Chapter 23 Metabolism, Nutrition, and Energetics Flashcards


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1

Identify the fates of fatty acids. (Module 23.11C)

  • Fatty acids may become a fuel source or a component of proteins and nucleic acids.
  • Fatty acids may directly enter glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain to generate ATP
  • Fatty acids may become a fuel source or a component of triglycerides, glycolipids, phospholipids, prostaglandins, cholesterol and steroid.
  • Fatty acids may become a fuel source or a component of glycogen, glucose, and glycolipids.
  • Fatty acids may become LDLs, HDLs, or VLDLs.

Fatty acid may become a fuel source of or a component of triglycerides, glycolipids, phospholipids, prostaglandins, cholesterol and steroid.

2

Describe the roles of LDLs and HDLs. (Module 23.10C)

  • LDLs absorb unused bile and return it to the liver and LDLs deliver bile to the small intestine.
  • LDLs deliver bile to the small intestine and HDs absorb unused bile and return it to the liver.
  • LDLs deliver cholesterol to tissues and HDs absorb unused cholesterol and refurn it to the liver
  • LDLs absorb unused holesterol and return it to the liver and HDLs deliver cholesterol to tissues.
  • LDLs deliver excess cholesterol to adipocytes and HDLs remove excess cholesterol from adipocytes

LDLs delivers cholesterol to tissues, HDL’s absorb unused cholesterol and return to the liver.

3

During lipolysis,

  • lipids are formed from excess carbohydrates.
  • lipids are converted into glucose molecules.
  • lipids are metabolized to yield ATP.
  • triglycerides are converted into molecules of acetyl-CoA.
  • triglycerides are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids.

Triglycerides are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids

4

Lipogenesis generally begins with

  • amino acids.
  • fatty acids.
  • glucose.
  • acetyl-CoA.
  • succinyl-CoA.

Acetyl-CoA

5

Define beta-oxidation. (Module 23.11A)

  • fatty acid anabolism
  • glycogen catabolism
  • glucose anabolism
  • fatty acid catabolism
  • glucose catabolism

Fatty acid catabolism

6

The nutrients that yield the most energy per gram when metabolized are

  • vitamins.
  • proteins.
  • lipids.
  • carbohydrates.
  • nucleic acids.

Lipids

7

Where does most nutrient absorption occur? (Module 23.8B)

  • in the large intestine, primarily in the cecum
  • in the stomach, primarily in the body
  • in the large intestine, primarily in the transverse colon
  • in the small intestine, primarily in the jejunum
  • in the mouth

In the Small intestine, primarily in the jejunum.

8

All of the following take place during the absorptive state except

  • estrogen promotes protein synthesis.
  • insulin stimulates triglycerides.
  • aerobic metabolism provides increased synthesis of blood lipid levels.
  • blood glucose levels rise.
  • ketone bodies begin to form.

Ketone bodies begin to form

9

When and how do ketone bodies form? (Module 23.13B)

  • during the absorptive state when carbohydrates are broken down by the liver
  • during the absorptive state when lipids and amino acids are broken down by the liver
  • during the postabsorptive state when lipids and amino acids are broken down by the liver
  • during the postabsorptive state when glucose is being converted to glycerol and amino acids
  • during the postabsorptive state when carbohydrates are broken down by the liver

During postabsorbptive state when carbohydrates are broken down by the liver.

10

Glucocorticoids have which of the following effects on general peripheral tissues?

  • They increase glycogenolysis.
  • They increase gluconeogenesis.
  • They increase the conversion of amino acids to pyruvate.
  • All of the answers are correct.
  • None of the answers is correct.

All of the answers are correct.

11

Wally decides to go on a hunger strike to further one of his favorite causes. After many days with nothing but water you would expect to observe

  • lowered blood pH.
  • ketone bodies in his urine.
    elevated levels of
  • glucocorticoids.
  • All of the answers are correct.
  • None of the answers is correct.

All of the answers are correct

12

What two coenzymes transfer hydrogen atoms to the electron transport chain? (Module 23.4C)

  • pyruvate and acetyl CoA
  • NAD and FAD
  • ATP and GTP
  • ADP and GDP
  • NADP and FAD

NAD and FAD

13

________ creates 90 percent of the ATP normally generated.

  • The electron transport system
  • Transamination
  • Lipogenesis
  • Glycolysis
  • Oxidative phosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation

14

Compare oxidation and reduction. (Module 23.5B)

  • Oxidation is the loss of oxygen, or the gain of hydrogen or electrons, whereas reduction is gain of oxygen or lost of hydrogen or electrons
  • Oxidation is the gain of oxygen, or loss of hydrogen or electrons, whereas reduction is the loss of oxygen, or the gain of hydrogen or electron.

Oxidation is the gain of oxygen, or loss of hydrogen or electrons, whereas reduction is the loss of oxygen, or the gain of hydrogen or electron.

15

The sum of all of the biochemical processes going on within the human body at any given time is called

  • glycolysis.
  • metabolism.
  • anabolism.
  • catabolism.
  • oxidative phosphorylation.

Metabolism

16

Although other nutrients can feed into the citric acid cycle, ________ yields energy the quickest.

  • protein
  • glucose
  • glycogen
  • fat
  • All of the answers yield energy at the same rate.

Glucose

17

Explain when glycolysis is important in cellular metabolism. (Module 23.6B)

  • When ATP must be produced aerobically.
  • When beta-oxidation no longer produces sufficient ATP to fuel the cellular metabolism.
  • When glucose is only fuel source.
  • When ATP must be produced anaerobically.
  • When gluconeogenesis has decreased then glycolysis becomes important

When ATP must be produced anaerobically

18

Compare glycogenesis and glycogenolysis. (Module 23.7A)

  • Glycogenesis is the formation of non-carbohydrates from glucose. Glycogenolysis is the formation of glucose from non-carbohydrates
  • Glycogenesis is the breakdown of glycogen to glucose. Glycogenolysis is the formation of glycogen from glucose
  • Glycogenesis is the formation of glycogen from non-carbohydrates. Glycogenolysis is the breakdoan of non-carbohydrates into glycogen
  • Glycogenesis is the formation of glucose from non-carbohydrates. Glycogenolysis is the formation of non-carbohydrates from glucose
  • Glycogenesis is the formation of glycogen from glucose. Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen to glucose

Glycogenesis is the formation of glycogen from glucose. Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen to glucose.

19

In oxidative phosphorylation, energy for the synthesis of ATP is directly obtained from the

  • movement of hydrogen ions through channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
  • combination of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen to form water.
  • oxidation of acetyl-CoA.
  • splitting of oxygen molecules.
  • breaking of the covalent bonds in glucose.

Movement of hydrogen ions through channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane.

20

The vitamin that plays a role in maintaining epithelia and is required for the synthesis of visual pigments is vitamin

  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E

A

21

________ is an unhealthy state resulting from inadequate intake of one or more nutrients that becomes life-threatening as the deficiencies accumulate.

  • Protein deficiency disease
  • Anorexia
  • Malnutrition
  • Kwashiorkor
  • Bulimia

Malnutrition

22

Identify the two classes of vitamins. (Module 23.14B)

  • dietary and non-dietary
  • fat-soluble and water-soluble
  • essential and non-essential
  • complete and incomplete
  • natural and synthetic

Fat-soluble and water-soluble

23

The vitamin that is required for proper bone growth and for calcium absorption and retention is vitamin

  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E

D

24

A high uric acid level (above 7.4 mg/dl) can lead to the painful condition known as

  • anorexia nervosa.
  • rheumatoid arthritis.
  • lupus.
  • gout.
  • None of the answers is correct.

GOUT

25

Predict the effect of peripheral vasodilation on a person's body temperature. (Module 23.20A)

  • Body temperature would decrease.
  • Body temperature would increase.
  • Body temperature would stay the same.

Body temperature would decrease

26

Define insensible perspiration. (Module 23.19A)

  • The loss of water by direct transfer of energy through physical contact.
  • The loss of water by evaporation from sweat glands.
  • The loss of water as cool air moves across the surface of the body.
  • The loss of water by radiation.
  • The loss of water by evaporation from the skin and alveolar surfaces of the lungs.

The loss of water by evaporation from the skin and alveolar surfaces of the lungs

27

The area of the brain that regulates body temperature is the

  • hypothalamus.
  • cerebral cortex.
  • medulla oblongata.
  • pons.
  • pineal gland.

Hypothalamus

28

Of all the energy released in catabolism, about ________ percent is lost as heat warms the surrounding tissues.

  • 40
  • 10
  • 60
  • 80
  • 20

60

29

Homeostatic control of body temperature is termed

Thermoregulation

30

A(n) ________ contains all of the essential amino acids.

  • complete protein
  • water-soluble vitamin
  • essential fatty acid
  • carbohydrate
  • fat-soluble vitamin

Complete protein

31

Deficiency in what vitamin can result in a condition called scurvy?

  • B1
  • C
  • A
  • D
  • B12

C

32

The minimum resting energy expenditure of an awake, alert person is called

  • homeostasis.
  • steady state.
  • body mass index rate.
  • basal metabolic rate.
  • stasis.

Basal metabolic state

33

It's been 5 hours since you had breakfast and now you're thinking about trying the new Mexican lunch place that just opened up across the street. The more you think about it, the hungrier you get. Your increased hunger is the result of the ________ that your empty stomach is releasing into your bloodstream.

  • leptin
  • pepsin
  • ghrelin
  • insulin
  • cholecystokinin (CCK)

Ghrelin

34

What happens to the ammonium ions that are removed from amino acids during deamination? (Module 23.12C

They combine with CO2 and enter the urea cycle

35

In amino acid metabolism, identify the processes by which the amino group is removed. (Module 23

  • transamination or deamination
  • amination or deamination
  • proteolysis or beta-oxidation
  • citric acid cycle or urea cycle
  • urea cycle or amination

Transamination or deamination

36

________ carry excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver.

  • Intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs)
  • High-density lipoproteins (HDLs)
  • Very-high-density lipoproteins (VHDLs)
  • Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs)
  • Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)

High density lipoproteins (HDLs)

37

How are most nutrients absorbed in the digestive tract eventually transported out of the digestive system

  • through the aorta
  • via pulmonary arteries
  • through the hepatic portal vein
  • via the hepatobiliary duct
  • via the pyloric valve

Through the hepatic portal vein

38

Describe the source of intestinal gas. (Module 23.9A)

  • bacterial metabolism of indigestible carbohydrates in the colon
  • as bile emulsifies lipids some gas is released in the process
  • churning of food in the stomach increases the carbon dioxide that is mixed into the chyme
  • swallowing excess air during eating generates pockets of air that remain in the food
  • as certain foods are broken down they release trapped gases

Bacterial metabolism of indigestible carbohydrates in the colon.

39

The lipoproteins that carry absorbed lipids from the intestinal tract to the bloodstream are the

  • very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs).
  • high-density lipoproteins (HDLS).
  • chylomicrons.
  • low-density lipoproteins (LDLS).
  • None of the answers is correct.

Chylomicrons

40

Reactions within ________ provide most of the energy needed by a typical cell.

  • cytoplasm
  • the plasma membrane
  • the endoplasmic reticulum
  • the nucleus
  • the mitochondria

The Mitochondria

41

The carbon dioxide of respiration is formed during

  • the formation of water.
  • the formation of pyruvic acid.
  • electron transport.
  • the citric acid cycle.
  • glycolysis.

The citric acid cycle

42

List the products of glycolysis. (Module 23.3A)

  • 2 molecules of pyruvate, 2 molecules of ADP, 4 molecules of NADH
  • 2 molecules of pyruvate, 2 molecules of ATP. 4 molecules of NADH
  • 2 molecules of pyruvate, 2 molecules of ATP, 2 molecules of NADH
  • 1 molecule of pyruvate, 2 molecules of ATP. 2 molecules of NADH
  • 2 molecules of pyruvate, 4 molecules of ATP. 4 molecules of NADH

2 molecules of pyruvate,

2 molecules of ATP,

2 molecules of NADH

43

Briefly describe the citric acid cycle, and explain its role. (Module 23.4A)

  • The breakdown of glucose into pyruvate to provide ATP for the cell.
  • The regeneration of ATP from ADP to provide high energy molecules to fuel cellular activites
  • The conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA to allow it to enter the mitochondrial matrix
  • The breakdown of organic molecules to release hydrogen atoms bound to coenymes that can enter the electron transport chain
  • To establish the proton gradient used to make ATP.

The breakdown of organic molecules to release hydrogen atoms bound to coenzymes that can enter the electron transport chain.