrium.

86

96) Which of the following statements concerning the vagina is false?
A) It serves as a passageway for the elimination of menstrual fluids.
B) It receives the penis during sexual intercourse.
C) It holds sperm prior to their passage to the uterus.
D) It forms the lower portion of the birth canal.
E) It loses a portion of its lining during menses.

E) It loses a portion of its lining during menses.

87

97) The vagina is
A) lined by simple columnar epithelium rich in goblet cells.
B) similar to the inner lining of the uterus.
C) another term for the cervix.
D) a muscular tube extending between the uterus and the external genitalia.
E) a muscular tube extending between the uterus and the anus.

D) a muscular tube extending between the uterus and the external genitalia.

88

98) The vulva includes all of the following except the
A) mons pubis.
B) vagina.
C) labia minora.
D) clitoris.
E) labia majora.

B) vagina.

89

99) The space bounded by the labia minora is the
A) vaginal fornix.
B) vestibule.
C) hymen.
D) clitoris.
E) isthmus.

B) vestibule.

90

100) Fatty folds of skin that encircle and partially conceal the labia minora and vestibule are the
A) fornices.
B) ampullae.
C) labia majora.
D) mons pubis.
E) vestibular arches.

C) labia majora.

91

101) The pigmented skin that surrounds the nipple is the
A) zona reticularis.
B) fornix.
C) zona pellucida.
D) peripapilla.
E) areola.

E) areola.

92

102) The ________ is the region of the vagina that surrounds the cervix.
A) rugae
B) vaginal fornix
C) dartos
D) fundus
E) external os

B) vaginal fornix

93

103) Which region of the uterine tube captures the ovum?
A) ampulla
B) anterior segment
C) infundibulum
D) posterior segment
E) isthmus

D) posterior segment

94

104) The ________ is the rounded portion of the uterine body superior to the attachment of the
uterine tubes.
A) body
B) cervix
C) myometrium
D) fundus
E) internal os

D) fundus

95

The portion of the uterine tube that ends in fingerlike fimbriae is the
A) ampulla.
B) distal segment.
C) infundibulum.
D) proximal segment.
E) isthmus.

C) infundibulum.

96

106) The fold of peritoneum that extends out from the ovary to the wall of the pelvis is called the
A) suspensory ligament.
B) tunica albuginea.
C) ovarian ligament.
D) ovarian hilum.
E) uterovesical ligament.

A) suspensory ligament.

97

107) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term myometrium?
A) thick layer of smooth muscle cells
B) supports the uterus anteriorly
C) supports the uterus laterally
D) consists of a functional zone and a basilar zone
E) After ovulation, the ovum is captured by it.

A) thick layer of smooth muscle cells

98

108) The segment of the uterine tube where fertilization commonly occurs is the
A) ampulla.
B) fimbriae.
C) infundibulum.
D) posterior.
E) boundary between the ampulla and isthmus.

E) boundary between the ampulla and isthmus.

99

109) Which of the following statements is false regarding the female reproductive tract?
A) Acidity in the vagina kills most sperm.
B) The uterus contains large amounts of fructose nutrients.
C) The size of breasts is primarily determined by adipose tissue.
D) Cervical cancer may be caused by a virus.
E) The inner wall layer of the vagina consists of stratified squamous epithelium, like the skin.

B) The uterus contains large amounts of fructose nutrients.

100

110) The broad ligament attaches to all of the following organs except the
A) ovaries.
B) uterine tubes.
C) uterus.
D) oviducts.
E) urinary bladder.

E) urinary bladder.

101

111) All of the following are functions of ovaries, except
A) secretion of hormones.
B) production of oocytes.
C) formation of immature gametes.
D) secretion of inhibin.
E) receives the ovum after ovulation.

E) receives the ovum after ovulation.

102

112) Another term for vulva is
A) gonads.
B) vagina.
C) female external genitalia.
D) accessory glands.
E) labia.

C) female external genitalia.

103

113) Ovarian cancer is the deadliest of the reproductive cancers because it
A) is the most aggressive.
B) is usually not diagnosed early.
C) does not respond to any chemotherapy medications.
D) affects the elderly population.
E) is the most resistant to radiation therapy.

B) is usually not diagnosed early.

104

114) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term uterine tube?
A) has ciliated epithelium
B) has stratified squamous epithelium
C) covers the glans penis or glans clitoris
D) holds the uterus to the ovary
E) passes through erectile tissue in females

A) has ciliated epithelium

105

115) The hood that covers the clitoris is called the
A) glans.
B) prepuce.
C) labia minora.
D) cervix.
E) vestibule.

B) prepuce.

106

116) The ________ ligament extends from the uterus, near the attachment of the uterine tube, to the
medial surface of the ovary.
A) suspensory
B) ovarian
C) round
D) gubernaculum
E) mesovarium

B) ovarian

107

117) The ________ ligament extends from the lateral surface of the ovary to the pelvic wall.
A) suspensory
B) ovarian
C) round
D) gubernaculum
E) mesovarium

A) suspensory

108

118) The ________ are fingerlike projections that capture the freshly ovulated ovum.
A) gubernaculum
B) fimbriae
C) infundibulum
D) uterine horn
E) uterine tunnel

B) fimbriae

109

119) The expanded, initial segment of the uterine tube closest to the ovary is called the
A) vaginal fornix.
B) infundibulum.
C) tunnel.
D) ampulla.
E) os.

B) infundibulum.

110

120) The ________ of the uterine tube is between the uterus and the ampulla.
A) isthmus
B) ampulla
C) fimbra
D) os
E) commissure

A) isthmus

111

121) Sperm enter the cervical canal through the external
A) isthmus.
B) ampulla.
C) fimbra.
D) os.
E) commissure.

D) os.

112

122) The ________ ligaments extend from the base of the uterus and vagina to the lateral walls of
the pelvis.
A) cardinal
B) uterosacral
C) round
D) broad
E) mesovarium

A) cardinal

113

123) The main portion of the uterus is called the corpus or
A) fundus.
B) cervix.
C) horn.
D) body.
E) isthmus.

D) body.

114

124) The portion of the uterus that projects into the vagina is called the
A) fundus.
B) cervix.
C) horn.
D) body.
E) isthmus.

B) cervix.

115

125) The painful condition that develops because epithelial tissue from the uterus is present in the
peritoneal cavity is
A) endometriosis.
B) ovarian cysts.
C) peritonitis.
D) lymphedema.
E) orchitis.

A) endometriosis.

116

126) The ________ is the inner lining of the uterus.
A) endometrium
B) epimetrium
C) perimetrium
D) myometrium
E) exometrium

A) endometrium

117

127) Which disease exhibits similar symptoms as breast cancer?
A) cervical cancer
B) ovarian cancer
C) uterine cancer
D) fibrocystic disease
E) vaginitis

D) fibrocystic disease

118

128) The leading cause of death in women between the ages of 35-45 is
A) cervical cancer.
B) ovarian cancer.
C) uterine cancer.
D) fibrocystic disease.
E) breast cancer.

E) breast cancer.

119

129) An inflammation of the vaginal canal caused by fungi, bacteria, or parasites is called
A) endometriosis.
B) a UTI.
C) peritonitis.
D) vaginitis.
E) orchitis.

D) vaginitis.

120

130) The ________ is an elastic epithelial layer between the vagina and vestibule, which, if present, is often torn during first intercourse.
A) zona pellucida
B) prepuce
C) isthmus
D) vaginal fornix
E) hymen

E) hymen

121

131) The glands that produce mucus used as a lubricant during sexual intercourse are ________
glands.
A) greater vestibular
B) seminal
C) vulvular
D) bulbourethral
E) mons

A) greater vestibular

122

132) Which condition is characterized by a malignant, metastasizing tumor of the mammary gland?
A) menopause
B) fibrocystic disease
C) breast cancer
D) ductal blockage
E) endometriosis

C) breast cancer

123

133) The corpus spongiosum of the penis in males is analogous to the ________ in females.
A) clitoris
B) vagina
C) uterus
D) bulb of vestibule
E) hymen

D) bulb of vestibule

124

134) The pad of adipose tissue covering the pubic symphysis is the
A) hymen.
B) clitoris.
C) labia majora.
D) prepuce.
E) mons pubis.

E) mons pubis.

125

135) The ducts of the mammary glands open to the body surface through a
A) sinus.
B) nipple.
C) labia.
D) secretory lobule.
E) fornix.

B) nipple.

126

136) Which layer of the uterus undergoes dramatic changes in thickness and structure during the uterine cycle responding to hormones.
A) functional layer of the endometrium
B) basal layer of the endometrium
C) myometrium
D) perimetrium
E) epimetrium

A) functional layer of the endometrium

127

137) Which of the following correctly lists the order of arteries from the external uterus to internal uterus?
A) radial, arcuate, straight, uterine, spiral
B) uterine, radial, straight, spiral, arcuate
C) uterine, arcuate, radial, straight, spiral
D) spiral, straight, radial, arcuate, uterine
E) arcuate, uterine, spiral, radial, straight

C) uterine, arcuate, radial, straight, spiral

128

138) The Pap smear looks for abnormal cytology of the
A) vagina.
B) uterus.
C) uterine tube.
D) cervix.
E) ovary.

D) cervix.

129

139) What is the thickest portion of the uterine wall?
A) functional layer of the endometrium
B) basal layer of the endometrium
C) myometrium
D) perimetrium
E) epimetrium

C) myometrium

130

140) What is the function of uterine tube peg cells?
A) secretion of estrogen
B) secretion of progesterone
C) propel the oocyte to the uterus
D) secrete nutrient-rich fluid
E) secrete mucus

D) secrete nutrient-rich fluid

131

141) The pocket formed between the uterus and the posterior wall of the bladder is the
A) vestibule.
B) vesico-uterine pouch.
C) recto-uterine pouch.
D) broad ligament.
E) uterine hilum.

B) vesico-uterine pouch.

132

142) Dense connective tissue that covers the ovary is called the
A) ovarian hilum.
B) fibrous capsule.
C) tunica vaginalis.
D) broad ligament.
E) tunica albuginea.

E) tunica albuginea.

133

153) Which of the following statements concerning oogenesis is false?
A) Oogenesis begins before birth.
B) Ova develop from stem cells called oogonia.
C) An ovum completes its last meiosis after it is fertilized.
D) About half the oogonia complete mitosis between birth and puberty.
E) By the time of their birth, girls have already lost about the majority of their oocytes.

D) About half the oogonia complete mitosis between birth and puberty.

134

154) The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers
A) follicle maturation.
B) menstruation.
C) ovulation.
D) menopause.
E) atresia.

C) ovulation.

135

155) A rise in the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone at the beginning of the ovarian cycle
is responsible for
A) follicle maturation.
B) menstruation.
C) ovulation.
D) menopause.
E) atresia.

A) follicle maturation.

136

156) The average length of the menstrual cycle is ________ days.
A) 16
B) 19
C) 21
D) 28
E) 35

D) 28

137

157) During the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle, the
A) corpus luteum is forming.
B) functional zone of the endometrium is restored.
C) fertilized ovum implants.
D) old functional layer is sloughed off.
E) endometrium finalizes the preparation for implantation.

B) functional zone of the endometrium is restored.

138

158) During the menstrual phase,
A) progesterone levels are high.
B) a new uterine lining is formed.
C) secretory glands and blood vessels develop in the endometrium.
D) the old functional layer is sloughed off.
E) the corpus luteum is most active.

D) the old functional layer is sloughed off.

139

164) Which of the following statements about oogenesis is false?
A) The polar body is the egg cell which is then fertilized by the sperm cell.
B) Far fewer eggs are produced by the female than sperm produced by the male.
C) Meiosis I begins in the female fetus.
D) Meiosis II is not completed until after the egg cell makes contact with the sperm cell.
E) The lack of viable oogonia in the ovaries leads to menopause in the female.

A) The polar body is the egg cell which is then fertilized by the sperm cell.

140

165) A sample of a womanʹs blood is analyzed for reproductive hormone levels. The results indicate a high level of progesterone, relatively high levels of inhibin, and low levels of FSH and LH. The female is most likely experiencing ________ of the uterine cycle.
A) the proliferative phase
B) the menstrual phase
C) the secretory phase
D) menarche
E) menopause

C) the secretory phase

141

166) After ovulation, the ovary secretes
A) luteinizing hormone.
B) estrogen.
C) progesterone.
D) both estrogen and progesterone.
E) luteinizing hormone, estrogen, and progesterone.

D) both estrogen and progesterone.

142

167) The hormone that stimulates ovulation is
A) luteinizing hormone.
B) FSH.
C) growth hormone.
D) progesterone.
E) testosterone.

A) luteinizing hormone.

143

168) The ________ is the glycoprotein-rich region between the developing oocyte and the granulosa cells.
A) acrosome
B) rugae
C) antrum
D) zona pellucida
E) corona radiata

D) zona pellucida

144

169) The fluid-filled cavity that appears in a secondary follicle is called the
A) corpus luteum.
B) cortex.
C) stroma.
D) antrum.
E) corpus albicans.

D) antrum.

145

170) The ________ consists of the follicle cells that cling to the oocyte after ovulation.
A) stroma
B) corpus albicans
C) antrum
D) zona pellucida
E) corona radiata

E) corona radiata

146

171) Menstruation is the process of sloughing off the old functional layer of the
A) perimetrium.
B) endometrium.
C) epimetrium.
D) myometrium.
E) exometrium.

B) endometrium.

147

172) The ________ is the endometrial layer that undergoes dramatic changes during the menstrual cycle.
A) functional layer
B) corpus albicans
C) basal layer
D) corpus luteum
E) stroma

A) functional layer

148

173) Painful menstruation is called
A) dysmenorrhea.
B) polymenorrhea.
C) amenorrhea.
D) menorrhea.
E) nocimenorrhea.

A) dysmenorrhea.

149

174) The first menses is called the
A) menarche.
B) menopause.
C) climacteric.
D) emission.
E) ovulation.

A) menarche.

150

175) In a 28 day cycle, ovulation typically occurs around day
A) 3.
B) 7.
C) 14.
D) 21.
E) 28.

C) 14.

151

176) Rachel is experiencing difficulty conceiving. All of the following may be reasons why, except
A) her pituitary gland is not producing adequate levels of FSH.
B) her ovarian and menstrual cycles are not properly coordinated.
C) her ovaries are not producing enough progesterone.
D) she has a 28 day cycle.
E) her ovaries are not producing enough estrogen.

D) she has a 28 day cycle.

152

177) The menstrual and proliferative phases of the uterine cycle occur during the ________ phase of the ovarian cycle.
A) follicular
B) ovulation
C) luteal
D) secretory
E) involution

A) follicular

153

178) The secretory phase of the uterine cycle occurs during the ________ phase of the ovarian cycle.
A) follicular
B) ovulation
C) luteal
D) proliferative
E) involution

C) luteal

154

179) Oogenesis produces
A) 4 secondary oocytes.
B) 4 ova.
C) 1 secondary oocyte and 3 ova.
D) 1 secondary oocyte and 2 or 3 polar bodies.
E) 4 ova and 2 or 3 polar bodies.

D) 1 secondary oocyte and 2 or 3 polar bodies.

155

180) Progesterone levels are highest during which phases of the ovarian and uterine cycles, respectively?
A) follicular; menstrual
B) luteal; secretory
C) luteal; menstrual
D) follicular; proliferative
E) luteal; proliferative

B) luteal; secretory

156

181) All of the following are true of emission and ejaculation, except they
A) occur under sympathetic stimulation.
B) begin with peristaltic contractions of the ampulla.
C) are responsible for propelling semen toward the external urethral opening.
D) involve contractions of the seminal glands.
E) stimulate the release of urine from bladder to clean the urethra.

E) stimulate the release of urine from bladder to clean the urethra.

157

182) Erectile dysfunction is defined as an inability to achieve or maintain
A) an erection.
B) an emission.
C) ejaculation.
D) a normal sperm count.
E) blood flow.

A) an erection.

158

183) Which of the following is directly responsible for an orgasm?
A) menarche
B) erection
C) emission
D) spermiogenesis
E) ejaculation

E) ejaculation

159

184) The subsidence of an erection after ejaculation is known as
A) detumescence.
B) tumescence.
C) menses.
D) emission.
E) ejaculation.

A) detumescence.

160

185) Contractions of the skeletal muscles of the pelvic floor result in
A) erection.
B) emission.
C) ejaculation.
D) detumescence.
E) impotence.

C) ejaculation.

161

186) During female sexual arousal, parasympathetic activation leads to engorgement of the
A) mons pubis.
B) clitoris and vestibular bulbs.
C) vagina.
D) cervix.
E) vaginal fornix.

B) clitoris and vestibular bulbs.

162

187) Infertility may result when an STD leads to
A) menarche.
B) premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
C) polycystic ovary syndrome.
D) pelvic inflammatory disease.
E) menorrhagia.

D) pelvic inflammatory disease.

163

188) Which of the following statements regarding erection is false?
A) It involves parasympathetic stimulation.
B) Vascular channels in the erectile tissue become engorged with blood.
C) Dilation of penile arteries occurs.
D) It involves nitric oxide production by neurons.
E) It is commonly the result of plaque in the blood vessels of the penis.

E) It is commonly the result of plaque in the blood vessels of the penis.

164

189) The term ________ means the failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum by the time of birth.
A) premature puberty
B) vasculitis
C) cryptorchidism
D) priapism
E) orchitis

C) cryptorchidism

165

190) Which of the following does not occur after menopause?
A) Menstrual cycles cease.
B) Ovulation ceases.
C) Estrogen levels rise.
D) GnRH secretion increases.
E) FSH secretion increases.

C) Estrogen levels rise.

166

191) The cessation of menstruation after no more developing follicles remain is called
A) dysmenorrhea.
B) detumescence.
C) menopause.
D) menses.
E) amenorrhea.

C) menopause.

167

192) After menopause, the production of two pituitary hormones increases. One of these is
A) LH.
B) prolactin.
C) estrogen.
D) progesterone.
E) andostenedione.

A) LH.

168

193) A man can get testosterone injections to increase sexual drive, muscle mass, and overall mood.
These symptoms can occur as a result of
A) prostate cancer.
B) male climateric.
C) premature ejaculation.
D) testicular cancer.
E) menopause.

B) male climateric.

169

1) Which erectile tissue is split into two cylindrical masses that surround a central artery? Which erectile tissue surrounds the urethra?
A) corpus spongiosum; corpora cavernosa
B) corpora cavernosa; corpus spongiosum

B) corpora cavernosa; corpus spongiosum

170

2) What is the name of the cell at each stage of sperm development, from mitosis to spermiogenesis?
A) secondary spermatocyte, spermatid, sperm, spermatogonium, primary spermatocyte
B) spermatids, spermatogonium, primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte, sperm
C) primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte, spermatogonium, spermatids, sperm
D) spermatogonium, primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte, spermatids, sperm
E) spermatogonium, spermatids, primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte, sperm

D) spermatogonium, primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte, spermatids, sperm

171

3) In which of the four parts of a sperm are the centrioles found?
A) acrosome
B) head
C) neck
D) middle
E) tail

C) neck

172

4) At what stage of development is the oocyte during ovulation? (Figure 28-22)
A) primordial
B) oogonium
C) primary oocyte
D) secondary oocyte
E) ovum

D) secondary oocyte

173

5) Which layer of the endometrium is affected most during the uterine cycle? (Figure 28 -23)
A) functional layer
B) basal layer
C) myometrial layer
D) perimetrial layer
E) secretory layer

A) functional layer

174

6) What is the precursor for all steroid hormones in both males and females? (Figure 28-25)
A) androgens
B) prostaglandins
C) androstenedione
D) estradiol
E) cholesterol

E) cholesterol