chapter 20 Flashcards


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Lymphatic
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1

The largest single collection of lymphoid tissue in the adult body is located in the

  • liver
  • spleen
  • thymus
  • lymph nodes
  • tonsils

spleen

2

The cell that dominates the deep cortical region of a lymph node is the ________ cell.

  • B
  • cytotoxic T
  • T helper
  • NK
  • plasma

T helper

3

The thymus produces several complementary hormones called

  • thymosins
  • immunoglobulins
  • desmosomes
  • interferons
  • catecholamines

thymosins

4

If the thymus shrank and stopped functioning properly, we would expect to see an immediate decrease in the number of

  • T cells
  • neutrophils
  • NK cells and T cells
  • Nk cells
  • B lymphocytes

T cells

5

Lymphocyte production does not occur in

  • the spleen
  • thymus tissue
  • peripheral lymphoid tissues
  • bone marrow
  • the liver

the liver

6

Name the lymphoid tissue that protects epithelia lining the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts. (Module 20.5A)

lacteals

mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

tonsils

interferons

lymph nodes

Mucus-associated lymphoid tissue, (MALT)

7

Identify the three main classes of lymphocytes. (Module 20.4A)

  • T cells, B cells, and helper cells
  • T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells
  • acute lymphocyte, chronic lymphocytes, and resident lymphocytes
  • cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, and memory T cells
  • RBCs, WBCs, and platelets

B cell , T cell, Natural Killer cell

8

Regulatory T cells act to

  • limit antigen proliferation
  • suppress antigens
  • produce antibodies involved in autoimmunity
  • inhibit T and B cell activities
  • erase memory T cells

suppress antigens

9

________ cells enable the immune system to respond quickly and robustly if the same antigen is encountered a second time.

  • suppressor
  • plasma
  • dendritic
  • IgM
  • Memory

memory

10

The cells directly responsible for cell-mediated immunity are the ________ cells.

  • T
  • interferon
  • plasma
  • NK
  • B

T cells

11

If you observed a higher-than-normal number of plasma cells in a sample of lymph, would you expect antibody levels in the blood to be higher or lower than normal? (Module 20.17C)

plasma cells produce antibodies so you would expect antibody levels would be higher than normal

12

Defense of the body against a particular pathogen is provided by

  • nonspecific immunity
  • specific immunity
  • immunological survaillance
  • skin defenses
  • fever

specific immunity (acquired)

13

Which type of immunity develops when a child is given the polio vaccine? (Module 20.14B)

  • artificially acquired active immunity
  • artificially acquired passive immunity
  • naturally acquired passive immunity
  • naturally acquired active immunity

artificially acquired active immunity

14

What types of immunity are stimulated by antigen presentation? (Module 20.15D)

  • artificially acquired passive immunity
  • cell-mediated immunity
  • antibody-mediated immunity
  • cell-mediated immunity and antibody-mediated immunity
  • naturally acquired passive immunity

cell-mediated immunity and antibody-mediated immunity

15

What is the difference between a lymphocyte and lymph? (Module 20.1A)

a lymphocyte is the primary cell of the lymphatic system. lymph is the interstitial fluid that has entered a lymphatic vessels

16

The lymphatic system is composed of all of the following except

  • the venae cavae
  • red bone marrow
  • the appendix
  • the spleen
  • lymph

the vena cavae

17

Name the two large lymphatic vessels into which the lymphatic trunks empty. (Module 20.3B)

  • left lymphatic duct and thoracic duct
  • right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct
  • right lymphatic duct and left lymphatic duct
  • thoracic duct and abdominopelvic duct

right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct

18

What is the function of lymphatic vessels? (Module 20.2A)

  • the function of lymphatic vessels is to transport lymph from peripheral tissues to the venous system
  • the function of lymphatic vessels is to produce hormones that helps the development of T cells
  • the function of lymphatic vessels is to detect pathogens before the reach the vital organs of the trunk and help filter the lymph

the function of lymphatic vessels is to transport lymph fro peripheral tissues to the venous system

19

Immunoglobulins, formed of five subunits, which are the first antibodies to be produced in response to infection are

  • IgA
  • IgD
  • IgM
  • IgE

IgM

20

Inappropriate or excessive immune responses to antigens are

  • allergies
  • signs of a weak system
  • the result of stress
  • immunodeficiency diseases

allergies

21

Immunoglobulins that are most abundant and are responsible for resistance against many viruses, bacteria, and bacterial toxins are

  • IgA
  • IgE
  • IgD
  • IgG
  • IgM

IgG

22

Which chemicals do mast cells and basophils release when stimulated in an allergic reaction? (Module 20.20B)

  • heparin
  • histamine, leukotrienes, and other chemicals that cause inflammation
  • complement proteins
  • IgE antibodies
  • interferons

histamine, leukotrienes, and other chemicals that cause inflammation

23

An allergen circulating in the bloodstream affects mast cells throughout the body, dropping blood pressure to dangerously low levels. This response is termed

  • allergy
  • anaphylactic shock
  • asthma
  • allergic rhinitis
  • hypersensitivity

anaphylactic shock

24

Immunoglobulins that are primarily found in glandular secretions such as mucus, saliva, and tears are

  • IgD
  • IgA
  • IgE

IgA

25

Which cells produce antibodies? (Module 20.21B)

  • memory B cells
  • helper T cells
  • plasma cells
  • cytotoxic T cells

plasma cells

26

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes the disease known as AIDS, selectively infects ________ cells.

  • plasma
  • B
  • helper T
  • cytotoxic T
  • suppressor T

Helper T cells

27

In response to tissue damage and infection, circulating proteins called pyrogens

  • cause inflammation
  • activate antibodies
  • opsonize pathogens
  • produce a fever

produce a fever

28

The process by which the surface of a microorganism is covered with antibodies and complement, rendering it more likely to be phagocytized, is called

  • opsonization
  • aggultination
  • antigen presentation
  • sensitaztion
  • neutralization

opsonization

29

Distinguish between innate immunity and adaptive immunity. (Module 20.8A

innate immunity is nonspecific and does not distinguish one type of threat from another. Adaptive immunity is specific and protects against particular threats

30

The first line of cellular defense against pathogens are the

phagocytes

31

The effects of activating the complement system include all of the following except

  • enhanced phagocytosis
  • histamine release
  • destruction of target cell plasma membranes
  • stimulation of inflammation
  • inhibition of the immune response

inhibition of the immune response

32

What is the effect of histamine release? (Module 20.12C)

histamine increases local inflammation, increasing blood flow to the area

33

Describe inflammation. (Module 20.13A)

inflammation is a localized response to injury characterized by redness, swelling, heat and pain

34

Define immune surveillance. (Module 20.11A)

immune surveillance is the constant monitoring of normal tissue by NK cells sensitive to abnormal antigens on the surfaces of cells

35

In opsonization,

  • A pathogen is coated by protein to facilitate its destruction by neutrophils and macrophages
  • the cell wall of a pathogen is breached leading to death of the cell
  • antibodies tie many antigens together
  • MHC II glycoproteins display a fragment of a alien cell
  • antigens bind to antibodies to become antigen-antibody complexes

A pathogen is coated by protein to facilitate its destruction by neutrophils and macrophages

36

Which cells are involved in inflammation?(Module 20.19C)

  • Basophils and mast cells
  • natural killer cells and eosinophils
  • helper T cells and memory T cells
  • B cells and T cells
  • eosinophils, neutrophils, and macrophages

Basophils and mast cells

37

The process by which antibodies bind to the antigen on the surface of cells, forming large immune complexes, is called

  • Sensitization
  • Agglutination
  • opsonization
  • neutralization
  • antigen presentation

Agglutination

38

Lymphatic vessels commonly occur in association with

  • Sensory nerve endings
  • blood vessels
  • hyaline cartilage
  • adipose tisssue

Blood vessel

39

The thoracic duct drains lymph from all of the following regions except the

  • Left side of the neck
  • left arm and shoulder
  • left breast
  • right breast
  • pelvic viscera

Right breast

40

Define interferons. (Module 20.12A)

  • Interferons are small protein released by virus infected cells that trigger the production of antiviral proteins
  • interferons are chemicals that induce fever to accelerate tissue metabolism and defenses
  • interferons are circulating proteins that bind specific antigens as part of the adaptive immune response

Interferons are small protein released by virus infected cells that trigger the production of antiviral proteins

41

Nonspecific defenses would not include

  • Antibodies
  • physical barrier
  • interferons
  • inflammation
  • phagocytic cells

Antibodies

42

Which cells are responsible for antibody-mediated immunity? (Module 20.4C)

  • B cells
  • T cells
  • dendritic cells
  • natural killer cells

B cells

43

A substance that provokes an immune response is called a(n)

  • Antigen
  • complement
  • thymosin
  • chemotoxin
  • irritant

Antigen

44

Describe red pulp and white pulp found in the spleen. (Module 20.7B)

Red pulp contains large number of red blood cells; white pulp resembles lymphoid nodules and contains lymphocytes

45

Lymphocytes

  • Are primarily found in red bone marrow
  • decrease in numbers during infections
  • are all actively phagocytic
  • respond to antigens
  • destroy red blood cells

Respond to antigen

46

Regulatory T cells act to

  • Inhibit T and B cell activities
  • erase memory T cells
  • limit antigen proliferation
  • suppress antigens
  • produce in autoimmunity

Suppress antigens

47

Immunity that results from exposure to an antigen in the environment is called ________ immunity.

Naturally acquired active immunity

48

Immunity that results from antibodies that pass the placenta from mother to fetus is called ________ immunity.

Naturally acquired passive immunity

49

The cells responsible for producing antibody molecules are ________ cells.

Plasma

50

A substance that provokes an immune response is called a(n)

Antigen

51

_______ are large lymphoid nodules that are located in the walls of the pharynx.

Tonsils

52

_______ are clusters of lymphoid nodules deep to the epithelial lining of the small intestine.

Payer’s patches

53

Autoantibodies are

Directed against the body’s own antigens

54

Destruction of antigens or cell lysis can be caused by all of the following except

Helper T cells

55

How do NK cells detect cancer cells? (Module 20.11B)

NK cells recognize cancer cells by the tumor specific antigens on the plasma membranes of cancer cells

56

The cells that perform immunological surveillance are the ________ cells.

NK cells

57

The classic pathway of complement activation begins when the complement protein binds to

An antibody

58

Nonspecific defenses would not include

Antibodies

59

Define chemotaxis. (Module 20.10B)

Chemotaxis is the phagocyte movement in response to chemical stimuli

60

What structure prevents the backflow of lymph in some lymphatic vessels? (Module 20.2C)

Valves

61

The lymphocytes are most important in

Fighting infections