Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 20 The Heart Flashcards


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1

Artery is to ________ as vein is to ________.

A) efferent; afferent

B) afferent; efferent

C) toward; away

D) afferent; away

E) efferent; away

A) efferent; afferent

2

The heart beats approximately ________ times each day.

A) 1,000

B) 10,000

C) 100,000

D) 1,000,000

E) 10,000,000

C) 100,000

3

The heart pumps approximately ________ liters of blood each day.

A) 8,000

B) 15,000

C) 20,000

D) 50,000

E) 100,000

A) 8,000

4

Excess fluid in the ________ causes cardiac tamponade.

A) pericardial cavity

B) visceral pericardium

C) apex of heart

D) left ventricle

E) both atria

A) pericardial cavity

5

Tetanic muscle contractions don't occur in a normal cardiac muscle because

A) cardiac muscle tissue contracts on its own.

B) neural stimulation is lacking.

C) the refractory period lasts until the muscle relaxes.

D) the refractory period ends before the muscle reaches peak tension.

E) potassium channels outnumber sodium channels.

C) the refractory period lasts until the muscle relaxes.

6

The adult heart is roughly the size of

A) the liver.

B) a man's clenched fist.

C) the gallbladder.

D) the hand of a 10-year-old.

E) the brain.

B) a man's clenched fist.

7

Which of the following descriptions matches the term near the left fifth intercostal space?

A) pericardial cavity

B) visceral pericardium

C) apex of heart

D) aorta

E) right atrium

C) apex of heart

8

The term used to describe fluid collecting in the pericardial cavity that restricts the movement of the heart is known as

A) cardiac tamponade.

B) mitral valve prolapse.

C) pleural effusion.

D) cardiomyopathy.

E) pericarditis.

A) cardiac tamponade.

9

The interventricular sulci and coronary sulcus

A) contain fat.

B) contain arteries.

C) contain veins.

D) are grooves on the surface of the heart.

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

10

The structure that permits blood flow from the right atrium to the left atrium in the fetal circulation is the

A) foramen ovale.

B) interatrial septum.

C) coronary sinus.

D) fossa ovalis.

E) ligamentum arteriosus.

A) foramen ovale.

11

Blood leaves the right ventricle by passing through the

A) aortic valve.

B) pulmonary valve.

C) mitral valve.

D) tricuspid valve.

E) bicuspid valve.

B) pulmonary valve

12

Intercalated discs serve to transfer ________ from cell to cell.

A) ionic currents

B) action potentials

C) the force of contraction

D) electrical signals

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

13

Cardiac muscle cells and skeletal muscle cells differ in a few ways. Which of the following is not one of them?

A) Cardiac muscle cells are smaller in size.

B) Cardiac muscle cells have a single, centered nucleus.

C) Cardiac muscle cells branch.

D) Skeletal muscle cells lack intercalated discs.

E) Cardiac muscle cells lack transverse tubules.

E) Cardiac muscle cells lack transverse tubules.

14

The atrioventricular valves permit blood flow

A) in one direction only.

B) in both directions.

C) in many directions.

D) in opposite directions on the right and left.

E) from a ventricle to an atrium.

A) in one direction only.

15

Blood returning to the heart from the systemic circuit first enters the

A) right atrium.

B) right ventricle.

C) left atrium.

D) left ventricle.

E) conus arteriosus.

A) right atrium.

16

Blood returning to the heart from the pulmonary circuit first enters the

A) right atrium.

B) right ventricle.

C) left atrium.

D) left ventricle.

E) conus arteriosus.

C) left atrium.

17

The earlike extension of the atrium is the

A) ventricle.

B) coronary sinus.

C) coronary sulcus.

D) auricle.

E) atricle.

D) auricle.

18

The coronary sulcus is a groove that

A) marks the border between the atria and ventricles.

B) marks the boundary line between the right and left ventricles.

C) marks the boundary line between the right and left atria.

D) separates the atrioventricular valves from the atria.

E) separates the coronary arteries from the coronary veins.

A) marks the border between the atria and ventricles.

19

In the middle of the thoracic cavity is a region occupied by the heart, great vessels, thymus, esophagus, and trachea called the

A) pleural space.

B) pericardial space.

C) mediastinum.

D) cardiac notch.

E) ventral cavity.

C) mediastinum.

20

The cusps (leaflets) of atrioventricular valves attach directly to

A) papillary muscles.

B) trabeculae carneae.

C) chordae tendineae.

D) interatrial septa.

E) coronary sulci.

C) chordae tendineae.

21

Contractions of the papillary muscles

A) close the atrioventricular valves.

B) close the semilunar valves.

C) eject blood from the ventricles.

D) prevent the atrioventricular valves from reversing into the atria.

E) eject blood from the atria into the ventricles.

D) prevent the atrioventricular valves from reversing into the atria.

22

The visceral pericardium is the same as the

A) mediastinum.

B) parietal pericardium.

C) epicardium.

D) myocardium.

E) endocardium.

C) epicardium.

23

Most of the middle layer in the heart wall is composed of

A) cardiac muscle cells.

B) chondrocytes.

C) epitheliocytes.

D) fibrocytes.

E) smooth muscle cells.

A) cardiac muscle cells.

24

The right ventricle pumps blood to the

A) right and left lungs.

B) left ventricle.

C) left atrium.

D) aorta.

E) right atrium.

A) right and left lungs.

25

The left ventricle pumps blood to the

A) lungs.

B) right ventricle.

C) right atrium.

D) aorta.

E) pulmonary circuit.

D) aorta.

26

The right atrium receives blood from the

A) coronary sinus.

B) superior vena cava.

C) inferior vena cava.

D) systemic circuit.

E) All of the answers are correct.

D) systemic circuit.

27

In order to perform a CABG, a cardiac surgeon must

A) open the pericardial sac.

B) open the myocardium to see the AV valves.

C) visualize the pulmonary valve.

D) visualize the carotid arteries.

E) All of the answers are correct.

A) open the pericardial sac.

28

When a blood clot forms on a ruptured plaque in a coronary artery, the condition is referred to as a(n)

A) coronary spasm.

B) myocardial infarction.

C) coronary thrombosis.

D) angina pectoris.

E) pulmonary embolism.

C) coronary thrombosis.

29

When the left ventricle contracts, the distance from the apex to the base

A) increases.

B) decreases.

C) remains unchanged.

B) decreases.

30

When the left ventricle contracts, the diameter of the ventricular chamber

A) increases.

B) decreases.

C) remains the same.

B) decreases.

31

Cardiac cells damaged by infarction will show which of the following?

A) switch to anaerobic metabolism

B) release of enzymes into the circulation

C) release of troponin T and I into the circulation

D) release of CK-MB into the circulation

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

32

Blood flowing into the heart from the venae cavae flows next through the ________ valve.

A) mitral

B) bicuspid

C) tricuspid

D) pulmonary semilunar

E) aortic semilunar

C) tricuspid

33

As blood leaves the right ventricle, it passes through the ________ and then into the pulmonary trunk.

A) pulmonary veins

B) conus arteriosus

C) aorta

D) inferior vena cava

E) superior vena cava

B) conus arteriosus

34

Coronary veins empty into the

A) left atrium.

B) left ventricle.

C) right atrium.

D) right ventricle.

E) conus arteriosus.

C) right atrium

35

There are ________ pulmonary veins.

A) 2

B) 4

C) 6

D) 8

E) 12

B) 4

36

Rupture of the papillary muscles in the left ventricle may result in

A) mitral regurgitation.

B) mitral valve prolapse.

C) bicuspid regurgitation.

D) bicuspid prolapse.

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

37

When the semilunar valves close, the AV valves then

A) close.

B) open.

C) make the third heart sound.

D) contract.

E) prolapse.

B) open.

38

The ________ deliver(s) blood to the myocardium.

A) coronary arteries

B) cardiac veins

C) superior vena cava

D) carotid arteries

E) coronary sinus

A) coronary arteries

39

The connective tissue fibers of the myocardium

A) add strength and prevent overexpansion of the heart.

B) help distribute the forces of contraction.

C) provide elasticity to help return the heart to its normal size.

D) provide physical support for cardiac muscle.

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

40

Blood is supplied to the muscular wall of the left atrium by the

A) brachiocephalic artery.

B) right coronary artery.

C) left coronary artery.

D) phrenic arteries.

E) pulmonary arteries.

C) left coronary artery.

41

The pulmonary semilunar valve prevents backward flow into the

A) aorta.

B) pulmonary trunk.

C) pulmonary veins.

D) right ventricle.

E) left atrium.

D) right ventricle.

42

The bicuspid or mitral valve is located

A) in the opening of the aorta.

B) in the opening of the pulmonary trunk.

C) where the venae cavae join the right atrium.

D) between the right atrium and right ventricle.

E) between the left atrium and left ventricle.

E) between the left atrium and left ventricle.

43

The ________ valve prevents backward flow into the left atrium.

A) semicaval

B) semilunar

C) bicuspid

D) tricuspid

E) pulmonic

C) bicuspid

44

The function of an atrium is to

A) collect blood.

B) pump blood to the lungs.

C) pump blood into the systemic circuit.

D) pump blood to the ventricle.

E) collect blood then pump it to the ventricle.

E) collect blood then pump it to the ventricle.

45

Compared to the right ventricle, the left ventricle has all the following characteristics except

A) has a thicker wall.

B) is round in cross section.

C) pumps a greater volume.

D) works harder.

E) produces about four to six times more pressure when it contracts.

C) pumps a greater volume.

46

Which of the following are involved in the pulmonary circuit?

A) superior vena cava, right atrium, left ventricle

B) right ventricle, pulmonary veins, aorta

C) right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, left atrium

D) inferior vena cava, right atrium, aorta

E) left ventricle, pulmonary veins, right atrium

C) right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, left atrium

47

The right pulmonary veins carry ________ blood to the ________.

A) deoxygenated; left atrium

B) oxygenated; right lung

C) deoxygenated; superior vena cava

D) deoxygenated; right atrium

E) oxygenated; left atrium

E) oxygenated; left atrium

48

The following is a list of vessels and structures that are associated with the heart. What is the correct order for the flow of blood entering from the systemic circulation?

  1. right atrium
  2. left atrium
  3. right ventricle
  4. left ventricle
  5. venae cavae
  6. aorta
  7. pulmonary trunk
  8. pulmonary veins

A) 1, 2, 7, 8, 3, 4, 6, 5

B) 1, 7, 3, 8, 2, 4, 6, 5

C) 5, 1, 3, 7, 8, 2, 4, 6

D) 5, 3, 1, 7, 8, 4, 2, 6

E) 5, 1, 3, 8, 7, 2, 4, 6

C) 5, 1, 3, 7, 8, 2, 4, 6

49

The pulmonary arteries carry blood to the

A) heart.

B) lungs.

C) brain.

D) intestines.

E) liver.

B) lungs.

50

The pulmonary veins carry blood to the

A) heart.

B) lungs.

C) brain.

D) intestines.

E) liver.

A) heart.

51

The foramen ovale in the fetal heart is located in the

A) right atrium.

B) left atrium.

C) right ventricle.

D) left ventricle.

E) interatrial septum.

E) interatrial septum.

52

Blood is supplied to the myocardium by

A) the coronary sinus.

B) contact with blood in the pumping chambers.

C) the coronary arteries.

D) arteries that branch from the pulmonary arteries.

E) arteries that branch off the subclavian arteries.

C) the coronary arteries.

53

The first blood vessels to branch from the aorta are the ________ arteries.

A) pulmonary

B) coronary

C) circumflex

D) carotid

E) subclavian

B) coronary

54

The marginal branch and posterior interventricular branch are branches of the

A) right coronary artery.

B) left coronary artery.

C) circumflex artery.

D) coronary sinus.

E) aorta.

A) right coronary artery.

55

The circumflex branch and the anterior interventricular artery are branches of the

A) right coronary artery.

B) left coronary artery.

C) interventricular artery.

D) coronary sinus.

E) aorta.

B) left coronary artery.

56

The great and middle cardiac veins drain blood into the

A) superior vena cava.

B) inferior vena cava.

C) coronary sinus.

D) coronary sulcus.

E) aorta.

C) coronary sinus.

57

In cardiac muscle, the fast depolarization phase of the action potential is the result of

A) increased membrane permeability to sodium ions.

B) increased membrane permeability to potassium ions.

C) decreased membrane permeability to calcium ions.

D) decreased membrane permeability to sodium ions.

E) increased membrane permeability to chloride ions.

A) increased membrane permeability to sodium ions.

58

The long plateau phase of the cardiac muscle action potential is due to

A) movement of fewer sodium ions across the cell membrane.

B) calcium channels remaining open.

C) increased membrane permeability to potassium ion.

D) decrease in the amount of calcium diffusing across the membrane.

E) increased membrane permeability to sodium ions.

B) calcium channels remaining open.

59

In cardiac muscle

A) calcium ions are not released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

B) calcium ions do not bind to troponin molecules.

C) calcium ions play no role in the process of contraction.

D) about 20 percent of the calcium ion required for contraction comes from outside the cell.

E) calcium ions play an important role in repolarizing the membrane after the depolarization phase.

D) about 20 percent of the calcium ion required for contraction comes from outside the cell.

60

The normal pacemaker of the heart is located in

A) the Purkinje fibers.

B) the sinoatrial node.

C) the atrioventricular node.

D) the wall of the left ventricle.

E) both the left and right ventricles.

B) the sinoatrial node.

61

Abnormally slow depolarization of the ventricles would most change the shape of the ________ in an ECG tracing.

A) P wave

B) T wave

C) QRS complex

D) P-R interval

E) R-T interval

C) QRS complex

62

As a result of the long refractory period in the cardiac action potential, cardiac muscle cannot exhibit

A) tonus.

B) treppe.

C) tetany.

D) recruitment.

E) fatigue.

C) tetany.

63

If the pacemaker cells in the SA node become more permeable to potassium ions, the

A) heart rate will increase.

B) heart rate will decrease.

C) cells will depolarize.

D) cells will hyperpolarize.

E) heart rate will decrease and cells will hyperpolarize.

E) heart rate will decrease and cells will hyperpolarize.

64

If the connection between the SA node and AV node becomes blocked,

A) the ventricles will beat faster.

B) the ventricles will beat more slowly.

C) the ventricular beat will remain unchanged.

D) cardiac output will increase.

E) the atria will contract more forcefully.

B) the ventricles will beat more slowly.

65

The following are structural components of the conducting system of the heart.

  1. Purkinje fibers
  2. AV bundle
  3. AV node
  4. SA node
  5. bundle branches

The sequence in which excitation would move through this system is

A) 1, 4, 3, 2, 5.

B) 3, 2, 4, 5, 1.

C) 3, 5, 4, 2, 1.

D) 4, 3, 2, 5, 1.

E) 4, 2, 3, 5, 1.

D) 4, 3, 2, 5, 1.

66

The P wave of the electrocardiogram is a signal from

A) the SA node.

B) depolarization of the AV node.

C) depolarization of the atria.

D) repolarization of the atria.

E) depolarization of the ventricles.

C) depolarization of the atria.

67

If there is a complete block between the SA node and the AV node, how would the ECG be affected?

A) The P-R interval will be shorter.

B) The QRS duration will be longer.

C) There will be much bigger P waves.

D) The ventricles will stop beating.

E) The rate of P waves will be faster than the rate of QRS complexes.

E) The rate of P waves will be faster than the rate of QRS complexes.

68

Depolarization of the ventricles is represented on an electrocardiogram by the

A) P wave.

B) T wave.

C) S wave.

D) QRS complex.

E) PR complex.

D) QRS complex.

69

The T wave on an ECG tracing represents

A) atrial depolarization.

B) atrial repolarization.

C) ventricular depolarization.

D) ventricular repolarization.

E) ventricular contraction.

D) ventricular repolarization.

70

Analysis of the electrocardiogram can reveal all of the following except

A) heart rate.

B) stroke volume.

C) the condition of the conducting system.

D) the effects of drugs and poisons.

E) the duration of the ventricular action potential.

B) stroke volume.

71

During the T wave of the electrocardiogram, the ventricles are

A) depolarizing.

B) repolarizing.

C) contracting.

D) relaxing.

E) both repolarizing and relaxing.

E) both repolarizing and relaxing.

72

Pacemaker cells in the SA node

A) have a well-defined resting potential.

B) can spontaneously depolarize.

C) also contract with the rest of the cells in the heart wall.

D) are special neurons that convey signals from the brain to the heart.

E) All of the answers are correct.

B) can spontaneously depolarize.

73

Pacemaker cells isolated from the SA node generate action potentials at ________ beats per minute.

A) 20-40

B) 40-60

C) 80-100

D) 100-140

E) 140-180

C) 80-100

74

________ is to slow heart rate as ________ is to fast heart rate.

A) Tachycardia; bradycardia

B) Bradycardia; cardiomyopathy

C) Bradycardia; tachycardia

D) Cardiac tamponade; bradycardia

E) Angina; infarction

C) Bradycardia; tachycardia

75

Depolarization of the atria corresponds to the EKG's

A) P wave.

B) QRS complex.

C) QT interval.

D) T wave.

E) S-T segment.

A) P wave.

76

Put in correct order the sequence in which excitation would move through the conducting system of the heart:

1. Purkinje fibers

2. AV bundle

3. AV node

4. SA node

5. bundle branches

A) 4, 3, 2, 5, 1.

B) 3, 5, 4, 2, 1.

C) 1, 4, 3, 2, 5.

D) 4, 2, 3, 5, 1.

E) 3, 2, 4, 5, 1

A) 4, 3, 2, 5, 1.

77

The first heart sound is heard when the

A) AV valves open.

B) AV valves close.

C) semilunar valves close.

D) atria contract.

E) blood enters the aorta.

B) AV valves close.

78

The first heart sound ("lubb") is associated with

A) atrial systole.

B) closing of the atrioventricular valves.

C) opening of the atrioventricular valves.

D) closing of the semilunar valves.

E) opening of the semilunar valves.

B) closing of the atrioventricular valves.

79

Considering the left ventricle, why does isovolumetric ventricular contraction occur during ventricular systole?

A) The ventricle needs to pressurize the blood to close the aortic valve.

B) Ventricular pressure is greater than atrial pressure so the ventricle cannot eject blood.

C) The bicuspid valve needs time to shut before the ventricle can eject blood.

D) Aortic pressure is higher than ventricular pressure and the ventricle must pressurize the blood to open the aortic valve.

E) The ventricle is still filling with blood and therefore cannot eject blood during this time.

D) Aortic pressure is higher than ventricular pressure and the ventricle must pressurize the blood to open the aortic valve.

80

The phase in the cardiac cycle when the mitral valve is closed and the aortic valve is open is the

A) atrial systole.

B) early diastolic filling phase.

C) late diastolic filling phase.

D) systolic ejection phase.

E) dicrotic phase.

D) systolic ejection phase.

81

A heart murmur might be caused by

A) aortic valve insufficiency.

B) mitral valve insufficiency.

C) pulmonic valve insufficiency.

D) swirling of blood in the ventricle.

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

82

The systolic part (both atrial and ventricular) of a cardiac cycle lasts on average

A) 3 seconds.

B) 370 msec.

C) 5 seconds.

D) 100 msec.

E) 800 msec.

B) 370 msec.

83

At a heart rate of 60 beats/minute, a cardiac cycle lasts

A) 60 seconds.

B) 60 milliseconds.

C) 1 second.

D) 370 milliseconds.

E) 630 milliseconds.

C) 1 second.

84

During ventricular systole, the

A) atria are contracting.

B) blood is entering the ventricles.

C) AV valves are closed.

D) pressure in the ventricles remains constant.

E) pressure in the aorta remains constant.

C) AV valves are closed.

85
card image

What occurs at the area labeled "D" on the graph?

A) AV valve opens

B) semilunar valve opens

C) diastolic filling begins

D) AV valve opens and diastolic filling begins

E) ventricle contracts

D) AV valve opens and diastolic filling begins

86
card image

What volume is labeled "G" on the graph?

A) cardiac output

B) stroke volume

C) end-systolic volume

D) end-diastolic volume

E) ejection fraction

C) end-systolic volume

87
card image

What occurs at "A" on the graph?

A) semilunar valve opens

B) semilunar valve closes

C) AV valve opens

D) AV valve closes

E) end systolic volume

A) semilunar valve opens

88
card image

What volume is labeled "E" on the graph?

A) cardiac output

B) stroke volume

C) end-diastolic volume

D) end-systolic volume

E) total cardiac volume

B) stroke volume

89
card image

What occurs at the circled label "5" on the graph?

A) peak systolic pressure

B) isovolumetric systole

C) isovolumetric contraction

D) ventricular refilling

E) increased heart rate

A) peak systolic pressure

90
card image

What occurs at the area labeled "B" on the graph?

A) ventricular ejection occurs

B) AV valve closes

C) semilunar valve opens

D) semilunar valve closes

E) AV valve opens

D) semilunar valve closes

91
card image

What occurs at the circled label "4" on the graph?

A) ventricular ejection

B) sympathetic stimulation

C) isovolumetric ventricular contraction

D) isovolumetric ventricular relaxation

E) ventricular filling

C) isovolumetric ventricular contraction

92
card image

What occurs at the circled label "7" on the graph?

A) isovolumetric ventricular relaxation

B) sympathetic stimulation

C) isovolumetric ventricular contraction

D) ventricular ejection

E) ventricular filling

A) isovolumetric ventricular relaxation

93
card image

What volume is labeled "F" on the graph?

A) cardiac output

B) end-systolic volume

C) end-diastolic volume

D) total cardiac volume

E) stroke volume

C) end-diastolic volume

94
card image

What occurs at the area labeled "C" on the graph?

A) AV valve opens

B) AV valve closes

C) ventricular filling begins

D) semilunar valve closes

E) semilunar valve opens

B) AV valve closes

95
card image

What is occurring in the left atrium at the circle labeled "2" on the graph?

A) left atrium is pressurizing the left ventricle

B) left atrium is in systole

C) left atrial pressure is decreasing

D) left atrium is in diastole

E) left atrium is receiving pressure from the left ventricle

B) left atrium is in systole

96

With each ventricular systole,

A) blood pressure remains steady.

B) the ventricles fill with blood.

C) blood pressure decreases.

D) cardiac output decreases.

E) blood pressure increases.

E) blood pressure increases.

97

An increase in the rate of action potentials from baroreceptors will trigger a reflex to

A) increase heart rate.

B) decrease heart rate.

C) decrease blood pressure.

D) both decrease heart rate and decrease pressure.

E) both increase heart rate and increase pressure.

D) both decrease heart rate and decrease pressure.

98

The volume of blood ejected from each ventricle during a contraction is called the

A) end-diastolic volume.

B) end-systolic volume.

C) stroke volume.

D) cardiac output.

E) cardiac reserve.

C) stroke volume.

99

Each of the following factors will increase cardiac output except increased

A) venous return.

B) parasympathetic stimulation.

C) sympathetic stimulation.

D) heart rate.

E) force of contraction.

B) parasympathetic stimulation.

100

"An increase in end-diastolic volume increases the stroke volume" is a way of stating ________ law of the heart.

A) Robin's

B) Finch's

C) Starling's

D) Sparrow's

E) Hawking's

C) Starling's

101

Which of the following would increase heart rate?

A) increased sympathetic stimulation of SA node

B) decreased parasympathetic stimulation of nodal fibers

C) increased levels of epinephrine

D) faster depolarization of the pacemaker potential

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

102

The heart is innervated by ________ nerves.

A) parasympathetic

B) sympathetic

C) both parasympathetic and sympathetic

D) neither parasympathetic nor sympathetic

E) somatomotor

C) both parasympathetic and sympathetic

103

Stroke volume depends on

A) end diastolic volume.

B) the contractility of the ventricle.

C) the pressure required to pump blood into the aorta.

D) venous return of blood to the heart.

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

104

Cardiac output can be increased by all of the following except

A) decreasing ejection fraction.

B) decreasing end systolic volume.

C) increasing stroke volume.

D) increasing ejection fraction.

E) increasing heart rate.

A) decreasing ejection fraction.

105

Drugs known as calcium channel blockers such as nifedipine can be used to

A) decrease the force of cardiac contraction.

B) decrease blood pressure.

C) dilate the coronary arteries.

D) produce a negative inotropic effect.

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

106

Heart rate is controlled by neurons of the cardiovascular center located in the

A) pons.

B) thalamus.

C) medulla oblongata.

D) hypothalamus.

E) higher centers.

C) medulla oblongata.

107

The cardioacceleratory center activates sympathetic neurons and the cardioinhibitory center controls parasympathetic neurons.

A) The first part of the statement is true but the second part is false.

B) The first part of the statement is false but the second part is true.

C) Both parts of the statement are true.

D) Both parts of the statement are false.

E) Both parts of the statement are true and relate to brainstem control of heart rate.

E) Both parts of the statement are true and relate to brainstem control of heart rate.

108

Which of the following is true about the atrial reflex?

A) also called Bainbridge reflex

B) triggered by atrial stretch receptors

C) triggered by increasing venous return

D) depends on sympathetic innervation

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

109

Which of the following would cause stroke volume to increase?

A) when venous return is decreased

B) when ventricular contraction is reduced

C) when diastolic blood pressure is decreased

D) decrease in heart rate

E) All of the answers are correct.

C) when diastolic blood pressure is decreased

110

Cardiac output is increased by

A) sympathetic stimulation.

B) increased end systolic volume.

C) decreased end diastolic volume.

D) decreased venous return.

E) inhibiting the atrial reflex.

A) sympathetic stimulation.

111

Activation of which kind of receptor causes heart rate to increase?

A) alpha-one

B) beta-one

C) muscarinic

D) beta-two

E) preganglionic

B) beta-one

112

Drugs that block the beta-one adrenergic receptors will

A) increase heart rate.

B) decrease heart rate.

C) increase contractility.

D) increase cardiac output.

E) decrease the end-systolic volume.

B) decrease heart rate.

113

If the force of ventricular contraction increases, what will happen to the end-systolic volume?

A) increase

B) fluctuate rapidly

C) remain the same

D) decrease

E) reduced to zero

E) reduced to zero

114

End-systolic volume is defined as the

A) amount of blood a ventricle ejects per cycle.

B) amount of blood which backflows into a ventricle.

C) amount of blood remaining in an atrium after atrial systole.

D) amount of blood remaining in a ventricle after contraction.

E) stroke volume multiplied by the heart rate.

D) amount of blood remaining in a ventricle after contraction.

115

A patient has an end-diastolic volume of 125 ml. A heart attack has weakened her left ventricle so it can pump a stroke volume of only 40 ml. Calculate her end-systolic volume.

A) 85 ml

B) 3.1 ml

C) 5000 ml

D) 165 ml

E) There is not enough data given to calculate the end-systolic volume.

A) 85 ml

116

Calculate cardiac output if the heart rate is 125 beats/minute, the end-diastolic volume is 130 ml, and the end-systolic volume is 40 ml.

A) 21,250 ml / min

B) 16,250 ml / min

C) 11,250 ml / min

D) 195 ml / min

E) 200 ml / min

C) 11,250 ml / min

117

Calculate the cardiac output of a patient with a heart rate of 100 beats/minute and a stroke volume of 75 ml.

A) 0.75 ml / min

B) 750 ml / min

C) 7500 ml / min

D) 175 ml / min

E) 25 ml / min

C) 7500 ml / min

118

The ________ circuit carries blood to and from the lungs.

A) pulmonary

B) systemic

C) oxygen

D) portal

E) body

A) pulmonary

119

The ________ circuit carries blood from the aorta to the right ventricle.

A) pulmonary

B) systemic

C) oxygen

D) portal

E) body

B) systemic

120

The ________ carry blood away from the heart.

A) arterioles

B) arteries

C) veins

D) venules

E) capillaries

B) arteries

121

The ________ carry blood toward the heart.

A) arterioles

B) arteries

C) veins

D) lacteals

E) capillaries

C) veins

122

The ________ covers the outer surface of the heart.

A) epicardium

B) myocardium

C) endocardium

D) parietal pericardium

E) mediastinum

A) epicardium

123

The muscle layer of the heart is the

A) epicardium.

B) myocardium.

C) endocardium.

D) parietal pericardium.

E) mediastinum.

B) myocardium.

124

The ________ lines the chambers of the heart, covers the heart valves, and is continuous with the endothelium.

A) epicardium

B) myocardium

C) endocardium

D) visceral pericardium

E) mediastinum

C) endocardium

125

Oxygen is added to blood as it flows through the ________ circuit.

A) pulmonary

B) systemic

C) oxygen

D) portal

E) body

A) pulmonary

126

The term ________ refers to blockage in the coronary circulation.

A) congestive heart failure

B) atherosclerosis

C) coronary artery disease

D) embolism

E) phlebitis

C) coronary artery disease

127

________ is the symptom generally brought on by coronary ischemia.

A) Angina pectoris

B) Shortness of breath

C) A rash

D) Hematuria

E) Fluid in the lungs

A) Angina pectoris

128

In a procedure known as ________, an inflatable balloon at the end of a catheter is used to press plaque back against the vessel wall.

A) balloon angioplasty

B) coronary arterial bypass graft

C) intravenous catheterization

D) ablation

E) atherectomy

A) balloon angioplasty

129

The two types of cardiac muscle cells involved in a normal heartbeat include specialized cells of the conducting system and ________ cells.

A) contractile

B) conductive

C) intercalated

D) pacemaker

E) internodal

A) contractile

130

The property of heart muscle to contract in the absence of neural or hormonal stimulation is called

A) intrinsic.

B) extrinsic.

C) automaticity.

D) self-replicating.

E) self-starting.

C) automaticity.

131

Cells that spontaneously make action potentials make up ________ tissue.

A) contractile

B) conductive

C) intercalated

D) pacemaker

E) internodal

D) pacemaker

132

The structures responsible for distributing excitation to the contractile cells are

A) contractile cells.

B) conducting cells.

C) intercalated cells.

D) pacemaker cells.

E) intermodal cells.

B) conducting cells.

133

The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle is called

A) depolarization.

B) systole.

C) diastole.

D) hyperpolarization.

E) asystole.

B) systole.

134

The relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle is called

A) depolarization.

B) systole.

C) diastole.

D) hyperpolarization.

E) asystole.

C) diastole.

135

Abnormal heart sounds caused by turbulent flow through faulty valves are called

A) ectopic foci.

B) murmurs.

C) asystole.

D) fibrillations.

E) flutters.

B) murmurs.

136

The backward flow of blood from a ventricle to its atrium or from a outflow vessel to its ventricle is called

A) emesis.

B) flutter.

C) fibrillation.

D) regurgitation.

E) stenosis.

D) regurgitation.

137

In mitral valve prolapse, the cusps of the mitral valve are pushed into the

A) left ventricle.

B) right ventricle.

C) left atrium.

D) right atrium.

C) left atrium.

138

The ________ is the amount of blood in a ventricle after it has contracted and before it begins to refill.

A) ejection fraction

B) end-diastole volume

C) start-diastolic volume

D) end-systolic volume

E) stroke volume

D) end-systolic volume

139

The ________ is the volume of blood in a ventricle at the beginning of systole.

A) ejection fraction

B) end-diastole volume

C) start-diastolic volume

D) end-systolic volume

E) stroke volume

B) end-diastole volume

140

The amount of blood remaining in the ventricle when the semilunar valve closes is the

A) ejection fraction.

B) end-diastole volume.

C) start-diastolic volume.

D) end-systolic volume.

E) stroke volume.

D) end-systolic volume.

141

The amount of blood returning to the heart is the

A) afterload.

B) stroke volume.

C) end-diastolic volume.

D) cardiac reserve.

E) venous return.

E) venous return.

142

________ is when the heart can't maintain adequate cardiac output.

A) Heart failure

B) Fibrillation

C) Flutter

D) Murmur

E) Coronary heart disease

A) Heart failure

143

The ________ is the difference between the resting and maximal cardiac output.

A) end-systolic volume

B) end-diastolic volume

C) cardiac reserve

D) stroke volume

E) ejection fraction

C) cardiac reserve