The fundamental strategic decision of World War II made by President
Roosevelt and the British at the very beginning of the war was
a. plan for a second front in Western Europe as soon as possible.
b. force Italy out of the war first by attacking the soft underbelly of Europe.
c. arouse the American people to an idealistic crusade of the same sort that Woodrow Wilson had so effectively used in World War I.
d. concentrate first on the war in Europe and to place the Pacific war against Japan on the back burner.
e. fight an equally vigorous naval war against Japan and a land war against Germany and Italy.
Once at war, America's first great challenge was to
a. pass a conscription law.
b. raise an army and navy.
c. extend aid to the Soviet Union.
d. develop atomic weapons.
e. retool its industry for all-out war production.
In sharp contrast to World War I, during World War II, the United
a. ready to use conscription if necessary to raise an army.
b. forced to sacrifice civilian economic well-being for the military effort.
c. weakened by constant isolationist criticism of the war effort.
d. nearly unanimous in support of the war.
e. actually invaded by enemy forces.
Overall, most ethnic groups in the United States during World War
a. were further assimilated into American society.
b. were not allowed to serve in the military.
c. had their patriotism questioned as in World War I.
d. cast their vote for Republican candidates opposed to the war.
e. served in ethnically distinct military units.
After the United States entered World War II in 1941, the term
"enemy aliens" referred to
a. Japanese living in the U.S.
b. Italians living in the U.S.
c. Germans living in the U.S.
d. All of these
e. None of these
The minority group most adversely affected by Washington's wartime
a. German Americans.
c. Japanese Americans.
d. American communists.
e. Italian Americans.
All of the following are true statements about the effect of
Executive Order No. 9066 on Japanese living in the U.S. except
a. they were put in internment camps.
b. they were victims of anti-Japanese prejudice.
c. they lost hundreds of millions of dollars in property and lost wages.
d. The U.S. Supreme Court declared the Japanese relocation unconstitutional.
e. The U.S. government officially apologized four decades later and gave each camp survivor $20,000.
The impact of World War II on many of the New Deal programs launched
during the Great Depression was that they
a. were expanded to gear up for wartime production.
b. were retired due to wartime production.
c. provided much-needed jobs for the poor.
d. became an established fixture of U.S. government programs.
e. None of these
Despite the demands of the wartime economy, inflation was kept well
in check during the war by
a. directing production to whatever goods were in most demand.
b. prosecuting war profiteers and black marketers who tried to earn windfall profits.
c. permitting large numbers of illegal migrants to enter the work force.
d. sharply constricting the flow of credit from the Federal Reserve Board.
e. federally imposed wage and price controls.
When the United States entered World War II in December 1941
a. it took nearly two years for the country to unite.
b. the conflict soon became an idealistic crusade for democracy.
c. the government repudiated the Atlantic Charter.
d. a majority of Americans had no clear idea of what the war was about.
e. the idea of allying with the Communist Soviet Union was repugnant.
During World War II, the United States government commissioned the
production of synthetic ____ in order to offset the loss of access to
prewar supplies in East Asia.
Match each of the wartime agencies below with its correct function:
A. War Production Board 1. assigned priorities with respect to the
use of raw materials and transportation facilities
B. Office of Price Administration 2. controlled inflation by rationing essential goods
C. National War Labor Board 3. imposed ceilings on wage increases
D. Fair Employment Practices Commission 4. saw to it that no hiring discrimination practices were used against blacks seeking employment in war industries
a. A-2, B-3, C-4, D-1
b. A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4
c. A-2, B-4, C-3, D-1
d. A-3, B-2, C-1, D-4
e. A-4, B-1, C-2, D-3
While most American workers were strongly committed to the war
effort, wartime production was disrupted by strikes led by the
b. Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.
c. Longshoremen's International Union.
d. United Mine Workers.
e. Industrial Workers of the World.
The employment of more than six million women in American industry
during World War II led to
a. equal pay for men and women.
b. a greater percentage of American women in war industries than anywhere else in the world.
c. the establishment of day-care centers by the government.
d. a reduction in employment for black males.
e. a strong desire of most women to work for wages.
About half of the women war workers said that the main reason they
left the labor force at the end of World War II was
a. union demands.
b. employer demands that they quit.
c. male discrimination on the job.
d. government requirements to hire veterans.
e. family obligations.
Historians look to the fact that many women wanted to keep work and
did after the war as
a. foreshadowing the eventual revolution in women's roles in America.
b. helping to expand the nation's economy.
c. fueling the rise of home-buying across America.
d. facilitating the increasing divorce rate.
e. None of these
African Americans did all of the following during World War II
a. fight in integrated combat units.
b. rally behind the slogan "Double V" (victory over dictators abroad and racism at home).
c. move north and west in large numbers.
d. form a militant organization called the Congress of Racial Equality.
e. serve in the Army Air Corps.
The greatest consequence of World War II for American race relations
a. the tensions in wartime factories between blacks and whites.
b. the integration of the armed forces.
c. African Americans' experience of more positive European racial attitudes.
d. the massive migration of African Americans from the rural South to northern and western cities.
e. the Atlantic Charter declaring that the war was being fought for democracy and freedom.
One of the most valuable contributions of Native Americans to the war
a. as nurses and cooks on military bases.
b. as code talkers who transmitted war messages into their native languages.
c. as arms experts who consulted with generals and military planners.
d. as farmers who helped expand crop output for soldiers on the front.
e. None of these
During World War II, most Americans economically experienced
a. serious hardships due to rationing of essential goods.
b. prosperity and a doubling of personal income.
c. a continuing struggle to find employment.
d. growing class conflict between the wealthy and the working class.
e. prosperity in the cities but disastrous conditions on farms and in small towns.
The northward migration of African Americans accelerated after World
War II because
a. the southern system of sharecropping was declared illegal.
b. Latinos had replaced blacks in the workforce.
c. mechanical cotton pickers came into use.
d. northern cities repealed segregation laws.
e. the South made it clear that they were not wanted.
During World War II, American Indians
a. demanded that President Roosevelt end discrimination in defense industries.
b. rarely enlisted in the armed forces.
c. moved south to replace African American laborers.
d. moved off reservations in large numbers.
e. promoted recovery of tribal languages.
By the end of World War II, the heart of the United States' African
American community had shifted to
a. Florida and the Carolinas.
b. southern cities.
c. the Pacific Northwest.
d. Midwestern small towns.
e. northern and western cities.
The national debt increased most during
a. Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal.
b. Herbert Hoover's administration.
c. World War II.
d. World War I.
e. the 1920s.
Most of the money raised to finance World War II came through
a. tariff collections.
b. excise taxes on luxury goods.
c. raising income taxes.
d. voluntary contributions.
Until spring 1943, perhaps Hitler's greatest opportunities of
defeating Britain and winning the war was
a. the possibility of a successful invasion across the English Channel.
b. that German U-boat would destroy Allied shipping.
c. the defeatism of pro-fascist elements within upper-class British society.
d. that General Rommel would conquer Egypt and the Suez Canal.
e. that the American-British-Soviet alliance would collapse.
Hitler's advance in the European theater of war crested in late 1942
at the Battle of ____, after which his fortunes gradually
a. the Bulge
c. Monte Cassino
e. El Alamein
The Allies postponed opening a second front in Europe until 1944
a. they wanted to wait until Germany and the Soviet Union had badly bloodied each other.
b. men and material were needed more urgently in the Pacific.
c. the Soviet Union requested a delay until they could coordinate attacks on the eastern and western fronts.
d. they believed that North Africa was more strategically vital.
e. the British were fearful of becoming bogged down in a ground war in France.
Roosevelt's and Churchill's insistence on the absolute and
"unconditional surrender" of Germany
a. guaranteed that Germany would have to be totally reconstructed after the war.
b. clearly shortened the war.
c. was largely unacceptable to the Soviets, who hoped to encourage a communist revolution inside Germany.
d. may have prevented a "separate peace" between Hitler and Stalin.
e. encouraged anti-Hitler resisters in Germany to try to overthrow the Nazis.
President Roosevelt's promise to the Soviets to open a second front
in Western Europe by the end of 1942
a. was fulfilled by the invasion of North Africa.
b. was made to deceive Stalin and encourage him to slow his army's movement into Eastern Europe.
c. was strongly supported by Churchill and British military leaders.
d. proved utterly impossible to keep.
e. represented the key goal to which all early American military efforts were directed.
Arrange these wartime conferences in chronological order: (A)
Potsdam, (B) Casablanca, and (C) Teheran.
a. A, B, C
b. C, B, A
c. B, C, A
d. B, A, C
e. A, C, B
Arrange these events in chronological order: (A) V-J Day, (B) V-E
Day, (C) D Day, and (D) Invasion of Italy.
a. D, C, B, A
b. A, C, B, D
c. B, D, A, C
d. C, A, D, B
e. A, D, B, C
The major consequence of the Allied conquest of Sicily in August 1943
a. a modification of the demand for unconditional surrender of Italy.
b. the overthrow of Mussolini and Italy's unconditional surrender.
c. the swift Allied conquest of the Italian peninsula.
d. a conflict between Churchill and General Eisenhower over the invasion of the Italian mainland.
e. the threat of a Communist takeover of the Italian government.
After the Italian surrender in August 1943, the
a. Allies found it easy to conquer Rome and the rest of Italy.
b. Soviets accepted the wisdom of delaying the invasion of France and pursuing the second front in Italy.
c. British demanded the restoration of the monarchy in Italy.
d. Americans withdrew from Italy to prepare for D-Day.
e. German army poured into Italy and stalled the Allied advance.
The real impact of the Italian front on World War II may have been
a. delayed the D-Day invasion and allowed the Soviet Union to advance further into Eastern Europe.
b. prevented the rise of fascism or communism in Italy after the war.
c. enabled the Americans to appease both British and Soviet strategic demands.
d. enabled the United States to prevent Austria and Greece from falling into Soviet hands.
e. destroyed the monastery of Monte Cassino and other Italian artistic treasures.
At the wartime Teheran Conference
a. the Soviet Union agreed to declare war on Japan within three months.
b. the Big Three allies agreed to divide postwar Germany into separate occupied zones.
c. the Soviet Union agreed to allow free elections in Eastern European nations that its armies occupied at the end of the war.
d. plans were made for the opening of a second front in Europe.
e. it was agreed that five Big Powers would have veto power in the United Nations.
The cross-channel invasion of Normandy to open a second front in
Europe was commanded by General
a. George Patton.
b. Dwight Eisenhower.
c. Douglas MacArthur.
d. Bernard Montgomery.
e. Omar Bradley.
In a sense, Franklin Roosevelt was the "forgotten man" at
the Democratic Convention in 1944 because
a. so much attention was focused on who would gain the vice presidency.
b. he remained in Washington, D.C., to conduct the war.
c. poor health prevented him from taking an active role.
d. the issue of a fourth term was prominent.
e. Vice President Henry Wallace controlled the convention.
The most significant development in the Democratic convention of 1944
a. Roosevelt's third-term vice president, Henry Wallace, was dumped in favor of Senator Harry Truman.
b. Roosevelt's appearance at the convention revealed how physically frail he was.
c. party leaders developed a campaign that downplayed the New Deal's success.
d. there was growing resistance to Roosevelt's pursuit of a fourth term.
e. the issue of civil rights came to the fore as the dominant concern of the party.
Franklin Roosevelt won the election in 1944 primarily because
a. Republican Thomas E. Dewey favored an international organization for world peace.
b. labor unions turned out for Roosevelt.
c. Harry Truman was his running mate.
d. questions arose regarding Thomas E. Dewey's honesty.
e. the war was going well.
Hitler's last-ditch attempt to achieve a victory against the
Americans and British came in
a. the Battle of the Bulge.
b. the Battle of the Rhineland.
c. the attempt to assassinate Churchill and Roosevelt.
d. an attempt to arrange a negotiated peace with Stalin.
e. the final U-boat campaign against the American navy.
The Potsdam conference
a. determined the fate of Eastern Europe.
b. brought France and China in as part of the Big Five.
c. concluded that the Soviet Union would enter the war in the Pacific.
d. was Franklin Roosevelt's last meeting with Churchill and Stalin.
e. issued an ultimatum to Japan to surrender or be destroyed.
Which of the following was not among the qualities of the American
participation in World War II?
a. A group of highly effective military and political leaders
b. An enormously effective effort in producing weapons and supplies
c. A higher percentage of military casualties than any other Allied nation
d. The preservation of the American homeland against invasion or destruction from the air
e. The maintenance and reaffirmation of the strength of American democracy