Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 26 Urinary System Flashcards


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1

1) The urinary system does all of the following except
A) excreting excess albumin molecules.
B) regulating blood volume.
C) helping to stabilize blood pH.
D) eliminating organic waste products.
E) regulating plasma concentrations of electrolytes.

A) excreting excess albumin molecules.

2

2) Functions of the urinary system include all of the following except
A) regulation of blood volume and blood pressure.
B) regulation of plasma concentration of certain ions.
C) helping to stabilize blood pH.
D) conservation of valuable nutrients.
E) storage of fat-soluble vitamins.

E) storage of fat-soluble vitamins.

3

3) The urinary function of elimination occurs through the
A) liver.
B) glomerulus.
C) kidney.
D) ureter.
E) urethra.

E) urethra.

4

4) Urine is carried to the urinary bladder by
A) blood vessels.
B) lymphatics.
C) the ureters.
D) the urethra.
E) the calyces.

C) the ureters.

5

5) Each of the following organs is part of the urinary system except the
A) kidney.
B) urinary bladder.
C) rectum.
D) ureter.
E) urethra.

C) rectum.

6

6) Urine is temporarily stored in the
A) urethra.
B) urinary bladder.
C) kidney.
D) ureter.
E) trigone.

B) urinary bladder.

7

7) Urine is carried from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body by the
A) urethra.
B) glomerulus.
C) convoluted tubule.
D) ureter.
E) collecting duct.

A) urethra.

8

8) Which of the following activities is not related to kidney function?
A) control of hydrogen ion and pH in the blood
B) control of wastes in the blood
C) lipid digestion
D) regulation of blood pressure
E) maintenance of various blood ion concentrations

C) lipid digestion

9

9) The excretory functions of the urinary system are performed by the
A) urethra.
B) ureters.
C) glomerulus.
D) urinary bladder.
E) kidneys.

E) kidneys.

10

10) When the bladder is full, urine is eliminated through the process known as
A) beta-oxidation.
B) defecation.
C) emesis.
D) micturition.
E) segmentation.

D) micturition.

11

11) A glomerulus is
A) the expanded end of a nephron.
B) a knot of capillaries within the renal corpuscle.
C) the source of erythropoietin.
D) attached to the collecting duct.
E) the horseshoe-shaped segment of the nephron.

B) a knot of capillaries within the renal corpuscle.

12

12) All of the following are true of the kidneys except that they are
A) located in a position that is retroperitoneal.
B) surrounded by a fibrous capsule.
C) located partly within the pelvic cavity.
D) held in place by the renal fascia.
E) covered by peritoneum.

C) located partly within the pelvic cavity.

13

13) The prominent indentation on the medial surface of the kidney is the
A) calyx.
B) pelvis.
C) ureter.
D) hilum.
E) pyramid.

D) hilum.

14

14) The renal sinus is
A) the innermost layer of kidney tissue.
B) part of a renal pyramid.
C) an internal cavity lined by the fibrous capsule.
D) a large branch of the renal pelvis.
E) a renal corpuscle.

C) an internal cavity lined by the fibrous capsule.

15

15) The outermost layer of the kidney is the
A) renal cortex.
B) renal medulla.
C) major calyx.
D) fibrous capsule.
E) renal pelvis.

D) fibrous capsule.

16

16) The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the
A) renal papilla.
B) renal pelvis.
C) renal medulla.
D) renal cortex.
E) renal sinus.

B) renal pelvis.

17

17) Blood leaves the glomerulus through a blood vessel called the
A) afferent arteriole.
B) efferent arteriole.
C) vasa recta.
D) interlobular arteriole.
E) renal vein.

B) efferent arteriole.

18

18) The condition called ________ is especially dangerous because the ureters or renal blood
vessels can become twisted or kinked during movement.
A) polycystic kidney disease
B) floating kidney
C) pyelonephritis
D) renal calculi
E) renal failure

B) floating kidney

19

19) The ________ delivers urine to a minor calyx.
A) nephron loop (loop of Henle)
B) distal convoluted tubule
C) papillary duct
D) renal corpuscle
E) ureter

C) papillary duct

20

20) Typical renal blood flow is about ________ ml/min under resting conditions.
A) 500
B) 800
C) 1200
D) 1800
E) 2500

C) 1200

21

21) In the renal corpuscle, the visceral layer is a layer of specialized cells called
A) glomerulocytes.
B) juxtaglomerular cells.
C) tubular cells.
D) macula densa cells.
E) podocytes.

E) podocytes.

22

22) What is the proper order for the structures of the renal corpuscle through which a substance travels during filtration?
1. filtration slit (slit pore)
2. capsular space
3. basement membrane
4. fenestrated endothelium
A) 4, 3, 2, 1
B) 4, 1, 2, 3
C) 4, 3, 1, 2
D) 3, 1, 4, 2
E) 2, 4, 3, 1

C) 4, 3, 1, 2

23

23) Capillaries that surround the proximal convoluted tubules are
A) proximal capillaries.
B) corticoradiate capillaries.
C) vasa recta capillaries.
D) efferent arterioles.
E) peritubular capillaries.

E) peritubular capillaries.

24

24) ________ is/are an inflammatory disorder of the glomeruli that affects the filtration mechanism of the kidneys.
A) Glomerulonephritis
B) Floating kidney
C) Polycystic kidney disease
D) Pyelonephrosis
E) Kidney stones

A) Glomerulonephritis

25

25) Glomerulonephritis may occur as a consequence of an infection with the bacterium
A) Clostridium difficile.
B) varicella.
C) Streptococcus.
D) MRSA.
E) Salmonella.

C) Streptococcus.

26

26) ________ is an inherited abnormality that affects the development and structure of kidney tubules.
A) Glomerulonephritis
B) Polycystic kidney disease
C) Nephrolithiasis
D) Renal failure
E) Hematuria

B) Polycystic kidney disease

27

27) Renal columns are
A) internal cavities lined by the fibrous capsule.
B) expanded ends of the ureters.
C) the basic functional units of the kidney.
D) bundles of tissue that extend between pyramids from the cortex.
E) conical structures that are located in the renal medulla.

D) bundles of tissue that extend between pyramids from the cortex.

28

28) The expanded beginning of the ureter connects to the
A) renal sinus.
B) renal pelvis.
C) renal calyx.
D) renal hilum.
E) renal corpuscle.

B) renal pelvis.

29

29) Major calyces are
A) large branches of the renal pelvis.
B) expanded ends of nephrons.
C) basic functional layers of the kidney.
D) conical structures that are located in the renal medulla.
E) the expanded ends of renal pyramids.

A) large branches of the renal pelvis.

30

30) Glomerular (Bowmanʹs) capsule and the glomerulus make up the
A) renal pyramid.
B) nephron loop (loop of Henle).
C) renal corpuscle.
D) renal papilla.
E) collecting tubule system.

C) renal corpuscle.

31

31) The region known as the macula densa is part of
A) the proximal convoluted tubule.
B) the distal convoluted tubule.
C) the collecting duct.
D) the nephron loop (loop of Henle).
E) glomerular (Bowmanʹs) capsule.

B) the distal convoluted tubule.

32

32) The cells of the macula densa, the juxtaglomerular cells, and the extraglomerular mesangial cells form the
A) renal corpuscle.
B) filtration membrane.
C) nephron loop (loop of Henle).
D) juxtaglomerular complex.
E) afferent arteriole.

D) juxtaglomerular complex.

33

33) You have been diagnosed with lupus erythematosus, a very severe autoimmune disorder with a wide variety of associated organ-related problems. Your doctor is particularly worried about how this will affect your kidney function. He says that you are susceptible to ________ because of the lupus.
A) polycystic kidney
B) glomerulonephritis
C) cystitis
D) diabetes
E) renal calculi

B) glomerulonephritis

34

34) Filtrate first passes from the glomerular capsule to the
A) nephron loop (loop of Henle).
B) proximal convoluted tubule.
C) distal convoluted tubule.
D) collecting duct.
E) minor calyx.

B) proximal convoluted tubule.

35

35) The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the
A) nephron loop (loop of Henle).
B) proximal convoluted tubule.
C) distal convoluted tubule.
D) papillary tubule.
E) calyx.

C) distal convoluted tubule.

36

36) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term renal papilla?
A) It releases renin.
B) It creates high interstitial NaCl concentration.
C) Final urine enters here.
D) Initial filtrate enters here.
E) It is the tip of the medullary pyramid.

E) It is the tip of the medullary pyramid.

37

37) The efferent arteriole of a nephron divides to form a network of capillaries within the cortex called the ________ capillaries.
A) peritubular
B) glomerular
C) vasa recta
D) cortical
E) efferent

A) peritubular

38

38) The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is
A) filtration.
B) reabsorption of ions, organic molecules, vitamins, and water.
C) secretion of acids and ammonia.
D) secretion of drugs.
E) adjusting the urine pH.

B) reabsorption of ions, organic molecules, vitamins, and water.

39

39) The following is a list of the blood vessels that carry blood to the kidney. In what order does blood pass through these vessels starting at the renal artery?
1. afferent arteriole
2. arcuate artery
3. interlobar artery
4. segmental artery
5. glomerulus
6. cortical radiate artery
7. efferent arteriole
8. peritubular capillary
A) 4, 6, 2, 3, 1, 5, 7, 8
B) 4, 3, 2, 6, 1, 5, 7, 8
C) 4, 3, 2, 6, 7, 5, 1, 8
D) 4, 6, 2, 3, 7, 5, 1, 8
E) 4, 3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 7, 8

B) 4, 3, 2, 6, 1, 5, 7, 8

40

40) The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of which three layers?
A) filtration slits, foot processes, and slit pores
B) fenestrations, matrix, and foot processes
C) fenestrated endothelium of glomerulus, basement membrane of glomerulus, and podocyte filtration slits
D) basement membrane of glomerulus, foot processes, and capsular outer layer
E) podocyte filtration slits, matrix cells in the glomerulus, and extraglomerular mesangial cells

C) fenestrated endothelium of glomerulus, basement membrane of glomerulus, and podocyte filtration slits

41

41) Eighty percent of nephrons in the human kidney are located in the ________ and have short nephron loops.
A) cortex
B) medulla
C) pyramids
D) capsule
E) pelvis

A) cortex

42

Nephrons located close to the medulla with long nephron loops are called ________ nephrons.
A) cortical
B) juxtaglomerular
C) vasa recta
D) juxtamedullary
E) Henle

D) juxtamedullary

43

43) The ________ is a capillary bed that parallels the nephron loop (loop of Henle).
A) glomerulus
B) peritubular capillary bed
C) afferent arteriolar bed
D) collecting duct
E) vasa recta

E) vasa recta

44

44) The majority of glomeruli are located in the ________ of the kidney.
A) vasa recta
B) medulla
C) cortex
D) pelvis
E) calyces

C) cortex

45

45) Which of the following components of the nephron is largely confined to the renal medulla?
A) glomerular (Bowmanʹs) capsule
B) distal convoluted tubule
C) collecting ducts
D) proximal convoluted tubule
E) glomerulus

C) collecting ducts

46

46) Each kidney has about ________ nephrons.
A) 100,000
B) 500,000
C) 1 million
D) 1.25 million
E) 5 million

D) 1.25 million

47

47) The majority of renal innervation is by the
A) parasympathetic nervous system.
B) vagus nerve.
C) somatic nervous system.
D) sympathetic nervous system.
E) enteric nervous system.

D) sympathetic nervous system.

48

48) The proximal convoluted tubule cells are
A) cuboidal cells with microvilli.
B) cuboidal cells without microvilli.
C) squamous cells.
D) columnar cells with microvilli.
E) columnar cell without microvilli.

A) cuboidal cells with microvilli.

49

49) The region of the nephron containing intercalated cells primarily associated with pH balance is the
A) glomerulus.
B) proximal convoluted tubule.
C) nephron loop.
D) collecting duct.
E) papillary duct.

D) collecting duct.

50

50) Modified smooth muscle cells in the wall of the afferent arteriole that secrete renin are called
A) macula densa cells.
B) juxtaglomerular cells.
C) extraglomerular mesangial cells.
D) podocytes.
E) principal cells.

B) juxtaglomerular cells.

51

51) Which of the following substances should not be filtered?
A) glucose
B) water
C) proteins
D) amino acids
E) fatty acids

C) proteins

52

52) The functional units of kidneys where blood is filtered and urine produced are called
A) pyramids.
B) nephrons.
C) calyces.
D) lobules.
E) lobes.

B) nephrons.

53

53) Glomerular blood flow is unique because it flows
A) through a glomerular portal vein.
B) directly from the renal artery into the glomerular capillaries.
C) from arteriole to capillary bed to arteriole.
D) from arteriole to capillary bed to vasa recta.
E) through the peritubular capillaries then into the glomerular capillaries.

C) from arteriole to capillary bed to arteriole.

54

54) An important structure for blood pressure regulation is the
A) collecting duct.
B) nephron loop.
C) papillary duct.
D) proximal convoluted tubule.
E) juxtaglomerular complex.

E) juxtaglomerular complex.

55

60) The filtration of plasma takes place in the
A) nephron loop (loop of Henle).
B) distal convoluted tubule.
C) papillary duct.
D) renal corpuscle.
E) ureter.

D) renal corpuscle.

56

61) Reabsorbed water and solutes enter into the
A) afferent arteriole.
B) efferent arteriole.
C) peritubular fluid.
D) tubular fluid.
E) glomerulus.

C) peritubular fluid.

57

62) ________ is the most abundant organic waste.
A) Glucose
B) Albumin
C) Carbon dioxide
D) Sodium
E) Urea

E) Urea

58

63) The process that transports solutes, including many drugs, into the tubular fluid is called
A) filtration.
B) reabsorption.
C) absorption.
D) excretion.
E) secretion.

E) secretion.

59
card image

64) What physiological process occurs at the structure labeled ʺ1ʺ?
A) reabsorption
B) excretion
C) secretion
D) filtration
E) micturition

D) filtration

60
card image

65) Where does most nutrient reabsorption occur?
A) 2
B) 3
C) 4
D) 5
E) 6

B) 3

61
card image

66) Which area(s) allow variable water reabsorption and is/are sensitive to the hormone ADH?
A) 1
B) 3
C) 4
D) 5 and 6
E) 3 and 6

D) 5 and 6

62
card image

67) Where would penicillin be secreted?
A) 6
B) 5
C) 4
D) 3
E) 3 and 4

B) 5

63
card image

68) Where does secretion mostly occur?
A) 5
B) 1
C) 3
D) 4
E) 2

A) 5

64
card image

69) Which area is sensitive to aldosterone?
A) 2
B) 1
C) 4
D) 3
E) 5

E) 5

65
card image

70) Identify the structure labeled ʺ5.ʺ
A) proximal convoluted tubule
B) distal convoluted tubule
C) collecting duct
D) nephron loop
E) glomerulus

B) distal convoluted tubule

66
card image

71) Identify the structure labeled ʺ6.ʺ
A) proximal convoluted tubule
B) distal convoluted tubule
C) collecting duct
D) nephron loop
E) glomerulus

C) collecting duct

67

72) The process of filtration is driven mainly by
A) active transport.
B) blood osmotic pressure.
C) blood hydrostatic pressure.
D) renal pumping.
E) solvent drag.

C) blood hydrostatic pressure.

68

73) Approximately ________ liters of glomerular filtrate enter glomerular capsules each day.
A) 480
B) 180
C) 125
D) 18
E) 1.8

B) 180

69

74) Under normal conditions, glomerular filtration depends on three main pressures. From the list below, what are these three main pressures?
1. glomerular hydrostatic pressure
2. capsular hydrostatic pressure
3. capsular colloid osmotic pressure
4. blood colloid osmotic pressure
5. urinary bladder hydrostatic pressure
A) 1, 2, and 3 are correct.
B) 2, 3, and 4 are correct.
C) 3, 4, and 5 are correct.
D) 1, 2, and 4 are correct.
E) 2, 4, and 5 are correct.

D) 1, 2, and 4 are correct.

70

75) Which of the following formulas will allow you to calculate correctly the net filtration pressure (NFP)? (Hint: CsHP is capsular hydrostatic pressure.)
A) FP = GHP + CsHP - BCOP
B) FP = GHP - (CsHP + BCOP)
C) FP = CsHP + GHP - BCOP
D) FP = BCOP - GHP + CsHP
E) FP = BCOP + (GHP - CsHP)

B) FP = GHP - (CsHP + BCOP)

71

76) Measurement of the functions of a nephron reveals a glomerular capillary pressure of 69 mm Hg, and a pressure in the capsular space of 15 mm Hg. Assuming that the blood colloid osmotic pressure is 30 mm Hg, and that essentially no plasma proteins are filtered by the glomerulus, what is the net filtration pressure in this case?
A) 30 mm Hg
B) 24 mm Hg
C) 69 mm Hg
D) 84 mm Hg
E) 99 mm Hg

B) 24 mm Hg

72

77) One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to
A) increase secretion of renin by the juxtaglomerular complex.
B) decrease secretion of aldosterone.
C) increase release of angiotensin II by the adrenal glands.
D) increase filtration into glomerular (Bowmanʹs) capsule.
E) decrease urinary albumin concentration.

A) increase secretion of renin by the juxtaglomerular complex.

73

78) Calculate filtration pressure (FP) in a nephron with a glomerular hydrostatic pressure of 55
mm Hg, a blood colloid osmotic pressure of 25 mm Hg, and a capsular hydrostatic pressure of
15 mm Hg.
A) FP = 10 mm Hg
B) FP = 95 mm Hg
C) FP = 55 mm Hg
D) FP = 45 mm Hg
E) FP = 15 mm Hg

E) FP = 15 mm Hg

74

79) Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP) in the glomerulus is generated by
A) blood pressure.
B) presence of albumin proteins in blood plasma.
C) constriction of the efferent arteriole.
D) protein in the filtrate.
E) filtrate in the capsular space.

B) presence of albumin proteins in blood plasma.

75

80) The main force that causes filtration in a nephron is
A) blood colloid osmotic pressure.
B) glomerular hydrostatic pressure.
C) osmotic pressure of the urine.
D) capsular hydrostatic pressure.
E) reabsorption in proximal convoluted tubule pulls filtrate from blood.

B) glomerular hydrostatic pressure.

76

81) Substances larger than ________ are normally not allowed to pass through the filtration membrane.
A) sodium ions
B) glucose
C) albumin
D) amino acids
E) urea

C) albumin

77

82) Sympathetic stimulation of the kidney can do all of the following except
A) produce powerful vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles.
B) increase the glomerular filtration rate.
C) trigger renin release.
D) produce renal ischemia.
E) reduce blood flow to kidneys.

B) increase the glomerular filtration rate.

78

83) The filtration pressure at the glomerulus is equal to
A) glomerular hydrostatic pressure - (capsular hydrostatic pressure + interstitial fluid osmotic pressure).
B) capsular hydrostatic pressure + capsular colloid osmotic pressure + glomerular
hydrostatic pressure.
C) glomerular hydrostatic pressure - (capsular hydrostatic pressure + blood colloid osmotic pressure).
D) (capsular hydrostatic pressure + capsular colloid osmotic pressure) - glomerular
hydrostatic pressure.
E) glomerular hydrostatic pressure - (capsular hydrostatic pressure + capsular colloid osmotic pressure).

C) glomerular hydrostatic pressure - (capsular hydrostatic pressure + blood colloid osmotic pressure).

79

84) The amount of filtrate produced by the kidneys each minute is called the
A) net filtration pressure.
B) colloid pressure.
C) plasma volume.
D) kidney filtrate volume.
E) glomerular filtration rate.

E) glomerular filtration rate.

80

85) A drug that inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) may lead to all of the following except
A) less secretion of aldosterone.
B) increased urinary loss of sodium.
C) reduction of blood pressure.
D) decreased sodium reabsorption.
E) increased fluid retention.

E) increased fluid retention.

81

86) All of the following would result in an increase in renin release except
A) decreased blood pressure at the glomerulus.
B) blockage in the renal artery.
C) increased blood volume.
D) stimulation of juxtaglomerular cells.
E) decreased osmotic concentration at the macula densa.

C) increased blood volume.

82

87) Immediate local responses of the kidney to changes in blood flow to maintain GFR occur via
A) autoregulation.
B) countercurrent multiplication.
C) hormonal regulation.
D) autonomic regulation.
E) cephalic reflexes.

A) autoregulation.

83

88) Damage to the glomerular filtration membrane allowing proteins into the capsular space would result in all of the following except
A) an increase in capsular colloid osmotic pressure.
B) a decrease in blood colloid osmotic pressure.
C) an increase in net filtration pressure.
D) an increase in GFR and fluid loss.
E) a decrease in capsular hydrostatic pressure.

E) a decrease in capsular hydrostatic pressure.

84

89) Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following except
A) active transport.
B) facilitated diffusion.
C) cotransport.
D) countertransport.
E) stem cell movements.

E) stem cell movements.

85

90) Reabsorption of filtered glucose from the lumen in the PCT is largely by means of
A) diffusion.
B) facilitated diffusion.
C) active transport.
D) cotransport.
E) countertransport.

D) cotransport.

86

91) Secretion of hydrogen ion by the PCT is by the process of
A) diffusion.
B) facilitated diffusion.
C) active transport.
D) cotransport.
E) countertransport.

E) countertransport.

87

92) Chloride ion is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb by
A) simple diffusion.
B) facilitated diffusion.
C) active transport.
D) cotransport with Na and K ions.
E) countertransport for bicarbonate ion.

D) cotransport with Na and K ions.

88

93) The renal threshold for glucose is approximately ________ mg/dl.
A) 75
B) 90
C) 100
D) 140
E) 180

E) 180

89

94) The concentration at which all of the carriers in renal tubules for a given substance are
saturated is the
A) tubular maximum.
B) hydrostatic threshold.
C) blood colloid maximum.
D) osmotic pressure.
E) renal threshold.

A) tubular maximum.

90

95) The ________ is the plasma concentration at which a specific compound will begin appearing in the urine.
A) tubular maximum
B) hydrostatic threshold
C) blood colloid maximum
D) osmotic pressure
E) renal threshold

E) renal threshold

91

96) The process of ________ involves a carrier protein that can transport a molecule across the cell membrane down its concentration gradient.
A) simple diffusion
B) facilitated diffusion
C) osmosis
D) bulk transport
E) active transport

B) facilitated diffusion

92

97) A transport mechanism that can move a substance against a concentration gradient by using cellular energy is
A) simple diffusion.
B) facilitated diffusion.
C) osmosis.
D) bulk transport.
E) active transport.

E) active transport.

93

98) In the process of ________, two substances are moved across a cell membrane in the same direction without directly using cellular energy. One of the substances can be moved against a concentration gradient by this process.
A) countertransport
B) cotransport
C) simple diffusion
D) active transport
E) co-osmosis

B) cotransport

94

99) Diuretics are used for all of the following reasons except
A) to reduce body weight.
B) to reduce water retention.
C) to reduce blood pressure.
D) to treat congestive heart failure.
E) to reduce glucose levels.

E) to reduce glucose levels.

95

100) The majority of water is reabsorbed by osmosis in the
A) proximal convoluted tubule.
B) nephron loop.
C) distal convoluted tubule.
D) collecting duct.
E) papillary duct.

A) proximal convoluted tubule.

96

101) The majority of cotransporters and countertransporters are linked to the reabsorption of what ion?
A) hydrogen
B) sodium
C) potassium
D) bicarbonate
E) chloride

B) sodium

97

102) Prolonged aldosterone stimulation of the distal convoluted tubule may result in
A) hypercalcemia.
B) hypocalcemia.
C) hypokalemia.
D) hyperkalemia.
E) alkalosis.

C) hypokalemia.

98

103) Which of the following is not a normal constituent of urine?
A) hydrogen ions
B) urea
C) large proteins
D) amino acids
E) creatinine

C) large proteins

99

104) The ________ test is often used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate.
A) inulin
B) glucose tolerance
C) CBC or complete blood count
D) specific gravity
E) creatinine clearance

E) creatinine clearance

100

105) Basically, what occurs in the countercurrent multiplier process?
A) Sodium is pumped into the blood while potassium is actively transported out of the blood back into the tissues.
B) A higher sodium concentration is produced in the renal medulla that osmotically draws out water, reducing it within the tubules and the urine.
C) Glucose and sodium are cotransported from urine back into blood.
D) Creatinine is actively transported out of the blood into urine.
E) Uric acid is excreted into the kidney tubules while urea is reabsorbed in the nephron loop.

B) A higher sodium concentration is produced in the renal medulla that osmotically draws out water, reducing it within the tubules and the urine.

101

106) The ability to form concentrated urine depends on the functions of the
A) proximal convoluted tubule.
B) distal convoluted tubule.
C) collecting duct.
D) nephron loop (loop of Henle).
E) nephron loop, distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct.

E) nephron loop, distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct.

102

107) The mechanism for producing a concentrated urine involves all of the following except
A) the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the posterior pituitary gland.
B) aquaporins being inserted into the membranes of the collecting duct cells.
C) a high concentration of NaCl in the interstitial fluid that surrounds the collecting ducts.
D) an increase in facultative water reabsorption.
E) obligatory water reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule.

E) obligatory water reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule.

103

108) A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is may be due to
A) excessive ADH secretion.
B) absence of ADH.
C) hematuric oliguria.
D) overproduction of aldosterone.
E) dilation of the afferent arterioles.

B) absence of ADH.

104

109) Antidiuretic hormone
A) increases the permeability of the collecting ducts to water.
B) is secreted in response to low potassium ion in the blood.
C) causes the kidneys to produce a larger volume of very dilute urine.
D) is secreted by the anterior pituitary.
E) release is insensitive to the osmolarity of interstitial fluid.

A) increases the permeability of the collecting ducts to water.

105

110) If a urine sample is distinctly yellow in color, which of the following will be true?
A) Its pH is below normal.
B) It will have the odor of ammonia.
C) It will contain large amounts of urobilin.
D) It will contain excess chloride ion.
E) It will have a high pH.

C) It will contain large amounts of urobilin.

106

111) When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases,
A) a concentrated urine is produced.
B) less urine is produced.
C) the osmolarity of the urine decreases.
D) permeability to water in the collecting system increases.
E) water reabsorption increases in the nephron loop.

C) the osmolarity of the urine decreases.

107

112) As the filtrate passes through the renal tubules, approximately what percentage is reabsorbed and returned to the circulation?
A) 1
B) 38
C) 63
D) 74
E) 99

E) 99

108

113) In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce
A) a larger volume of urine.
B) urine with a higher concentration of sodium ions.
C) urine with a lower concentration of potassium ions.
D) urine with a lower concentration of sodium ions.
E) urine with less glucose.

D) urine with a lower concentration of sodium ions.

109

114) Which of the following is a not a true statement regarding the countercurrent multiplication
system?
A) The thin limb of the nephron loop is permeable to water.
B) The thick limb of the nephron loop is permeable to solutes.
C) Osmotic concentration in the nephron loop decreases as fluid flows toward the bottom of the loop.
D) Tubule fluid arrives at the DCT at about 100 mOsm/L.
E) The maximum solute concentration is about 1200 mOsm/L.

C) Osmotic concentration in the nephron loop decreases as fluid flows toward the bottom of the loop.

110

115) Excess release of natriuretic peptides would cause
A) a large volume of concentrated urine.
B) a large volume of dilute urine.
C) a small volume of concentrated urine.
D) a small volume of dilute urine.
E) a small volume of urine void of sodium.

B) a large volume of dilute urine.

111

116) The final composition of urine is represented by which of the following statements?
A) Urine = substances reabsorbed + substances secreted.
B) Urine = substances filtered + substances reabsorbed + substances secreted.
C) Urine = substances secreted - substances reabsorbed - substances filtered.
D) Urine = substances filtered - substances reabsorbed + substances secreted.
E) Urine = substances reabsorbed - substances secreted - substances filtered.

D) Urine = substances filtered - substances reabsorbed + substances secreted.

112

117) The ureters and urinary bladder are lined by ________ epithelium.
A) stratified squamous
B) pseudostratified columnar
C) simple cuboidal
D) transitional
E) simple columnar

D) transitional

113

118) The detrusor muscle
A) moves urine along the ureters by peristalsis.
B) compresses the urinary bladder and expels urine through the urethra.
C) functions as the internal urinary sphincter.
D) functions as the external urinary sphincter.
E) surrounds the renal pelvis.

B) compresses the urinary bladder and expels urine through the urethra.

114

119) The inability of the kidneys to excrete adequately to maintain homeostasis is
A) glomerulonephritis.
B) polycystic kidney disease.
C) calculi.
D) renal failure.
E) hematuria.

D) renal failure.

115

120) The area of the urinary bladder bounded by the openings of the two ureters and the urethra is called the
A) renal pelvis.
B) JG apparatus.
C) pyramid.
D) trigone.
E) vasa recta.

D) trigone.

116

121) Insoluble deposits that form within the urinary tract from calcium salts, magnesium salts, or uric acid are called kidney stones or renal
A) calculi.
B) plaque.
C) caries.
D) otoliths.
E) lithotrophs.

A) calculi.

117

122) You complain to the doctor about constant pain and discomfort in the low back area. What test might logically be recommended?
A) an MRI
B) a pyelogram
C) a liver biopsy
D) an angiogram
E) a liver enzyme assay

B) a pyelogram

118

123) The pontine storage center controls micturition by
A) stimulating bladder contractions.
B) increasing contraction of the detrusor muscle.
C) relaxing the internal urethral sphincter.
D) increasing contraction of the external urethral sphincter and reducing detrusor muscle activity.
E) stimulating the voiding reflex.

D) increasing contraction of the external urethral sphincter and reducing detrusor muscle activity.

119

124) Which of the following statements is false regarding micturition?
A) When you relax the external urethral sphincter, the internal sphincter will relax.
B) Urination will be completed despite voluntary opposition.
C) Parasympathetic nervous control is involved with the micturition reflex.
D) Stretch receptors in the bladder are stimulated by the warm temperature of the urine.
E) Bladder contractions can force open the internal urethral sphincter.

D) Stretch receptors in the bladder are stimulated by the warm temperature of the urine.

120

125) Changes that occur in the urinary system with aging include all of the following except
A) a decline in the number of functional nephrons.
B) a reduction in the GFR (glomerular filtration rate).
C) increased sensitivity to ADH.
D) problems with the micturition reflex.
E) loss of sphincter muscle tone.

C) increased sensitivity to ADH.

121

126) Your doctor has diagnosed you with prostatitis, an inflammation and swelling involving the
prostate gland. One of your primary symptoms is
A) dribbling urination.
B) renal failure.
C) hematuria.
D) glycosuria.
E) large amounts of dilute urine.

A) dribbling urination.

122

127) Each of the following organ systems excretes wastes to some degree except the ________ system.
A) urinary
B) integumentary
C) digestive
D) endocrine
E) respiratory

D) endocrine

123

1) In which region of the kidney is a glomerulus located?
A) fibrous capsule
B) renal hilum
C) medullary pyramid
D) renal cortex
E) renal medulla

D) renal cortex

124

2) What structure connects the proximal convoluted tubule to the distal convoluted tubule?
A) renal corpuscle
B) collecting duct
C) papillary duct
D) glomerular capsule
E) nephron loop

E) nephron loop

125

3) What four factors shown result in an increased blood volume?
A) increased sodium retention, increased fluid consumption, increased fluid retention, and constriction of systemic veins
B) decreased cardiac output, decreased fluid retention, decreased sodium retention, and systemic vasodilation
C) increased glomerular hydrostatic pressure, increased blood colloid osmotic pressure, decreased capsular hydrostatic pressure, decreased capsular colloid osmotic pressure
D) decreased glomerular hydrostatic pressure, decreased blood colloid osmotic pressure, increased capsular hydrostatic pressure, increased capsular colloid osmotic pressure
E) increased sodium excretion, increased potassium retention, decreased fluid
consumption, increased fluid retention

A) increased sodium retention, increased fluid consumption, increased fluid retention, and constriction of systemic veins

126

4) Aldosterone-sensitive portions of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct allow for the exchange of which ions?
A) reabsorption of hydrogen ions in exchange for chloride ions
B) reabsorption of chloride ions in exchange for hydrogen ions
C) reabsorption of sodium ions in exchange for potassium ions
D) reabsorption of potassium ions in exchange for sodium ions
E) reabsorption of bicarbonate ions in exchange for hydrogen ions

C) reabsorption of sodium ions in exchange for potassium ions

127

5) ADH creates a (small or large) volume of (dilute or concentrated) urine.
A) small; dilute
B) small; concentrated
C) large; dilute
D) large; concentrated

B) small; concentrated

128

6) The (ureter or urethra) transports urine to the bladder.
A) ureter
B) urethra

A) ureter