*All of the following were targets of criticism by progressive social critics during the progressive era, 1890-1916, EXCEPT
- bloated trusts.
- slum conditions.
- dangerous and exploitative working hours and conditions in factories.
- child labor.
- efforts to assimilate and educate recent immigrants.
*All of following political, economic, or social reform initiatives were connected to the progressive movement EXCEPT
- rooting out graft and corruption in big-city political machines
- woman suffrage
- a constitutional amendment to guarantee the popular direct election of U.S. senators
- a temperance movement aimed at curbing alcohol sales and consumption.
- nationalizing the railroads and utilities in the United States
*How did the muckrakers signify the ideological nature of the progressive reform movement?
- They proposed detailed, scientific remedies for social problems.
- They sought to overturn the major features of industrial and financial capitalism.
- Their reform prescriptions were closely allied with those of the Socialist party.
- They trusted that media exposures of political corruption and economic exploitation could reform capitalism rather than overthrow it.
- They looked to start a third political party that would overturn the corrupt and stalemated two-party system.
*Which statement most accurately characterizes a key belief of advocates of political progressivism during this era?
- Progressive political reforms such as the secret ballot, referendum and recall, and limits on political contributions from corporate interests would curb the excesses of industrial and financial capitalism and stave off socialism in the United States.
- Political reforms had to be instituted initially at the federal government level before they could be successfully implemented in states and municipalities.
- Progressive political reforms should first be developed, implemented, and evaluated in northeastern big cities before being tried in midwestern and western states.
- Political alliances with socialists and other political radicals should be forged in order to pass these political reforms on the federal, state, and local government levels.
- The achievement of woman suffrage would not significantly aid political progressivism.
*Why were the settlement-house and women's club movements considered crucial centers of female progressive activity?
- They provided literary and philosophical perspectives on social questions.
- They broke down the idea that women had special concerns as mothers.
- They introduced many middle-class women to a broader array of urban social problems and civic concerns.
- They helped children living in urban slums read classic literature by Dante and Shakespeare.
- They become launching pads for women seeking political office.
*What laws or regulations did the tragic Triangle Shirtwaist fire prompt states to pass?
- Laws requiring mandatory fire escapes for all businesses employing more than ten people
- Laws prohibiting women from working in the needle trades
- Anti-sweatshop laws and workers' compensation laws for job injuries
- Zoning regulations governing where dangerous industrial factories could be located
- Laws guaranteeing unions the right to raise safety concerns
*The Supreme Court ruling in the business and labor case of Lochner v. New York did NOT represent a
- legal victory for the efforts of progressives and labor advocates to institute maximum-hour laws for workers.
- legal victory for the efforts of business to use the courts to overturn the political successes of progressives and labor advocates in achieving social reforms.
- legal departure from the Court's progressive decision in Muller v. Oregon, upholding the constitutionality of state laws mandating special protections and work rules for women workers.
- legal victory for the laissez-faire, conservative wing of the Supreme Court.
- setback in the efforts of progressive-era labor advocates and progressives to institute maximum-hour and minimum-wage laws in the states.
*As part of his reform program, President Theodore Roosevelt advocated all of the following EXCEPT
- federal regulation of corporations.
- guaranteed legal recognition of labor unions.
- consumer protection.
- conservation of natural resources.
- federal regulation of railroad rates and an end to shipping rebates.
*What were the Elkins and Hepburn Acts designed to accomplish?
- regulation of municipal utilities and the end of private utility companies
- guaranteeing the purity and safety of food and drugs
- providing federal protection for natural resources
- improving women's working conditions
- ending corrupt and exploitative practices by the railroad trusts
*What was the actual purpose of Teddy Roosevelt's assault on bad trusts?
- To fragment the political power of big business
- To prove that the federal government, not private business, governed the United States
- To assist labor unions in their organizing efforts
- To halt the trend toward combination and integration in business in the United States
- To uphold the legal right of small business to compete fairly with big business in the United States
*Which literary work inspired the publication of the Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906
- Theodore Dreiser's The Titan
- Jack London's The Call of the Wild
- Henry Demarest Lloyd's Wealth Against Commonwealth
- Jacob Riis's How the Other Half Lives
- Upton Sinclair's The Jungle
*What was a fundamental belief of the multiple-use conservationists?
- preserving scenic beauty and natural wonders was incompatible with human activity.
- the environment could be effectively protected and managed without shutting it off from human use.
- forests and rivers could be used for recreation but not for economic purposes
- federal lands should be divided into separate and distinct economically useful areas, recreational areas, and wilderness.
- cattlemen, lumbermen, and farmers should be entrusted with the development of sustainable-use policies
*What shortcoming in the U.S. economy did the panic of 1907 reveal?
- the need for substantial reform of U.S. banking and currency policies
- the need to raise tariffs on imported goods
- insufficient government regulation of corporations
- the need to regulate Wall Street stock trading
- the need for a federally mandated minimum wage for workers
*Why did Teddy Roosevelt decide to run for the presidency in 1912?
- Teddy Roosevelt believed that President William Howard Taft was discarding Roosevelt's progressive policies.
- President Taft decided not to seek a second term as president.
- Senator Robert LaFollette encouraged him to do so.
- The Socialist party candidate threatened to swing the election to Woodrow Wilson and the Democrats.
- Roosevelt was fiercely opposed to Taft's dollar diplomacy.
**How did muckrakers in the early twentieth century use tactics employed by the "yellow press" in the late nineteenth century?
- They wrote scandalous articles for widely published magazines revealing the ills in American society.
- They sent reporters and photographers around the country to create news where none existed.
- They used their publications to convince people to recognize wrongdoing in other nations.
- They were single-minded in their focus on reforming the practices of big businesses and trusts.
- They exploited people affected by society's ills for their own gain.
**Taft's "dollar diplomacy" ultimately failed to change American foreign policy because
- many financial institutions had no desire to become involved in Latin American affairs.
- Latin American nations were too opposed to U.S. intervention to accept financial aid.
- European spheres of influence prevented the United States from purchasing the Manchurian railroads.
- disorder and revolt led to U.S. military intervention in Latin America despite massive financial aid.
- "big-stick diplomacy" was still overwhelmingly favored by many of Taft's closest advisers.
~The "real heart" of the progressive movement was the effort by reformers to
- preserve world peace.
- use the government as an agency of human welfare.
- ensure the Jeffersonian style of government.
- get the government off the backs of the people.
- promote economic and social equality.
~The political roots of the progressive movement lay in the
- the Federalists.
- the Greenback Labor party and the Populists.
- the German Social Democratic Party.
- the pre-Civil War antislavery movement.
- social Darwinists.
~Match each late-nineteenth-century social critic below with the target of his criticism.
- Thorstein Veblen
- Jack London
- Jacob Riis
- Henry Demarest Lloyd
- "bloated trusts"
- slum conditions
- "conspicuous consumption"
- destruction of nature
- 1-d, 2-b, 3-c, 4-a
- 1-a, 2-c, 3-d, 4-b
- 1-c, 2-d, 3-b, 4-a
- 1-c, 2-b, 3-a, 4-d
- 1-b, 2-a, 3-d, 4-c
- was closely tied to the feminist movement and women's causes.
- offered little to the growing women's movement.
- supported better treatment of women but not women's suffrage.
- followed examples set by women's reform movements in Europe.
- reflected the views of working-class women.
~Female progressives often justified their reformist political activities on the basis of
- the need to assert female power against male oppression.
- America's need to catch up with more progressive European nations.
- women's inherent rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
- the harsh treatment of working women by their employers.
- there being essentially an extension of women's traditional roles as wives and mothers.
~Match each early-twentieth-century muckraker below with the target of their exposé.
- David G. Phillips
- Ida Tarbell
- Lincoln Steffens
- Ray Stannard Baker
- The United States Senate
- The Standard Oil Company
- City governments
- The condition of black people
- 1-a, 2-b, 3-c, 4-d
- 1-d, 2-b, 3-c, 4-a
- 1-c, 2-a, 3-b, 4-d
- 1-c, 2-b, 3-d, 4-a
- 1-a, 2-d, 3-b, 4-c
~Lincoln Steffens, in his series of articles entitled "The Shame of the Cities,"
- attacked the United States Senate.
- exposed the deplorable condition of blacks in urban areas.
- laid bare the practices of the stock market.
- uncovered official collusion in prostitution and "white slavery."
- unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and municipal government.
~The muckrakers signified much about the nature of the progressive reform movement because they
- counted on drastic political change to fight social wrongs.
- thrived on publicity rather than social change.
- believed that the cure for the ills of American democracy lay in less democracy and more government control.
- sought not to overthrow capitalism but to cleanse it with democratic controls.
- refused to look beyond middle-class concerns
~Most muckrakers believed that their primary function in the progressive attack on social ills was to
- formulate a consistent philosophy of social reform.
- explain the causes of social ills.
- devise solutions to society's problems.
- make the public aware of social problems.
- link up with movements for social justice.
~The leading progressive organization advocating prohibition of liquor was
- the National Consumers League.
- Hull House.
- the General Federation of Women's Clubs.
- the Progressive Party.
- the Women's Christian Temperance Union.
~Progressive reformers were mainly men and women from the
- middle class.
- lower class
- upper class.
- new wave of immigrants.
- small towns.
- made little difference in American life.
- died out shortly after Teddy Roosevelt stepped down as president.
- emerged in both major parties, in all regions, at all levels of government.
- was more a minority movement than a majority mood.
- began in Northeastern big cities.
~According to progressives, the cure for all of American democracy's ills was
- technical and scientific expertise.
- a third political party.
- a more conservative government.
- more democracy.
~To regain the power that the people had lost to the "interests," progressives advocated all of the following except
- direct election of U.S. senators.
~All of the following were prime goals of earnest progressives except
- the direct election of senators.
- women's suffrage.
- ending prostitution and "white slavery."
- abolishing special workplace protections for women.
~The progressive movement was instrumental in getting the Seventeenth amendment added to the Constitution, which provided for __________
- direct election of senators.
- woman suffrage.
- the income tax.
- elimination of child labor.
~The settlement house and women's club movements were crucial centers of female progressive activity because they
- provided literary and philosophical perspectives on social questions.
- broke down the idea that women had special concerns as wives and mothers.
- introduced many middle-class women to a broader array of urban social problems and civic concerns.
- helped slum children learn to read Dante and Shakespeare.
- became the launching pads for women seeking political office.
~Which of the following was not among the issues addressed by women in the progressive movement?
- ending special regulations governing women in the workplace
- preventing child labor in factories and sweatshops
- insuring that food products were healthy and safe
- attacking tuberculosis and other diseases bred in slum tenements
- creating pensions for mothers with dependent children
~In Muller v. Oregon, the Supreme Court upheld the principle promoted by progressives like Florence Kelley and Louis Brandeis that
- child labor under the age of fourteen should be prohibited.
- the federal government should regulate occupational safety and health.
- factory labor should be limited to ten hours a day five days a week.
- female workers should receive equal pay for equal work.
- female workers required special rules and protection on the job.
~The public outcry after the horrible Triangle Shirtwaist fire led many states to pass
- mandatory fire escape plans for all businesses employing more than ten people.
- restrictions on female employment in the clothing industry.
- safety regulations and workmen's compensation laws for job injuries.
- zoning regulations governing where factories could be located.
- laws guaranteeing unions the right to raise safety concerns.
~The case of Lochner v. New York represented a setback for progressives and labor advocates because the Supreme Court in its ruling
- declared a law limiting work to ten hours a day unconstitutional.
- declared unconstitutional a law providing special protection for women workers.
- declared that prohibiting child labor would require a constitutional amendment.
- upheld the constitutionality of a law enabling business to fire labor organizers.
- ruled that fire and safety regulations were local and not state or federal concerns.
~The progressive-inspired city-manager system of government
- brought democracy to urban dwellers.
- was developed in Wisconsin.
- was designed to remove politics from municipal administration.
- made giant strides under the leadership of Hiram Johnson.
- opened urban politics to new immigrants.
~Progressive reform at the level of city government seemed to indicate that the progressives' highest priority was
- democratic participation.
- governmental efficiency.
- free enterprise.
- economic equality.
- urban planning.
~While president, Theodore Roosevelt chose to label his reform proposals as the
- Fair Deal.
- Big Deal.
- Big Stick.
- New Deal.
- Square Deal.
~As a part of his reform program, Teddy Roosevelt advocated all of the following except
- control of labor.
- control of corporations.
- consumer protection.
- conservation of natural resources.
- an end to railroad rebates.
~Teddy Roosevelt helped to end the 1902 strike in the anthracite coal mines by
- using the military to force the miners back to work.
- passing legislation making the miners' union illegal.
- helping the mine owners to import strike-breakers.
- appealing to mine owners' and workers' sense of the public interest.
- threatening to seize the mines and to operate them with federal troops.
~Teddy Roosevelt believed that large corporate trusts
- had to all be busted up if the American economy were to thrive.
- were essential to American national power and economic growth.
- were simply too powerful to be broken up or regulated.
- were bad only if they acted as monopolies against the public interest.
- should be balanced by strong labor unions.
~One unusual and significant characteristic of the anthracite coal strike in 1902 was that
- the coal miners' union was officially recognized as the legal bargaining agent of the miners.
- for a time the mines were seized by the national government and operated by federal troops.
- the national government did not automatically side with the owners in the dispute.
- the owners quickly agreed to negotiate with labor representatives in order to settle their differences peacefully.
- it generated widespread middle-class support.
~Teddy Roosevelt believed that trusts
- could be destroyed without damage to the American economy.
- were greedy for power and wealth.
- were too powerful to be regulated.
- were here to stay with their efficient means of production.
- should be balanced by strong labor unions.
~President Roosevelt believed that the federal government should adopt a policy of ___________trusts.
- collusion with
~When Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle, he intended his book to focus attention on the
- unsanitary conditions that existed in the meat-packing industry.
- plight of workers in the stockyards and meat-packing industry.
- corruption in the United States Senate.
- deplorable conditions in the drug industry.
- unhealthy effects of beef consumption.
~Of the following legislation aimed at resource conservation, the only one associated with Roosevelt's presidency was the
- Desert Land Act.
- Forest Reserve Act.
- Newlands Act.
- Cary Act.
- Clean Water Act.
~According to the text, Teddy Roosevelt's most enduring achievement may have been
- the Panama Canal.
- his trust busting.
- mediating an end to the Russo-Japanese War.
- his efforts supporting the environment.
- his efforts at consumer protection.
~The idea of "multiple-use resource management" included all of the following practices except
- damming of rivers.
- sustained-yield logging.
- summer stock grazing.
- watershed protection.
~Teddy Roosevelt weakened himself politically after his election in 1904 when he
- got into a quarrel with his popular secretary of war, William Taft.
- refused to do anything in response to the "Roosevelt Panic."
- supported the Federal Reserve Act.
- began to reduce his trust-busting activity.
- announced that he would not be a candidate for a third term as president.
~The panic of 1907 stimulated reform in __________ policy.
~Theodore Roosevelt is probably most accurately described as
- an ardent defender of American individualism.
- a near-socialist.
- a middle-of-the-road reformer.
- a champion "trustbuster."
- a political elitist.
~While president, Theodore Roosevelt
- greatly increased the power and prestige of the presidency.
- showed no skill and little interest in working with Congress.
- was a poor judge of public opinion.
- was surprisingly unpopular with the public.
- held rigidly to ideological principles.
~During his presidency, Teddy Roosevelt did all of the following except
- expand presidential power.
- shape the progressive movement.
- aid the cause of the environment.
- provide an international perspective.
- tame capitalism.
~As president, William Howard Taft
- was a good judge of public opinion.
- held together the diverse wings of the Republican party.
- was wedded more to the status quo than to progressive change.
- adopted a confrontational attitude toward Congress.
- carried on the legacy of Theodore Roosevelt
~President Taft's foreign policy was dubbed
- big-stick diplomacy.
- the Open Door policy.
- the Good Neighbor policy.
- dollar diplomacy.
- sphere-of-influence diplomacy.
~The Supreme Court's "rule of reason" in antitrust law was handed down in a case involving
- Northern Securities.
- United States Steel.
- General Electric.
- Amour Meat-Packing.
- Standard Oil.