Apush 36-37 Flashcards


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1

Americans feared that the end of World War II would bring
a. heightened racial tensions.
b. a return of the Great Depression.
c. moral and religious decline.
d. continued fascist resistance in Germany.
e. a new war with the Soviet Union.

B

2

The Taft-Hartley Act delivered a major blow to labor by
a. outlawing strikes by public employees.
b. creating a serious inflationary spiral.
c. banning labor's political action committees.
d. outlawing "closed" (all-union) shops.
e. forbidding union organizers to enter workplaces.

D

3

The passage of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act (GI Bill of Rights) was partly motivated by
a. fear of postwar veterans' protests.
b. memories of the mistreatment of the veterans' Bonus Army in the 1930s.
c. fear that the labor markets could not absorb millions of discharged veterans.
d. a desire to expand the social diversity of American colleges and universities.
e. the need of American business for a more highly educated workforce.

C

4

The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 was passed to check the growing power of
a. the presidency.
b. blacks.
c. labor unions.
d. the federal bureaucracy.
e. leftists and communists.

C

5

The growth of organized labor in the post-WWII era was slowed by all of the following except
a. the Taft-Hartley Act.
b. the rapidly growing number of service-sector workers.
c. the failure of Operation Dixie.
d. the reduced number of women in the work force.
e. the growing number of part-time workers.

D

6

In an effort to forestall an economic downturn, the Truman administration did all of the following except
a. create the President's Council of Economic Advisers.
b. sell war factories and other government installations to private businesses at very low prices.
c. pass the Employment Act, which made it government policy to promote maximum employment, production, and purchasing power.
d. pass the Servicemen's Readjustment Act, known as the GI Bill of Rights.
e. continue wartime wage and price controls.

E

7

The post-World War II prosperity in the United States was most beneficial to
a. African Americans.
b. labor unions.
c. women.
d. Hispanics.
e. farmers.

C

8

One striking consequence of the postwar economic boom was
a. the continued exclusion of most women from the workplace.
b. the growing split between urban and rural America.
c. the growing concentration of wealth at the top of society.
d. a vast expansion of the home owning middle class.
e. the growth of blue-collar employment.

D

9

The long economic boom from World War II to the 1970s was fueled primarily by
a. low energy costs.
b. reduced military expenditures.
c. low inflation.
d. low taxes.
e. high labor efficiency.

B

10

Much of the prosperity of the 1950s and 1960s rested on the underpinnings of
a. foreign aid.
b. a rising stock market.
c. foreign trade.
d. a thriving automobile industry.
e. colossal military budgets.

E

11

One sign of the stress that the widespread post-World War II geographic mobility placed on American families was the
a. redistribution of income.
b. popularity of advice books on child-rearing.
c. increasing reliance on television as a "baby sitter."
d. increased number of long-distance telephone calls.
e. dramatic rise in divorces.

B

12

The dramatically reduced number of American farms and farmers in the postwar era was accompanied by
a. growing poverty in rural America.
b. increasing shortages of American-grown food and fiber.
c. radical protests by farmers and farm laborers.
d. a romantic "back to the land" movement among city dwellers.
e. spectacular gains in American agricultural productivity and food growing.

E

13

Since 1945, population in the United States has grown most rapidly in the
a. Northeast.
b. Midwest.
c. Sunbelt.
d. Frostbelt.
e. Pacific Northwest.

C

14

Much of the Sunbelt's new prosperity was based on its
a. tremendous influx of money from the federal government.
b. policy of high state taxes.
c. regulated economic growth.
d. cooperative effort rather than unbridled individualism.
e. attention to environmental issues.

A

15

All of the following encouraged many Americans to move to the suburbs except
a. development of fuel-efficient automobiles.
b. home-loan guarantees from the Federal Housing Authority and the Veterans' Administration.
c. government-built highways.
d. tax deductions for interest payments on home mortgages.
e. "white flight" from racial change.

A

16

Which of the following did not contribute to the rapid rise of suburbia in post-WWII America?
a. the baby boom.
b. government mortgage guarantees.
c. new highways.
d. "white flight."
e. the environment crisis.

E

17

By 1960, the proportion of Americans who lived in areas classified as metropolitan suburbs was approximately
a. three out of four (75%).
b. one out of four (25%).
c. half (50%).
d. one out of ten (1 0%).
e. four out of ten (40%).

B

18

The continued growth of the suburbs led to
a. increased school integration.
b. better entertainment opportunities in the cities.
c. an increase in urban poverty.
d. a decrease in urban crime.
e. more efficient transportation.

C

19

Population distribution after World War II followed a pattern of
a. movement into the Northeast and out of the South.
b. mass migration of blacks from the West to the Midwest.
c. movement from the Southwest to Appalachia.
d. movement out of the cities and into small towns.
e. an urban-suburban segregation of blacks and whites in major metropolitan areas.

E

20

The refusal of the Federal Housing Authority to grant home loans to blacks contributed to
a. the growth of savings and loan institutions exclusively for blacks.
b. driving many blacks into public housing.
c. the development of exclusively black suburbs.
d. a decline in black migration to the cities.
e. all of the above.

E

21

The huge postwar "baby boom" reached its peak in the
a. late 1940s
b. early 1950s
c. late 1950s
d. mid-1960s
e. early 1970s

C

22

Before he was elected Vice President of the United States in 1944,Harry S Truman had served as all of the following except
a. a haberdashery store owner.
b. secretary of the navy.
c. a World War l artillery officer.
d. a Missouri judge.
e. a United States Senator.

B

23

Harry Truman possessed all of the following personal characteristics except
a. willingness to admit mistakes.
b. few pretensions.
c. willingness to accept responsibility.
d. honesty.
e. courage.

A

24

In early 1945, the United States was eager to have the Soviet Union participate in the projected invasion of Japan because
a. the communists would be so busy in Asia that they could commit no mischief in Europe.
b. without Soviet help, the Japanese could not be defeated.
c. Soviet help could reduce the number of American casualties.
d. Roosevelt believed that Stalin could help to control the communists in China.
e. the Soviets could help control the Chinese communists.

C

25

The origins of the Cold War lay in a fundamental disagreement between the United States and the Soviet Union over postwar arrangements in
a. North Africa.
b. East Asia.
c. the Middle East.
d. the Third World.
e. Eastern Europe.

E

26

The United States and the Soviet Union resembled one another in that they
a. had long experience as great powers in Europe.
b. accepted the idea of balance of power and spheres of influence.
c. believed that control of the Middle East was essential to maintaining their national security.
d. had been largely isolated from world affairs and practiced an ideological "missionary" foreign policy.
e. both believed that Britain and France must be destroyed as major powers.

D

27

Unlike the failed League of Nations, the new United Nations
a. denied the power of veto to any party in an international dispute.
b. established no forum for the smaller nations besides the great powers.
c. assumed that there would eventually be conflict among the great powers.
d. was unable to achieve approval by the United States Senate.
e. was established in a spirit of cooperation before the war's actual end.

E

28

The earliest and most serious failure of the United Nations involved its inability to
a. preserve peace in places such as Iran.
b. command widespread support in the United States.
c. control atomic energy, especially the manufacture of weapons.
d. prevent the Soviet Union from exercising its veto power in the Security Council.
e. establish a Jewish homeland in Israel.

C

29

The victorious World War II Allies quickly agreed that
a. Germany should pay economically crippling war reparations.
b. Nazism should be destroyed in Germany and high-ranking Nazis should be tried and punished for war crimes.
c. occupied Germany should be reunited as soon as possible.
d. Germany should receive massive economic aid.
e. Germany should be divided into East and West Germany.

B

30

When the Soviet Union denied the United States, Britain, and France access to Berlin in 1948, President Truman responded by
a. asking the United Nations to intervene.
b. denying the Soviets access to West Germany.
c. declaring that an "iron curtain" had descended across Central Europe.
d. organizing a gigantic airlift of supplies to Berlin.
e. sending an armed convoy to Berlin.

D

31

Soviet specialist George F. Kennan framed a coherent approach for America in the Cold War by advising a policy of
a. detente.
b. appeasement.
c. containment.
d. limited war.
e. negotiation.

C

32

America's postwar containment policy was based on the assumption that the Soviet Union was fundamentally
a. weak but dangerous.
b. irrational but fearful.
c. revolutionary arid warmongering.
d. ripe for a democratic revolution.
e. expansionist but cautious.

E

33

The immediate crisis that prompted the announcement of the Truman Doctrine was related to the threat of a communist takeover in
a. Iran.
b. Greece and Turkey.
c. Communist China.
d. Czechoslovakia.
e. Berlin.

B

34

Under the Truman Doctrine, the United States pledged to
a. refrain from polarizing the world into pro-Soviet and pro-American camps.
b. maintain prosperity in America after World War II.
c. give very limited assistance to nations fighting communism.
d. support those who were resisting subjugation by communists.
e. work to liberate the "captive nations" of Eastern Europe.

D

35

Match each postwar American program below with its primary purpose.
A. Point Four 1. assist communist threatened Greece and Turkey
B. NATO 2. promote economic recovery of Europe
C. Truman Doctrine 3. aid underdeveloped nations of Latin America, Asia, and Africa
D. Marshall Plan 4. resist Soviet military threat

a. A-4, B-1, C-3, D-2
b. A-2, B-3, C-1, D-4
c. A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3
d. A-3, B-4, C-1, D-2
e. A-4, B-3, C-2, D-l

D

36

A leading American theologian who urged a vigorous American foreign policy and a return to Christian foundations was
a. Paul Tillich.
b. Billy Graham.
c. Benjamin Spock.
d. Pope Pius XII.
e. Norman Vincent Peale.

A

37

President Truman's Marshall Plan called for
a. military supplies for Britain and France.
b. substantial financial assistance to rebuild Western Europe.
c. economic aid for Japan.
d. foreign aid for Third World countries to resist communism.
e. an alliance to contain the Soviet Union.

B

38

The Marshall Plan succeeded in reviving Europe's economy and thwarting the large internal Communist parties threatening to take over
a. Italy and France.
b. West Germany and East Germany.
c. Britain and Ireland.
d. Spain and Italy.
e. Greece and Turkey.

A

39

President Truman risked American access to Middle Eastern oil supplies when he
a. sent U.S. military forces into Lebanon.
b. refused to recognize the authoritarian Saudi Arabian monarchy.
c. supported British control of the Suez Canal.
d. tried to force the Soviet Union out of the Middle East.
e. recognized the new Jewish state of Israel.

E

40

American membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization did all of the following for the country except
a. strengthen the containment of the Soviet Union.
b. help reintegrate Germany into the European family.
c. reduce our defense expenditures, since we would get help from other countries.
d. reassure Europeans that the U.S. would not abandon them.
e. strike a major blow to American isolationists.

C

41

The United States' participation in NATO
a. reaffirmed our long-standing commitment to the defense of Europe.
b. marked a dramatic departure from traditional American isolationism.
c. reduced the need for increased military spending.
d. helped to resolve the problem of Germany.
e. all of the above.

E

42

Postwar Japan
a. was, like Germany, divided into Allied occupation zones.
b. was destabilized by a civil war between nationalist and communist elements.
c. resisted the imposition of American-style democracy.
d. was governed from the island of Formosa (Taiwan) until 1949.
e. had its military leaders tried for war crimes, as had occurred in Germany.

E

43

Which of the following was not true of the new Japanese government installed by General Douglas MacArthur in 1946?
a. it joined an American military alliance to prevent the spread of communism in East Asia.
b. it pledged itself to providing for women's equality.
c. it introduced a Western-style democratic constitution.
d. it paved the way for a spectacular economic recovery.
e. it renounced militarism.

A

44

Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalist government lost the Chinese civil war to the communists and Mao Ze-dong mainly because
a. Jiang lost the support and confidence of the Chinese people.
b. the United States failed to give Jiang enough aid.
c. Mao received much assistance from the Soviet Union.
d. communists within the Truman administration undermined Jiang's efforts.
e. the communists were closer to traditional Chinese culture.

A

45

In an effort to detect communists within the federal government, President Harry Truman established the
a. Committee on Un-American Activities.
b. Central Intelligence Agency.
c. Smith Act.
d. McCarran Internal Security Act.
e. Loyalty Review Board.

E

46

In 1948, many southern Democrats split from their party to support Governor J. Strom Thurmond because
a. China had fallen to the communists.
b. they opposed American membership in the United Nations.
c. President Truman took a strong stand in favor of civil rights.
d. they found the Republican candidate, Thomas E. Dewey, more sympathetic to their conservative ideology.
e. Truman appointed an ambassador to the Catholic Vatican City

C

47

Match each 1948 presidential candidate below with his political party.
A. J. Strom Thurmond 1. Progressive
B. Henry Wallace 2. Democratic
C. Harry S Truman 3. States' Rights
D. Thomas E. Dewey 4. Republican

a. A- 1, B-3, C-2, D-4
b. A-4, B-2, C-1, D-3
c. A-3, B-1, C-2, D-4
d. A- 1, B-4, C-3, D-2
e. A-2, B-3, C-4, D-1

C

48

President Truman's domestic legislative plan was dubbed the
a. Square Deal.
b. New Deal.
c. Fair Deal.
d. Redeal.
e. New Frontier.

C

49

President Truman's action upon hearing of the invasion of South Korea illustrated his commitment to a foreign policy of
a. appeasement.
b. liberation.
c. d├ętente.
d. multilateralism.
e. containment.

E

50

NSC-68 called for
a. the invasion of North Korea by United Nations troops.
b. a blockade of the China coast and bombing of Manchuria.
c. a program of spying on the Soviet Union.
d. the reorganization of the Defense Department.
e. a massive increase in military spending.

E

51

The NSC-68 document reflected the American belief
a. in the limitless capabilities of the American economy and society.
b. that we needed help to fight the spread of communism.
c. that huge sacrifices would be needed by Americans to fight the Cold War.
d. in the futility of containment.
e. that military spending would help the economy

A

52

President Harry Truman relieved General Douglas MacArthur from command of United Nations troops in Korea when
a. MacArthur continued to lose crucial battles.
b. MacArthur crossed the 38th parallel and entered North Korea.
c. the Chinese entered the Korean War after MacArthur said they would not.
d. MacArthur began to take issue publicly with presidential policies.
e. MacArthur began to mock Truman for being only a captain in the army.

D

53

The imperious and insubordinate commander in Korea who was fired by President Truman was General
a. Dwight Eisenhower.
b. George Patton.
c. "Bull" Halsey.
d. Matthew Ridgeway.
e. Douglas MacArthur

E

54

Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) Berlin airlift, (B) Korean War, (C) fall of China.
a. A, C, B
b. B, C, A
c. A, B, C
d. C, A, B
e. C, B, A

A

55

Arrange the following in chronological order of their appearance: (A) Marshall Plan, (B) Truman Doctrine, (C) NATO.
a. A, C, B
b. B, A, C
c. C, B, A
d. B, C, A
e. A, B, C

B

56

Which of the following was not true of the changing nature of work in the 1950s?
a. science and technology drove economic growth.
b. there were fewer jobs in the military-related aerospace industry.
c. white collar workers were surpassing blue collar workers in numbers.
d. labor unions reached a peak and then began to decline.
e. job opportunities were opening to women in the white collar work force.

B

57

Richard Nixon was selected as Dwight Eisenhower's vice-presidential running mate in 1952 as a concession to the
a. isolationists.
b. liberal Republicans.
c. hard-line anticommunists.
d. moderate Republicans.
e. southern Republicans

C

58

During the 1952 presidential campaign, Republican candidate Dwight Eisenhower declared that he would __________ to help to end the Korean War.
a. use atomic weapons
b. blockade the China coast and bomb Manchuria
c. open negotiations with Mao Zedong
d. order United Nations troops to invade North Korea
e. personally go to Korea

E

59

In tems of politics, television did all of the following except
a. threaten the traditional role of political parties.
b. apply the standards of show business and commercialism to political messages.
c. enable political parties to continue their role of educating and mobilizing the electorate.
d. allow lone-wolf politicians to address voters directly.
e. encourage reliance on short slogans and sound bites.

C

60

Dwight Eisenhower's greatest asset as president was his
a. vast military experience.
b. willingness to take a partisan stand.
c. commitment to social justice.
d. willingness to involve himself in rough campaigning.
e. enjoyment of the affection and respect of the American people

E

61

Among anticommunists, Senator Joseph R. McCarthy was the
a. most effective.
b. first Republican.
c. only true World War II hero.
d. one who most damaged free speech and fair play.
e. one who organized a national movement.

D

62

The record would seem to indicate that President Eisenhower=s strongest commitment during his presidency was to
a. social justice.
b. social harmony.
c. party loyalty.
d. racial desegregation.
e. political reform.

B

63

In response to Senator Joseph McCarthy's anticommunist attacks, President Eisenhower
a. publicly denounced him only after he attacked General George Marshall.
b. quietly encouraged him to continue his attacks on Democrats.
c. publicly opposed his ruthless tactics but privately enjoyed his personal charm.
d. allowed him to control personnel policy at the State Department.
e. privately supported him but publicly kept his distance.

D

64

Senator Joseph McCarthy first rose to national prominence by
a. revealing that Communist spies were passing atomic secrets to the Soviet Union.
b. charging that there was extensive Communist influence in Hollywood and the media.
c. asserting that General George Marshall was part of a vast Communist conspiracy within the
U.S. Army.
d. mobilizing Republicans to demand a stronger anticommunist foreign policy in East Asia.
e. charging that dozens of known Communists were working within the U.S. State Department.

E

65

As a result of Senator McCarthy=s crusade against communist subversion in America,
a. the FBI was shown to have had several spies working as communist agents.
b. the United States Army was forced to give dishonorable discharges to more than one
hundred officers.
c. the State Department lost a number of Asian specialists who might have counseled a wiser
course in Vietnam.
d. Eisenhower nearly lost the Republican presidential nomination in 1956.
e. the U.S. achieved a stronger settlement in Korea.

C

66

Senator McCarthy's anticommunist crusade ended when he
a. began to attack the personal integrity of his critics.
response to Senator Joseph McCarthy's anticommunist attacks, President Eisenhower

b. alleged that there were communists in Hollywood.
c. alleged that there were communists in the Foreign Service.
d. alleged that many college professors were communists.
e. alleged that there were communists in the army.

E

67

The new militancy and restlessness among many members of the African American community after 1945 was especially generated by
a. he growing moral criticism of segregation by white church leaders.
b. the gap between American ideals and racial practices revealed by World War II.
c. the appointment of Thurgood Marshall, chief legal counsel of the NAACP, to the Supreme Court.
d. Dwight Eisenhower's commitment to civil rights. e. the agitation of A. Philip Randolph.

B

68

In an effort to overturn Jim Crow laws and the segregated system that they had created, African Americans used all of the following methods except
a. economic boycotts.
b. legal attacks on underpinnings of segregation in the courts.
c. appeals to foreign governments to pressure the United States to establish racial justice.
d. mobilization of black churches on behalf of black rights.
e. use of the nonviolent tactics of Mohandas Gandhi.

C

69

Which one of the following is least related to the other three?
a. nonviolent direct action.
b. Martin Luther King, Jr.
c. Rosa Parks
d. Montgomery bus boycott
e. Orval Faubus

E

70

The Supreme Court began to advance the cause of civil rights in the 1950s because
a. the Court was the only branch of government with the Constitutional authority to do so.
b. the courts were dominated by New Deal liberals.
c. President Eisenhower had requested the Court=s assistance.
d. Congress and the presidency had largely abdicated their responsibilities by keeping hands off
the issue.
e. the Constitution clearly prohibited any segregation.

D

71

In the epochal 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, the Supreme Court unconstitutional.

a. declared that the concept of separate but equal facilities for blacks and whites was
b. upheld its earlier decision in Plessy v. Ferguson.
c. rejected desegregation.
d. supported the ADeclaration of Constitutional Principles@ issued by Congress.
e. ordered immediate and total integration of all American schools.

A

72

The 1954 Supreme Court case that ruled racially segregated school systems Ainherently unequal was
a. Roe v. Wade.
b. Plessy v. Ferguson.
c. Sweatt v. Painter.
d. Johnson v. Little Rock School District.
e. Brown v. Board of Education.

E

73

On the subject of racial justice, President Eisenhower
a. had demanded the integration of the armed forces as early as 1948.
b. publicly endorsed the 1954 Supreme Court school desegregation decision.
c. vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1957.
d. had advised against integrating the armed forces.
e. admired the Christian philosophy of Martin Luther King.

D

74

President Dwight Eisenhower's attitude toward racial justice can best be described as
a. not inclined toward promoting integration.
b. very supportive of racial integration.
c. endorsing the concept of using laws to compel people to change their opinions and actions.
d. supporting racial justice over social harmony.
e. strictly adhering to the philosophy of states= rights.

A

75

The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was an outgrowth of the
a. antiwar movement of the 1960s.
b. black power movement of the 1960s.
c. ban-the-bomb movement of the 1950s.
d. Civil Rights Act of 1957.
e. A sit-in movement launched by young southern blacks.

E

76

As president, Dwight Eisenhower supported
a. putting the brakes on military spending.
b. the abolition of the Social Security system.
c. the dismissal of his secretary of health, education, and welfare for condemning free
distribution on the Salk polio vaccine as Asocialized medicine.
d. the continuation of the Tennessee Valley Authority.
e. a stronger voice for organized labor.

A

77

President Eisenhower defined the domestic philosophy of his administration as
a. the Fair Deal.
b. the silent majority.
c. dynamic conservatism.
the subject of racial justice, President Eisenhower
d. two cars in every garage.
e. compassionate conservatism.

C

78

Dwight Eisenhower's policies toward Native Americans included
a. efforts at tribal preservation.
b. the establishment of tribes as legal entities.
c. incentives for tribes to hold onto their land.
d. a return to the assimilation goals of the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887.
e. an emphasis on education and job training for Indians.

D

79

The Eisenhower-promoted public works project that was far larger and more expensive than anything in Roosevelt's New Deal was
a. the interstate highway system
b. the Grand Coulee dam project.
c. the St. Lawrence seaway.
d. the airport construction program.
e. the public housing system.

A

80

During his presidency, Dwight Eisenhower accepted the principle and extended the benefits of
a. federal health care programs.
b. the Tennessee Valley Authority.
c. deficit spending.
d. racial equality.
e. the Social Security system.

E

81

As a part of his New Look foreign policy, President Eisenhower
a. sought an alliance with China.
b. refused to talk with leaders of the Soviet Union.
c. called for open skies over both the United States and the Soviet Union.
d. sent help to the Hungarian freedom fighters.
e. allied with Israel against the Arab states.

C

82

As the French fortress of Dienbienphu was about to fall to Ho Chi Minhs communist forces in 1954, President Eisenhower
a. agreed to send small military units to aid the French.
b. relied on the advice of Vice President Nixon and Secretary of State Dulles.
c. sought a compromise settlement at Geneva.
d. refused to permit any American military involvement.
e. threatened nuclear attack on the Vietnamese communists.

D

83

President Eisenhower's New Look foreign policy in the 1950s planned for
a. the dismantling of the military-industrial complex.
b. massive new military spending.
c. greater reliance on air power and the deterrent power of nuclear weapons than on the army
and navy.
d. a buildup of unconventional and guerrilla-warfare forces.
e. the rapid deployment of the navy and marines to trouble spots.

C

84

In 1956, when Hungary revolted against continued domination by the Soviet Union, the United States under Dwight Eisenhower
a. sent money to the rebels.
b. quickly recognized the new Hungarian government.
c. refused to admit any Hungarian refugees.
d. gave only outdated military equipment to the Hungarian freedom fighters.
e. did nothing to help to defeat the communists.

E

85

The leader of the nationalist movement in Vietnam since World War was
a. Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung).
b. Ngo Dinh Diem.
c. Dienbienphu.
d. Ho Chi Minh.
e. Nguyen Cao Ky.

D

86

The 1955 Geneva Conference
a. unified the two Vietnams.
b. made Ngo Dinh Diem president of Vietnam.
c. called for the two Vietnams to hold national elections within two years.
d. created the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.
e. established a permanent division of Vietnam.

C

87

In response to a supposed Soviet threat to Middle Eastern oil, the American Central Intelligence Agency in 1953
a. began seeking alternative sources of energy.
b. staged a coup to overthrow the Iranian government and install Shah Mohammed Reza
Pahlevi as dictator.
c. engaged in sabotage against pro-Soviet governments in the region.
d. developed close cooperation with Israeli intelligence agencies.
e. gathered conclusive evidence of the Soviets= plans to control Egypt.

B

88

In 1956 the United States condemned ___________ as the aggressors in the Suez Canal crisis.
a. Egypt and Jordan
b. the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact members
c. Israel and Turkey
d. Lebanon and Syria
e. Britain and France

E

89

During the 1950s, the Central Intelligence Agency engineered pro-American political coups in both
a. Iran and Guatemala.
b. Iraq and Nicaragua.
c. Lebanon and El Salvador.
d. Libya and Costa Rica.
e. Egypt and Cuba.

A

90

The Suez crisis marked the last time in history that the United States could
a. use the threat of nuclear war to win concessions.
b. criticize Israel's foreign policy.
c. condemn its allies for their actions in the Middle East.
d. invoke the Eisenhower Doctrine.
e. use its oil weapon to make foreign policy demands.

E

91

The 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine empowered the president to extend economic and military aid to nations of __________ that wanted help to resist communist aggression.
a. Southeast Asia
b. Africa
c. Central and Eastern Europe
d. the Middle East
e. Latin America

D

92

During his second term, President Eisenhower
a. no longer trusted his vice president, Richard Nixon, to lend assistance.
b. hoped that doing so would enable him to win a third term.
c. took a more active personal role in governing.
d. believed that the civil rights movement needed his personal involvement if it were to
succeed.
e. recognized that only he had the experience to deal with the Soviets.

C

93

In response to the launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union in 1957,
a. Harry Truman condemned the Republicans for allowing a scientific gap to occur.
b. the federal government began spending millions of dollars to improve American science and
language education.
c. the United States spent nearly a decade trying to equal this achievement.
d. the Republican party took responsibility for the fact that the United States had fallen behind
the Soviets in this area of scientific discovery.
e. scientists blamed Americas slowness on poor math and science education in the schools.

B

94

Which of the following is least related to the other four?
a. the launching of Sputnik
b. Landrum-Griffith Act
c. National Defense Education Act
d. rocket fever
e. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

B

95

The Paris summit conference scheduled for 1960 collapsed because of the
a. Suez crisis.
b. Bay of Pigs.
c. Quemoy episode.
response to the launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union in 1957,
d. launching of Sputnik.
e. U-2 incident.

E

96

By the end of the 1950s, Latin American anger toward the United States had intensified because Washington had done all of the following except
a. extend massive aid to Europe and little to Latin America.
b. continue to intervene in Latin American affairs.
c. support bloody dictators who claimed to be fighting communism.
d. provide encouragement to Fidel Castro=s communist government in Cuba.
e. the CIA-directed coup in Guatemala.

D

97

The factor that may well have tipped the electoral scales for John F. Kennedy in the presidential election of 1960 was
a. his age.
b. his religion.
c. his televised debates with Richard M. Nixon.
d. President Eisenhower's heavy loss of popularity in his last two years in office.
e. his family

C

98

When Dwight Eisenhower left the presidency in 1961,
a. it was noted that his second term had produced little of value, since he was a Alame duck.
b. Congress was firmly in the hands of the Republicans.
c. he was unhappy with Vice President Nixon=s unbending anticommunism.
d. he had clearly lost control of the Democratic-dominated Congress.
e. he remained an extraordinarily popular figure.

E

99

Two postwar American fiction writers who explored the problems and anxieties of affluence were
a. John Updike and John Cheever
b. Joseph Heller and Kurt Vonnegut.
c. Tennessee Williams and Arthur Miller.
d. Ralph Ellison and James Baldwin.
e. Eudora Welty and Flannery O'Connor

D

100

The title of Ralph Ellison's novel Invisible Man refers to
a. an anticommunist agent who is forced to live underground.
b. a World War II bomber pilot who is ignored upon his return home.
c. a victim of nuclear testing who is dying of radiation.
d. a father who is disrespected by his family.
e. an African American whose supposed supporters are unable to see him as a real man.

E

101

Compared to World War I, the literary outpouring from World War II can be best described as
a. much more realistic.
b. lower in quality.
c. more simplistic in nature.
d. less realistic.
e. more disillusioned.

D

102

Many of the better known American poets in the post-World War II era
a. actually produced second-rate verse.
b. consisted mainly of those who wrote before the war.
c. ended their lives through suicide.
d. left the country to live in Paris.
e. turned to nature for subject matter

C