Chapter 21 respiratory Flashcards


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Respiratory System
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1

When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract,

  • expiration occurs
  • the volume of the thorax decreases
  • the volume of the thorax increases
  • the volume of the lungs decreases
  • the lungs shrinks

The volume of the thorax increases

2

Boyle's law states that gas volume is

  • directly proportional to pressure
  • directly proportional to temperature
  • inversely proportional to pressure
  • inversely proportional to temperature
  • both directly proportional to temperature

Inversely proportional to pressure

3

________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume

  • enhanced tidal volume
  • Inspiratory reserve volume
  • expiratory reserve volume
  • Residual inhaled volume
  • inspiratory capacity

Inspiratory reserve volume

4

________ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle under resting conditions.

  • Inspiratory reserve volume
  • residual volume
  • expiratory reserve volume
  • inspiratory capacity
  • tidal volume

Tidal volume

5

Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is

  • less than the pressure in the atmosphere
  • greater than the pressure in the atmosphere
  • greater than intramural alveolar pressure
  • equal to the pressure in the atmosphere
  • less than the pressure in the atmospherE

Greater than the pressure in the atmosphere

6

Air remaining in the conducting portion of the respiratory system that does not reach the alveoli is known as

  • Function residual capacity
  • anatomic dead space
  • alveolar ventilation volume
  • respiratory minute volume
  • minimal volume

Anatomic dead space

7

Which of the following muscles would not be recruited to increase inspired volume?

  • sternocleidomastoid
  • serratus anterior
  • rectus abdominis
  • scalenes
  • pectoralis minor

Rectus abdominis

8

The amount of air that a person can voluntarily expel after completing a normal, quiet respiratory cycle is termed

  • tidal volume
  • total lung capacity
  • inspiratory reserve volume
  • residual volume
  • expiratory reserve volume

Expiratory reserve volume

9

Which of the following statements about the chloride shift is false?

  • It is driven by a rise in PCO2
  • it involves a movement of chloride ion into RBCs
  • it depends on the chloride bicarbonate counter transport mechanism
  • it involves a movement of bicarbonate ions into the plasms
  • it causes RBCs to swell

It causes the RBCs to swell

10

The movement of chloride ions into the RBCs in exchange for bicarbonate ions is known as

  • the BPG pathway
  • the Bohr effect
  • the chloride shift
  • gas diffusion
  • a bicarbonate exchange

The chloride shift

11

Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is

  • bound to hemoglobin
  • carried by white blood cells
  • dissolved in plasma
  • bound to the same protein as carbon dioxide
  • in ionic form as solute in the plasma

Bound to hemoglobin

12

The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is

  • breathing
  • pulmonary ventilation
  • external respiration
  • cellular respiration
  • internal respiration

Internal respiration

13

Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as

  • solute dissolved in the plasma
  • Carbonic acid
  • solute dissolved in the cytoplasm of red blood cells
  • carbaminohemoglobin
  • bicarbonate ions

Bicarbonate ions

14

Describe the location of the lungs within the thoracic cavity. (Module 21.6B)

  • the left lung and right lung are surrounded by the left and right plural cavities, respectively
  • the lungs are anterior to the sternum in the mediastinum
  • the left lung is surrounded by a left plural cavity and the right lung is surrounded by a right pericardial cavity

the left lung and right lung are surrounded by the left and right plural cavities, respectively

15

Distinguish between the conducting portion and respiratory portion of the respiratory tract. (Module 21.1B)

  • The conducting portion includes the nasal cavity and extends through the pharynx and larynx. The respiratory portion includes the trachea, bronchi, larger bronchioles,
    respiratory bronchioles and alveoli.
  • The conducting portion of the respiratory tract includes the respiratory bronchioles and alveoli. The respiratory portion includes the nasal cavity and extends through the
    pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and larger bronchioles.
  • The conducting portion includes the trachea, bronchi, larger bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles and alveoli. The respiratory portion includes the nasal cavity and extends
    through the pharynx and larynx.
  • The conducting portion includes the nasal cavity and extends through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and larger bronchioles. The respiratory portion includes the respiratory bronchioles and alveoli.
  • The conducting portion includes the nasal cavity and pharynx. The respiratory portion includes the larynx, trachea, bronchi, larger bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, and alveoli

The conducting portion includes the nasal cavity and extends through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and larger bronchioles. The respiratory portion includes the respiratory bronchioles and alveoli.

16

The respiratory defense system is important for all of the following reasons except

  • keeping out debris.
  • helping filter the air.
  • helping warm the air.
  • providing gas exchange.
  • keeping out pathogens.

Providing gas exchange

17

The right lung has ________; the left lung has ________.

  • two lobes; three lobes
  • three lobes; two lobes
  • three lobes; three lobes
  • two lobes; two lobes
  • None of the answers is correct.

three lobes; two lobes

18

The beating of the cilia of the respiratory passages in the direction of the pharynx forms the

  • lamina propria.
  • conducting portion of the respiratory tract.
  • mucus escalator.
  • respiratory mucosa.
  • respiratory defense system.

Mucus escalartor

19

Compare the two main bronchi. (Module 21.5A)

  • The right main bronchus is larger in diameter than the left main bronchus and it descends toward the lung at a shallower angle than the left main bronchus.
  • The right main bronchus is smaller in diameter than the left main bronchus and it descends toward the lung at a steeper angle than the left main bronchus
  • The right main bronchus is smaller in diameter than the left main bronchus and it descends toward the lung at a shallower angle than the left main bronchus.
  • The right main bronchus is the same diameter as the left main bronchus and it descends toward the lung at a shallower angle than the left main bronchus.
  • The right main bronchus is larger in diameter than the left main bronchus and it descends toward the lung at a steeper angle than the left main bronchus.

The right main bronchus is larger in diameter than the left main bronchus and it descends toward the lung at a steeper angle than the left main bronchus.

20

The ________ is a depression in the lung that allows attachment of the primary bronchi, pulmonary vessels, and other structures.

  • apex
  • base
  • hilum
  • cardiac notch
  • root

Hilum

21

The nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity by the

  • soft palate.
  • internal nares.
  • pharyngeal septum.
  • hard palate.
  • cribriform plate.

Hard plate

22

Air passing through the glottis vibrates the vocal folds and produces

  • speech.
  • articulation
  • ululation.
  • phonation.
  • whistling.

Phonation

23

Define respiratory defense system. (Module 21.2A)

  • The respiratory defense system is the resident macrophages that live in the respiratory passageways
    The respiratory defense system is the lymph fluid that lines the internal respiratory passageways to prevent invasion by pathogens.
  • The respiratory defense system is the collection of T cells and B cells that reside in the respiratory passageways.
  • The respiratory defense system is a series of filtration mechanisms that prevent airway contamination.
  • The respiratory defense system is the collection of lymph nodes throughout the lungs that filter the air as it is inhaled

The respiratory defense system is a series of filtration mechanisms that prevent airway contamination

24

Describe the structures of the glottis. (Module 21.4B)

  • The glottis contains the large epiglottis that covers the glottis during swallowing and the thyroid cartilage which forms most of the anterior and lateral walls of !
  • The glottis contains the vocal folds that contain the vocal ligaments and the rima glottidis which is the opening between the vocal folds.
  • The glottis contains the vestibular ligaments that extend between the thyroid cartilage and the arytenoid cartilages.
  • The glottis contains a vestibule and a septum. As air passes through the vestibule it is split by the septum producing sound.
  • The glottis contains the superior, middle, and inferior meatuses, which swirls air in the larynx producing sound.

The glottis contains the vocal folds that contain the vocal ligaments and the rima glottidis which is the opening between the vocal folds.

25

The conchae

  • provide an opening to paranasal sinuses.
  • form part of the soft palate.
  • provide an opening into the pharynx.
  • divide the nasal cavity into a right and a left side.
  • create turbulence in the air to trap particulate matter in mucus.

Create turbulence in the air to trap particulate matter in mucus

26

If the dorsal respiratory group of neurons in the medulla oblongata were destroyed bilaterally,

  • the respiratory minute volume would increase.
  • pulmonary ventilation would increase markedly.
  • alveolar ventilation would increase.
  • a person would stop breathing.
  • tidal volumes would increase

A person would stop breathing

27

A period in which breathing has stopped, followed by a forceful expulsion of air, is termed

  • anoxia.
  • apnea.
  • apneustic breathing.
  • respiratory distress.
  • hypoxia.

Apnea

28

The inflation reflex

  • alters pulmonary ventilation when the Pco2 changes.
  • alters pulmonary ventilation when the Po2 changes.
  • functions to increase ventilation with changes in blood pressure.
  • Is an important aspect of normal, quiet breathing.
  • protects the lungs from damage during forced inspiration.

protects the lungs from damage during forced inspiration.

29

Which of these age-based changes is false?

  • The lungs lose elastic tissue.
  • Costal cartilages become less flexible.
  • The lungs' compliance changes.
  • Vital capacity increases
  • Respiratory muscles weaken.

Vital capacity increases

30

The pneumotaxic center of the pons

  • modifies the rate and depth of breathing.
  • both prolongs inspiration and modifies the rate and depth of breathing.
  • prolongs inspiration.
    suppresses the expiratory center in the medulla.
  • sets the at-rest respiratory pattern.

Modifies the rate and depth of breathing

31

External respiration involves the

  • binding of oxygen by hemoglobin.
  • diffusion of gases between the alveoli and the circulating blood
  • movement of air into and out of the lungs.
  • exchange of dissolved gases between the blood and the interstitial fluid
  • utilization of oxygen by tissues to support metabolism.

Diffusion of gases between the alveoli and the circulating blood.

32

Low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low P O2. This increases the effectiveness of

  • acid-base balance.
  • hemoglobin synthesis.
  • carbon dioxide transport.
  • external respiration.
  • internal respiration.

Internal respiration

33

Inhaling through the nostrils is preferred over the mouth because

  • there is less resistance to flow.
  • it dries out the mouth.
  • it combines olfaction with respiration.
  • it allows better conditioning of the inhaled air.
  • bacteria won't be inhaled from the oral cavity,

it allows better conditioning of the inhaled air.

34

The common passageway shared by the respiratory and digestive systems is the

  • pharynx.
  • larynx.
  • trachea.
  • glottis.
  • vestibule.

Pharynx

35

The laryngeal cartilage composed of elastic cartilage that prevents entry of solids or liquids into the larynx

  • corniculate cartilage.
  • cricoid cartilage.
  • arytenoid cartilage.
  • epiglottis.
  • thyroid cartilage.

Epiglottis

36

Define pulmonary lobule. (Module 21.7A)

  • A pulmonary lobule is the largest subdivisions of the lung supplied by a main or primary bronchus
  • A pulmonary lobule is a large subdivision of the lung supplied by a lobar or secondary bronchus
  • A pulmonary lobule is a region of the lung that does not partipate in gas exchange but contains conducting passageways only
  • A pulmonary lobule is a medium-sized subdivision of the lungs supplied by a segmental bronchus
  • A pulmonary lobule is the smallest subdivision of the lungs; branches of the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins and a terminal bronchiole supply each lobule.

A pulmonary lobule is the smallest subdivision of the lungs; branches of the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins and a terminal bronchiole supply each lobule.

37

Air entering the body is filtered, warmed, and humidified by the

  • lungs
  • bronchioles
  • alveoli
  • upper respiratory tract
  • lower respiratory tract

Upper respiratory tract

38

The most important chemical regulator of respiration is

  • oxygen
  • bicarbonate ion
  • sodium ion
  • carbon dioxide
  • hemoglobin

Carbon dioxide

39

The obstructive lung disease in which elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and bronchioles, is called

  • asthma.
  • emphysema.
  • bronchitis.
  • pneumonia.
  • tuberculosis.

Emphysema

40

When there is no air movement, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that

  • atmospheric pressure is less than intrapulmonary.
  • intrapulmonary pressure is greater than atmospheric.
  • atmospheric pressure is more than intrapulmonary.
  • they are equal.
  • intrapulmonary pressure is less than atmospheric.

They are equal

41

In quiet breathing,

  • inspiration involves muscular contractions and expiration is passive.
  • inspiration and expiration are both passive.
  • inspiration and expiration involve muscular contractions
  • inspiration is passive and expiration involves muscular contractions.
  • None of the answers is correct.

Inspiration involves muscular contractions and expiration is passive

42

The normal respiratory rate of a resting adult ranges from ________ breaths each minute, or roughly one for every four heartbeats.

  • 12 to 18
  • 10 to 12
  • 22 to 24
  • 16 to 20
  • 4 to 6

12-18

43

Pulmonary ventilation refers to the

  • utilization of oxygen.
  • movement of dissolved gases from the interstitial space to the cells.
  • movement of dissolved gases from the alveoli to the blood.
  • movement of air into and out of the lungs.
  • movement of dissolved gases from the blood to the interstitial space.

Movement of air into and out of the lungs