*In 1912, Woodrow Wilson ran for the presidency on a Democratic platform that included support for all of the following EXCEPT
- antitrust legislation.
- monetary reform.
- dollar diplomacy.
- tariff reductions.
- support for small business.
*Which statement best describes the contrasts between Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom progressivism and Theodore Roosevelt's New Nationalism progressivism?
- Wilson's New Freedom emphasized small enterprise, entrepreneurship, and the free functioning of unregulated and unmonopolized markets; while Roosevelt's New Nationalism favored continued consolidation of the trusts and labor unions, supplemented by the growth of federal regulatory agencies.
- Wilson's New Freedom emphasized consolidation of trusts and labor unions; while Roosevelt favored advancing small enterprise, entrepreneurship, and the open functioning of unregulated and unmonopolized markets.
- Wilson's New Freedom favored a broad program of social welfare, including minimum-wage laws and social insurance; while Roosevelt's New Nationalism emphasized a faith in free-market competition, vigorously enforcing antitrust laws, and shunning social welfare proposals.
- Roosevelt's New Nationalism favored placing key industries, such as the railroads and utilities, under government ownership; while Wilson's New Freedom advocated vigorous regulation of these key private industries.
- Wilson's New Freedom emphasized the importance of maintaining protectionist high tariffs to protect domestic industry and promote economic growth, while Roosevelt favored lowering tariffs to promote trade and economic expansion.
*President Woodrow Wilson's political philosophy included all of the following EXCEPT
- a stubborn commitment to particular progressive principles and an aversion to pragmatic political compromise.
- scorn for the ability of peoples in other countries to govern themselves.
- a belief that the president should go over the heads of legislators and appeal to the sovereign people.
- a belief in the central importance of mortality in politics.
*How did the Underwood Tariff Act reflect President Wilson's progressive goals
- The law lowered tariff rates, and established the first graduated federal income tax.
- In addition to lowering tariff rates, the act created an optional retirement system for workers.
- The act lowered tariff rates and guaranteed equal treatment for men and women in employment.
- The tariff was used only for increasing government revenue and not to protect American industry from competition.
- The raising of the tariff provided protection for American farmers against subsidized foreign crop imports.
*What critical authority was given to the Federal Reserve Board by the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 to permit quasi-public management of the banking and currency system?
- The power to issue paper money and increase of decrease the amount of money in circulation by altering interest rates
- The authority to close weak banks
- The power to take the United States off the gold standard
- The power to guarantee banking deposits against bank failures
- The power to collect income taxes directly from employees' paychecks
*The Federal Trade Commission was established in 1914 to address all of the following practices EXCEPT
- eliminating unfair and discriminatory trade practices.
- outlawing unfair business competition and bribery.
- prohibiting the sale of stocks without full disclosure.
- prohibiting false and misleading advertising .
- abolishing the mislabeling or adulterating of products.
*The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 accomplished all of the following EXCEPT
- outlawing corporate interlocking directorates.
- prohibiting price discrimination against different purchasers.
- exempting labor unions and farm cooperatives from antitrust action.
- further undercutting the monopolistic practices of big business.
- providing long-term legal protection for unions to engage in organizing, collective bargaining, and strike activities.
*What presidential action illustrated the limits of Woodrow Wilson's progressivism?
- Vetoing the Federal Farm Loan Act
- Opposing the entry of women into politics
- Appointing the Jewish Louis D. Brandeis to the U.S. Supreme Court
- Vetoing legislation to guarantee workers' compensation assistance to disabled federal employees
- Accelerating the segregation of blacks in the federal bureaucracy
*Which term best characterizes Woodrow Wilson's fundamental overall approach to American foreign policy?
- Balance of power
*Which of the following represented President Wilson's first direct use of American military forces in revolutionary Mexico?
- Sending the U.S. armed forces to protect against Mexican nationalization of American businesses
- Sending the U.S. Army to prevent Venustiano Carranza from becoming president of Mexico
- Seizing the Mexican port of Veracruz to prevent German delivery of arms to President Huerta
- Sending the U.S. Army to protect the vast Mexican landholdings of William Randolph Hearst
- Sending General Pershing into Mexico to capture Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa following the latter's border raids into New Mexico
*Which of the following had the most influence on America's growing trade with Britain and its reduction of trade with Germany during the period 1914-1916?
- The British needed American goods and weapons, and the Germans did not.
- More Americans sympathized with Britain than with Germany.
- British agents sabotaged American businesses that traded with Germany.
- American bankers such as J. P. Morgan were willing to loan money to Britain but not to Germany.
- The British Navy controlled the Atlantic shipping lanes.
*Which of the following best characterizes the attitude of the large majority of Americans toward the outbreak of World War I in 1914?
- Most Americans earnestly hoped to remain neutral and stay out of the war
- Most Americans favored entering the war in support of the Allies.
- Most Americans supported the cause of the Central Powers.
- Most Americans wanted to form a military alliance of neutral nations.
- Most Americans favored direct U.S. diplomatic mediation of the conflict.
*What prompted German submarines to begin sinking unarmed and unresisting merchant and passenger ships in the Atlantic during the early years of World War I?
- The United States' entry into the war in 1917
- The British naval blockade of Germany
- A strategic calculation designed to keep the United States out of the war
- A change in international law permitting this new style of warfare
- A last-ditch, desperate effort by Germany to win the war
*What dangerous contingency did Germany attach to its Sussex pledge not to attack unarmed neutral shipping during the years of the war?
- Americans would have to refrain from sailing on British-owned passenger ships.
- U-boats could capture merchant vessels if the submarines surfaced.
- The American government would have to guarantee that passenger vessels were not secretly carrying military supplies.
- The United States would have to persuade the Allies to end their blockade of Germany, or unrestricted submarine warfare would resume.
- Woodrow Wilson would have to seek a fair, negotiated settlement of the war.
**Which of the following actions was NOT part of Wilson's "moral diplomacy"?
- Granting the Philippines territorial status
- Repealing the Panama Canal Tolls Act
- Rescinding support for American investors in Latin America
- Convincing the California legislature to soften its anti-Japanese stance
- Dispatching Marines to Haiti to protect American lives and property
**Which of the following events is a result of the other four?
- William Jennings Bryan supports Woodrow Wilson's candidacy
- Roosevelt's "Bull Moose" party divides traditionally Republican voters
- Woodrow Wilson wins the presidential election of 1912
- New Jersey bosses propel Woodrow Wilson to the governorship
- Woodrow Wilson offers voters a choice in political and economic philosophies
~Before he was elected president in 1912, Woodrow Wilson had been a
- Presbyterian minister.
- state governor.
- Successful businessman.
- Progressive Republican.
- United States Senator.
~As governor of New Jersey, Woodrow Wilson established a record as
- a mild conservative.
- man who could readily work with Democratic party bosses.
- social radical.
- passionate reformer.
~In 1912, Woodrow Wilson ran for the presidency on a Democratic platform that included all of the following except a call for
- antitrust legislation.
- monetary reform.
- dollar diplomacy.
- tariff reductions.
- support for small business.
~When Jane Addams placed Teddy Roosevelt's name in nomination for the presidency in 1912, it
- demonstrated that the Republican party supported woman suffrage.
- ensured Roosevelt's defeat by William Howard Taft.
- symbolized the rising political status of women.
- showed that Roosevelt had lost touch with public opinion.
- demonstrated his concern for international peace.
~Teddy Roosevelt's New Nationalism
- pinned its economic faith on competition and the breakup of large monopolies.
- opposed the growth of labor unions.
- sought to raise tariffs to protect American industry.
- supported a broad program of social welfare and government regulation of business.
- favored state rather than federal government activism.
~Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom
- advocated social-welfare programs.
- opposed fragmentation of big industrial combines.
- favored small enterprise and entrepreneurship.
- supported minimum-wage laws.
- opposed banking and tariff reform.
~The 1912 presidential election was notable because
- it gave the voters a clear choice of political and economic philosophies.
- personalities were the only issue of the campaign.
- it was the first time women had the right to vote.
- the Democratic party had split.
- the Socialists competed as a serious third party.
~Match each 1912 presidential candidate below with his political party.
- Woodrow Wilson
- Theodore Roosevelt
- William Howard Taft
- Eugene V. Debs
- a-1, b-2, c-4, d-3
- a-1, b-3, c-4, d-2
- a-4, b-3, c-2, d-1
- a-3, b-1, c-2, d-4
- a-2, b-4, c-3, d-1
~According to the text, the runaway philosophical winner in the 1912 election was
~In 1912 Woodrow Wilson became the first ___ elected to the presidency since the Civil War.
- person born in the South
- non-Civil War veteran
~Woodrow Wilson's attitude toward the masses can best be described as
- open contempt.
- public support but private dislike.
- having faith in them if they were properly educated.
- trust in their natural common sense.
~Woodrow Wilson's political philosophy included all of the following EXCEPT
- faith in the masses.
- scorn for the ideal of self-determination for minority peoples in other countries.
- a belief that the president should provide leadership for Congress.
- a belief that the president should appeal over the heads of legislators to the sovereign people.
- a belief in the moral essence of politics.
~As a politician, Woodrow Wilson was
- clever and agile.
- a showman, like Teddy Roosevelt.
- a man with the common touch.
- willing to compromise with his opponents.
- inflexible and stubborn.
~Congress passed the Underwood Tariff because
- big business favored its passage.
- President Wilson aroused public opinion to support its passage.
- the general public had been demanding a higher tariff.
- the tariff kept the graduated income tax from being enacted.
- Wilson gained Western support for tariff reduction.
~In 1913, Woodrow Wilson broke with a custom dating back to Jefferson's day when he
- appointed members of his cabinet without regard to their party affiliation.
- appointed a black man to the Supreme Court.
- endorsed woman suffrage.
- personally delivered his presidential address to Congress.
- rode with his defeated predecessor to the inauguration.
~When Woodrow Wilson became president in 1912, the most serious shortcoming in the country's financial structure was that the
- large banks were scattered too widely around the country.
- Bank of the United States had been greatly weakened.
- banking system had been over-regulated by the federal government.
- U.S. dollar was tied to gold.
- currency was inelastic.
~When Congress passed the Underwood Tariff Bill in 1913, it intended the legislation to
- lower tariff rates.
- raise tariff rates.
- eliminate tariffs as a source of revenue.
- essentially maintain the existing tariff schedule.
- aid American farmers.
~The Sixteenth Amendment provided for
- a personal income tax.
- direct election of senators.
- woman suffrage.
- abolition of child labor.
~The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 guaranteed a substantial measure of public control over the American banking system through the final authority given to the
- Secretary of the Treasury.
- President of the United States.
- United States Senate Banking Committee.
- locally elected regional banks.
- presidentially appointed Federal Reserve Board.
~The Federal Reserve Act gave the Federal Reserve Board the authority to
- issue paper money and increase the amount of money in circulation.
- close weak banks.
- take the U.S. dollar off the gold standard.
- collect income taxes directly from employees' paychecks.
- establish government-owned public banks.
~The Clayton Anti-Trust Act
- held that trade unions fell under the antimonopoly restraints of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
- regarded labor as an article of commerce.
- helped Congress to control interstate commerce.
- explicitly legalized strikes and peaceful picketing.
- exempted f m cooperatives from antitrust action.
~Because of the benefits that it conferred on labor, Samuel Gompers called the ____ "labor's Magna Carter."
- Federal Reserve Act
- Underwood Tariff Act
- Clayton Anti-Trust Act
- Sixteenth Amendment
- Workmen's Compensation Act
~The first Jew to sit on the United States Supreme Court, appointed by Woodrow Wilson, was
- Felix Frankfurter.
- Arsene Pujo.
- Abraham Cahan.
- Louis D. Brandeis.
- Bernard Baruch.
~Woodrow Wilson showed the limits of his progressivism by
- opposing workingmen's compensation
- opposing the entry of women into politics.
- vetoing the Federal Farm Loan Act.
- refusing to appoint the Jewish Louis D. Brandeis to the Federal Trade Commission.
- accelerating the segregation of blacks in the federal bureaucracy.
~Woodrow Wilson's early efforts to conduct an anti-imperialist U.S. foreign policy were first undermined when he
- withdrew support from American investors in Latin America and China.
- repealed the Panama Canal Tolls Act.
- sent American marines to Haiti.
- promised eventual independence to the Philippines.
- conducted a buildup of American military forces in Hawaii.
~Which term best characterizes Woodrow Wilson's approach to American foreign policy diplomacy?
~President Woodrow Wilson refused to intervene in the affairs of Mexico until
- American business investors demanded protection.
- Venustiano Carranza became president of Mexico.
- American sailors were arrested in the port of Tampico.
- William Randolph Hearst and his newspaper began a campaign for involvement.
- Pancho Villa conducted raids into New Mexico.
~Before his first term ended, Woodrow Wilson had militarily intervened in or purchased all of the following countries EXCEPT
- the Dominican Republic
- the Virgin Islands
~Woodrow Wilson's administration refused to extend formal diplomatic recognition to the government in Mexico headed by
- Porfirio Diaz.
- Venustiano Carranza.
- Pancho Villa.
- Victoriano Huerta.
- Emiliano Zapata.
~As World War I began in Europe, the alliance system placed Germany and Austria-Hungary as leaders of the ____, while Russia and France were among the ____
- Central Powers; Holy Alliance
- Central Powers; Triple Alliance
- Allies; Central Powers
- Triple Alliance; Central Powers
- Central Powers; Allies
~From 1914 to 1916, trade between the United States and Britain
- decreased considerably.
- violated international neutrality laws.
- was carried only on British ships.
- was based on weapons shipments.
- pulled the American economy out of a recession.
~With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the great majority of Americans
- earnestly hoped to stay out of the war.
- favored entering the war in support of the Allies.
- supported the Central Powers.
- wanted to form a military alliance of neutral nations.
- favored U.S. mediation of the conflict.
~One primary effect of World War I on the United States was that it
- opened new markets in Germany and Austria-Hungary.
- suffered severe business losses.
- conducted an immense amount of trade with the Allies.
- turned more of its economic activity toward Latin America and Asia.
- virtually ended American international trade.
~President Wilson insisted that he would hold ____ to "strict accountability" for ____.
- Britain; repaying the loans made to it by American bankers
- Britain; the disruption of American trade with the European continent
- Germany; starting the war
- Germany; fair treatment of civilians in Belgium
- Germany; the loss of American ships and lives to submarine warfare
~German submarines began sinking unarmed and unresisting merchant and passenger ships without warning
- when the United States entered the war.
- in retaliation for the British naval blockade of Germany.
- in an effort to keep the United States out of the war.
- because international law now allowed this new style of warfare.
- in a last ditch effort to win the war.
~Which of the following American passenger liners was sunk by German submarines
- None of these was an American ship.
~The Progressive "Bull Moose" party died when
- Teddy Roosevelt refused to run as the party's presidential candidate in 1916.
- Teddy Roosevelt lost the presidential race in 1916.
- the United States entered World War I.
- the Republican candidate, Charles Evans Hughes, advocated the same programs as Roosevelt.
- Woodrow Wilson won over most Bull Moose voters.
~In the Sussex pledge, Germany promised
- not to sink passenger ships.
- to maintain the territorial integrity of France.
- to halt its naval blockade of Britain.
- to halt all submarine warfare.
- not to sink passenger ships without warning.
~When Woodrow Wilson won reelection in 1916, he received strong support from the
- East Coast.
- working class.
- business community.
- pro-war members of both parties.
- new women voters.
~Woodrow Wilson was most comfortable surrounded by
- military veterans.
- political professionals.
- academic scholars.