Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 21 Circulation Flashcards


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1

The muscular layer in the wall of a blood vessel is the

A) tunica intima.

B) tunica externa.

C) tunica media.

D) tunica interna.

E) tunica adventitia.

C) tunica media.

2

Compared to arteries, veins

A) are more elastic.

B) have more smooth muscle in their tunica media.

C) have a pleated endothelium.

D) have thinner walls.

E) hold their shape better when cut.

D) have thinner walls.

3

3) Arrange the structures in the following list in the order that blood will encounter as it flows from the output side to the input side of the cardiovascular flow circuit.

1. venules

2. arterioles

3. capillaries

4. elastic arteries

5. medium veins

6. large veins

7. muscular arteries

A) 7, 4, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6

B) 6, 5, 1, 3, 2, 7, 4

C) 5, 6, 1, 3, 2, 7, 4

D) 2, 7, 6, 3, 1, 5, 6

E) 4, 7, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6

E) 4, 7, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6

4

Capillaries that have a complete lining are called

A) continuous capillaries.

B) fenestrated capillaries.

C) sinusoidal capillaries.

D) sinusoids.

E) vasa vasorum.

A) continuous capillaries.

5

The smallest arterial branches are called the

A) precapillary arterioles.

B) arterioles.

C) capillaries.

D) venules.

E) veins.

A) precapillary arterioles.

6

The layer between the tunica media and the tunica externa in a large artery is the

A) tunica intima.

B) external elastic membrane.

C) tunica media.

D) internal elastic membrane.

E) tunica externa.

B) external elastic membrane.

7

The thoroughfare channel ends at the

A) artery.

B) arteriole.

C) capillary.

D) venule.

E) vein.

D) venule.

8

Which of the following layers of a vessel contains collagen fibers with scattered bands of elastic fibers?

A) tunica intima

B) external elastic membrane

C) tunica media

D) internal elastic membrane

E) tunica externa

E) tunica externa

9

After blood leaves the capillaries, it enters the

A) arteries.

B) arterioles.

C) capillaries.

D) venules.

E) veins.

D) venules.

10

Which layer of a blood vessel contains concentric sheets of smooth muscle tissue?

A) tunica intima

B) external elastic membrane

C) tunica media

D) internal elastic membrane

E) tunica externa

C) tunica media

11

The large vessels that return blood to the heart are called

A) arteries.

B) arterioles.

C) capillaries.

D) venules.

E) veins.

E) veins.

12

In large arteries, the thick layer of elastic fibers is called the

A) tunica intima.

B) external elastic membrane.

C) tunica media.

D) internal elastic membrane.

E) tunica externa.

D) internal elastic membrane.

13

Which of the following is the innermost layer of a blood vessel?

A) tunica intima

B) external elastic membrane

C) tunica media

D) internal elastic membrane

E) tunica externa

A) tunica intima

14

Venoconstriction ________ the amount of blood within the venous system, which ________ the volume in the arterial and capillary systems.

A) doubles; decreases

B) reduces; increases

C) decreases; doubles

D) increases; reduces

E) reduces; reduces

B) reduces; increases

15

Venous valves are responsible for

A) preventing anterograde flow.

B) channeling blood away from the heart.

C) channeling blood toward the heart.

D) preventing blood from re-entering a ventricle.

E) regulating blood pressure in veins.

C) channeling blood toward the heart.

16

Venae cavae are the largest of what type of vessel?

A) artery

B) arteriole

C) capillary

D) venule

E) vein

E) vein

17

The layer of the arteriole wall that can produce vasoconstriction is the

A) tunica adventitia.

B) tunica media.

C) tunica intima.

D) tunica externa.

E) tunica mater.

B) tunica media.

18

Of the following arteries, the one that is an elastic artery is

A) the subclavian artery.

B) the external carotid artery.

C) the brachial artery.

D) the femoral artery.

E) the ulnar artery.

A) the subclavian artery.

19

You would expect to find fenestrated capillaries in

A) skeletal muscles.

B) cardiac muscle.

C) the pituitary.

D) bone.

E) skin.

C) the pituitary.

20

A sample of tissue displays many large flattened spaces lined by fenestrated endothelium. Blood moves slowly through these spaces. This tissue sample most likely came from the

A) heart.

B) lungs.

C) liver.

D) kidneys.

E) skin.

C) liver.

21

Factors that increase the risk of atherosclerosis include which of the following?

A) high cholesterol

B) lack of exercise

C) smoking

D) obesity

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

22

These vessels may be continuous or fenestrated.

A) arteries

B) arterioles

C) capillaries

D) venules

E) veins

C) capillaries

23

What structure do RBCs move through single file?

A) artery

B) arteriole

C) capillary

D) venule

E) vein

C) capillary

24

Capillaries with a perforated lining are called

A) perforated capillaries.

B) discontinuous capillaries.

C) fenestrated capillaries.

D) sinuses.

E) vasa vasorum.

C) fenestrated capillaries.

25

Exchange between a blood vessel and the cells that surround it can occur only in

A) arteries.

B) arterioles.

C) veins.

D) venules.

E) capillaries.

E) capillaries.

26

Which kind of vessel is also called a resistance vessel?

A) artery

B) arteriole

C) capillary

D) venule

E) vein

B) arteriole

27

Blood flow through a capillary is controlled by the

A) vasa vasorum.

B) plexus.

C) precapillary sphincter.

D) thoroughfare channel.

E) venule.

C) precapillary sphincter.

28

The common iliac artery is an example of which type of artery?

A) arteriolar

B) elastic

C) connective

D) muscular

E) vascular

B) elastic

29

Which of the following lumen diameters would be typical of a muscular artery?

A) 0.2 mm

B) 1.0 cm

C) 0.4 mm

D) 0.4 cm

E) 1.5 cm

D) 0.4 cm

30

Venoconstriction reduces the diameter of which vessel?

A) artery

B) arteriole

C) capillary

D) venule

E) vein

E) vein

31

The brachial and femoral arteries are examples of which type of artery?

A) arteriolar

B) elastic

C) connective

D) muscular

E) vascular

D) muscular

32

Which vessel is known as a resistance vessel?

A) arteriole

B) elastic

C) connective

D) muscular

E) venule

A) arteriole

33

What vessels contain elastic fibers in the walls that are stretched during systole?

A) arteries

B) arterioles

C) capillaries

D) venules

E) veins

A) arteries

34

Which of the following is most likely to result from an aneurysm in a brain artery?

A) hypotension

B) quadriplegia

C) stroke

D) myocardial infarction

E) pulmonary embolism

C) stroke

35

Complications related to arteriosclerosis account for roughly ________ percent of deaths in the United States.

A) 30

B) 60

C) 20

D) 50

E) 25

D) 50

36

What vessels hold the largest percentage of the blood supply?

A) artery

B) arteriole

C) capillary

D) venule

E) vein

E) vein

37

Arteriosclerosis can lead to

A) hypertension.

B) stroke.

C) coronary artery disease.

D) myocardial infarction.

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

38

A vein that measures 5 mm would be considered

A) a large vein.

B) a venule.

C) a medium vein.

D) an arteriovenule.

E) a venous valve.

C) a medium vein.

39

The inferior vena cava is classified as a(n)

A) large vein.

B) venule.

C) medium vein.

D) arteriovenule.

E) venous valve.

A) large vein.

40

Which of the following are the smallest venous vessels?

A) large veins

B) venules

C) medium veins

D) arteriovenules

E) venous valves

B) venules

41

Blood moves forward through veins because of all of the following, except

A) the pressure in the veins is lower than in the arteries.

B) pumping by the smooth muscle in the wall of the vein.

C) the respiratory pump.

D) valves in the veins preventing the backward flow of blood.

E) muscular compression.

B) pumping by the smooth muscle in the wall of the vein.

42

Metabolites exchange by diffusion with tissue cells in which of the following locations?

A) artery

B) arteriole

C) capillary

D) venule

E) vein

C) capillary

43

Which part of the vascular system functions as a blood reservoir and contains over 60% of the body's blood?

A) pulmonary arteries

B) capillaries

C) systemic arterioles

D) veins

E) arteries

D) veins

44

List in correct order the sequence of blood vessels that blood would travel in the systemic circuit starting at the aorta.

1. venules

2. arterioles

3. capillaries

4. elastic arteries

5. medium veins

6. large veins

7. muscular arteries

A) 6, 5, 1, 3, 2, 7, 4

B) 4, 7, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6

C) 7, 4, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6

D) 5, 6, 1, 3, 2, 7, 4

E) 2, 7, 6, 3, 1, 5, 6

B) 4, 7, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6

45

The main control of peripheral resistance occurs in the

A) arterioles.

B) venules.

C) veins.

D) arteries.

E) capillaries.

A) arterioles.

46

The small vessels that capillaries drain into are called

A) arterioles.

B) venules.

C) arteries.

D) veins.

E) capillaries.

B) venules.

47

Resistance is a force that

A) increases blood flow.

B) decreases blood flow.

C) never changes in a blood vessel.

D) acts with pressure to move blood along a vessel.

E) is always higher than blood pressure.

B) decreases blood flow.

48

Total peripheral resistance is related to all of the following, except the

A) length of a blood vessel.

B) osmolarity of interstitial fluids.

C) turbulence.

D) blood viscosity.

E) blood vessel diameter.

B) osmolarity of interstitial fluids.

49

As blood travels from arteries to veins,

A) pressure builds.

B) pressure drops.

C) flow becomes turbulent.

D) viscosity increases.

E) diameter of the blood vessels gets progressively smaller.

B) pressure drops.

50

Blood flow to a tissue will increase if the

A) level of oxygen at the tissue increases.

B) level of carbon dioxide at the tissue decreases.

C) veins constrict.

D) arterioles dilate.

E) arterioles constrict

D) arterioles dilate.

51

Blood pressure is determined by

A) measuring the size of the pulse.

B) listening carefully to the pulse.

C) estimating the pressure needed to close off an artery with an external pressure cuff.

D) estimating the degree of turbulence in a partly closed vessel.

E) measuring the force of contraction of the left ventricle.

C) estimating the pressure needed to close off an artery with an external pressure cuff.

52

In what vessel is blood pressure the highest?

A) artery

B) arteriole

C) capillary

D) venule

E) vein

A) artery

53

Blood pressure increases with all of the following, except increased

A) cardiac output.

B) peripheral resistance.

C) blood volume.

D) parasympathetic innervation.

E) force of cardiac contraction.

D) parasympathetic innervation.

54

Which of the following factors will increase the net filtration pressure to move fluid out of capillaries?

A) decreased plasma albumen

B) increased blood hydrostatic pressure

C) increased tissue hydrostatic pressure

D) both decreased plasma albumin and increased blood hydrostatic pressure

E) increased plasma albumen

D) both decreased plasma albumin and increased blood hydrostatic pressure

55

The main control of peripheral resistance occurs in the

A) artery.

B) arteriole.

C) capillary.

D) venule.

E) vein.

B) arteriole.

56

The vascular pressure that declines from roughly 35 mm Hg to about 18 mm Hg is the

A) venous pressure.

B) capillary hydrostatic pressure.

C) diastolic pressure.

D) peripheral pressure.

E) pulse pressure.

B) capillary hydrostatic pressure.

57

Clinically, the term blood pressure usually refers to

A) arteriovenous pressure.

B) capillary hydrostatic pressure.

C) arterial pressure.

D) peripheral pressure.

E) pulse pressure.

C) arterial pressure.

58

Averaged over a few heartbeats, venous return is ________ cardiac output.

A) much higher than

B) somewhat higher than

C) equal to

D) somewhat lower than

E) much lower than

C) equal to

59

Blood pressure is lowest in the

A) arteries.

B) arterioles.

C) capillaries.

D) venules.

E) veins.

E) veins.

60

Which of the following affects blood flow through the body?

A) blood viscosity

B) vessel diameter

C) turbulence

D) vascular resistance

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

61

If blood pressure doubled, the blood flow through a vessel would be

A) doubled.

B) halved.

C) four times greater.

D) 1/4 as much.

E) unchanged.

A) doubled.

62

In which of the following would the blood flow be highest?

A) a vessel 0.5 cm in diameter and 2 meters long

B) a vessel 1.0 cm in diameter and 10 meters long

C) a vessel 0.5 cm in diameter and 4 meters long

D) a vessel 1.0 cm in diameter and 2 meters long

D) a vessel 1.0 cm in diameter and 2 meters long

63

Each of the following factors would increase peripheral resistance, except

A) increased sympathetic stimulation.

B) elevated levels of epinephrine.

C) vasodilation.

D) irregularities in the vessel walls caused by plaques.

E) elevated hematocrit.

C) vasodilation.

64

Each of the following factors would increase cardiac output, except

A) increased venous return.

B) decreased parasympathetic stimulation of the heart.

C) increased sympathetic stimulation of the heart.

D) increased blood concentration of glucose.

E) stimulation of the heart by epinephrine.

D) increased blood concentration of glucose.

65

Turbulent blood flow occurs

A) when there are irregularities in the vessel wall.

B) at high flow rates.

C) when there are sudden changes in vessel diameter.

D) when blood pressure is excessively high.

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

66

If a person has a blood pressure of 120/90, his mean arterial pressure would be ________ mm Hg.

A) 210

B) 100

C) 93

D) 105

E) 90

B) 100

67

The continual movement of fluid through the interstitial spaces produced by capillary filtration serves which of the following functions?

A) accelerates the distribution of nutrients and hormones

B) assists the transport of insoluble substances that cannot enter the capillaries

C) helps carry toxins and bacteria to cells of the immune system

D) flushes hormones and wastes from the interstitial spaces

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

68

Edema may occur when

A) the plasma concentration of protein is reduced.

B) endothelial permeability goes up.

C) capillary hydrostatic pressure is elevated.

D) blood pressure is high.

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

69

Relative to the lumen, which of these vessels has the thickest tunica media?

A) arteries

B) arterioles

C) capillaries

D) venules

E) veins

B) arterioles

70

When a person rises quickly from a sitting position,

A) the carotid baroreceptors become less active.

B) venous return is decreased.

C) reflex vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels occurs.

D) heart rate is reflexively elevated.

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

71

The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is called the ________ pressure.

A) critical closing

B) mean arterial

C) pulse

D) blood

E) circulatory

C) pulse

72

The blood colloid osmotic pressure mostly depends on the

A) concentration of plasma sodium ions.

B) concentration of plasma glucose.

C) concentration of plasma waste products.

D) concentration of plasma proteins.

E) number of red blood cells

D) concentration of plasma proteins.

73

Which of the following statements is false concerning the movement of fluid between capillaries and interstitial space?

A) Blood hydrostatic pressure forces fluid from the capillary to the interstitial space.

B) Blood osmotic pressure moves fluid from the interstitial space to the capillary.

C) The osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is less than the blood osmotic pressure.

D) The hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid is largely unimportant in determining fluid movement.

E) The net filtration pressure is usually zero.

E) The net filtration pressure is usually zero.

74

When renin is released from the kidney,

A) angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II.

B) angiotensinogen is converted into angiotensin I.

C) angiotensin I increases salt reabsorption at the kidneys.

D) blood pressure goes down.

E) blood flow to the kidneys decreases.

B) angiotensinogen is converted into angiotensin I.

75

Each of the following will lead to a decrease in blood pressure, except

A) release of renin.

B) decrease in blood volume.

C) decreased peripheral resistance.

D) increased levels of ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide).

E) decreased levels of aldosterone.

A) release of renin.

76

Each of the following will cause an increase in blood pressure, except

A) increased levels of aldosterone.

B) increased levels of angiotensin II.

C) increased blood volume.

D) increased levels of ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide).

E) increased levels of ADH (antidiuretic hormone).

D) increased levels of ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide).

77

Each of the following changes will result in increased blood flow to a tissue, except

A) increased hematocrit.

B) increased vessel diameter.

C) increased blood pressure.

D) decreased peripheral resistance.

E) relaxation of precapillary sphincters.

A) increased hematocrit.

78

In comparison to a vessel with a large diameter, a vessel with a small diameter has

A) less resistance to blood flow.

B) the same amount of pressure as resistance.

C) a greater resistance to blood flow.

D) a higher blood pressure.

E) a greater blood flow.

C) a greater resistance to blood flow.

79

Which of the following equations shows the correct relation between blood flow (F), pressure (P), and resistance (R)?

A) P=(F×R) × 4

B) F=R/P

C) F=P+R

D) F=P-R

E) F=P/R

E) F=P/R

80

As blood circulates from arteries into capillaries, the total cross-sectional area of capillaries

A) decreases and causes the blood velocity to decrease.

B) is the same as the total cross-sectional area of arteries and blood velocity is equal between arteries and capillaries.

C) increases and causes the blood velocity to decrease.

D) increases and causes the blood velocity to increase.

E) decreases and causes the blood velocity to increase.

C) increases and causes the blood velocity to decrease.

81

Which of the following is normally the greatest source acting against blood flow?

A) vascular resistance

B) venous pressure

C) viscosity of blood

D) vessel length

E) turbulence

A) vascular resistance

82

The force that moves fluid out of capillaries is ________ pressure whereas the opposing force that moves fluid into capillaries is ________ pressure.

A) systolic; diastolic

B) hydrostatic; osmotic

C) blood; interstitial

D) osmotic; hydrostatic

E) plasma; extracellular

B) hydrostatic; osmotic

83

Some of the fluid that is forced out of capillaries is returned to the blood by the:

A) muscular arteries

B) liver

C) hepatic portal vein

D) venules

E) lymphatic system

E) lymphatic system

84

Blood colloid osmotic pressure is produced by:

A) large non-diffusible proteins in the blood plasma

B) a greater salt concentration in blood cells

C) the force of blood pushing against the vessel wall

D) osmosis of water

E) hypertonic solutions separated by a cell membrane

A) large non-diffusible proteins in the blood plasma

85

Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP) decreases in starving children because:

A) starvation increases blood pressure which, in turn, decreases BCOP

B) starvation increases the permeability of capillaries causing a decrease in BCOP

C) starvation in children results in a protein deficiency and the liver cannot produce enough protein to maintain BCOP

D) malnourished children do not exercise, which results in a decrease in BCOP

E) the question statement is false, BCOP actually increases in starving children

C) starvation in children results in a protein deficiency and the liver cannot produce enough protein to maintain BCOP

86

Calculate the net filtration pressure (NFP) with a blood hydrostatic pressure of 40 mm Hg and a blood colloid osmotic pressure of 25 mm Hg. Then determine if the blood gains or loses fluid.NFP = ________ and results in a fluid ________ .

A) 15 mm Hg; loss

B) 65 mm Hg; gain

C) 65 mm Hg; loss

D) 15 mm Hg; gain

E) -15 mm Hg; loss

A) 15 mm Hg; loss

87

Which of the following opposes the flow of blood back to the heart?

A) vascular resistance

B) peripheral veins have valves to prevent backflow of blood

C) muscular pumps squeeze veins and move blood toward the heart

D) blood pressure

E) blood pressure gradient from arteries to veins

A) vascular resistance

88

As blood travels from arteries to veins,

A) viscosity of blood changes.

B) pressure increases.

C) diameter of the blood vessels gets progressively smaller.

D) pressure decreases.

E) flow becomes turbulent.

D) pressure decreases.

89

The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is called the ________ pressure.

A) blood

B) circulatory

C) mean arterial

D) critical closing

E) pulse

E) pulse

90

Which of the following affects blood flow through the body?

A) blood viscosity

B) turbulence

C) vascular resistance

D) vessel diameter

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

91

Edema may occur (only) when

A) the plasma concentration of protein is reduced.

B) capillary hydrostatic pressure is elevated.

C) capillary endothelium permeability goes up.

D) the plasma concentration of protein is reduced and capillary endothelium permeability goes up.

E) the plasma concentration of protein is reduced, capillary hydrostatic pressure is elevated, and the capillary endothelium permeability goes up.

E) the plasma concentration of protein is reduced, capillary hydrostatic pressure is elevated, and the capillary endothelium permeability goes up.