Chapter Review - Lymphatic System

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1

Lymphatic Vessels

A) Serve as sites for immune surveillance
B) Filter lymph
C) Transport leaked plasma proteins and fluids to the cardiovascular system
D) Are represented by vessels that resemble arteries, capillaries , and veins

C) Transport leaked plasma proteins and fluids to the cardiovascular system

2

The sac-like initial portion of the thoracic duct that receives lymph from the legs and the intestinal tract is the:

A) lacteal
B) right lymphatic duct
C) cisterna chyli
D) lymph sac

C) cisterna chyli

3

Entry of lymph into the lymphatic capillaries is promoted by what?

A) one-way minivalves formed by overlapping endothelial cells
B) the respiratory pump
C) the skeletal muscle pump
D) greater fluid pressure in the interstitial space

A) one-way minivalves formed by overlapping endothelial cells

D) greater fluid pressure in the interstitial space

4

The structural framework of lymphoid organs is

A) Areolar Connective tissue
B) Hematopoietic tissue
C) Reticular tissue
D) Adipose tissue

C) Reticular tissue

5

Lymph nodes are densely clustered in all of the following body areas except

A) The brain
B) The axillae
C) The groin
D) The cervical region

A) The brain

6

The germinal center in lymph nodes are largely sites of

A) Macrophages
B) Proliferating
C) Lymphocytes
D) All of these

B) Proliferating

7

The red pulp area of the spleen are sites of

A) Splenic sinusoids
B) Macrophages and red blood cells
C) Clustered lymphocytes
D) Connective tissue septa

A) Splenic sinusoids

8

The lymphoid organ that functions primarily during youth and then begins to atrophy is what?

A) Spleen
B) Thymus
C) Palatine tonsils
D) Bone marrow

B) Thymus

9

guard mucosal surfaces include all of the following except.

A) appendix follicles
B) the tonsils
C) peyer's patches
D) the thymus

D) the thymus

10

Compare and contrast blood, interstitial fluid, and lymph.

Blood, the carrier of nutrients, wastes, and gases, circulates within blood vessels through the body, exchanging materials with the interstitial fluid.
Interstitial fluid, formed by filtration from blood, is the fluid surrounding body cells in the tissue spaces and is essential to proteinless plasma.
Lymph is the protein-containing fluid that enters the lymphatic capillaries (from the tissue spaces); hence, its composition is the same as that of the interstitial fluid. (p. 753)

11

Compare the structure and functions of a lymph node to those of the spleen.

Lymph nodes are very small bean-shaped structures consisting of both a medulla and a cortex, which act as filters to cleanse lymph before it is allowed to reenter the blood. Each node is surrounded by a dense fibrous capsule from which connective tissue strands called trabeculae extend inward to divide the node into a number of compartments. The basic internal framework or stroma is an open network of reticular fibers that physically support lymphocytes and macrophages. The outer cortex contains densely packed spherical collections of lymphocytes called follicles, which frequently have lighter-staining centers called germinal centers. Cordlike extensions of the cortex, called medullary cords, invade the medulla. Macrophages are located throughout the node but are particularly abundant lining the sinuses of the medulla. (pp. 756–757)

The spleen is the largest lymphoid organ. It functions to remove aged or defective blood cells, platelets, and pathogens from the blood and to store some of the breakdown products of RBCs or release them to the blood for processing by the liver. The spleen is surrounded by a fibrous capsule, and has trabeculae. It contains lymphocytes, macrophages, and huge numbers of erythrocytes. Venous sinuses and other regions that contain red blood cells and macrophages and process blood are referred to as red pulp, whereas areas composed mostly of lymphocytes suspended on reticular fibers are called white pulp. The white pulp clusters around small branches of the splenic artery within the organ and serves the immune functions of the organ. (p. 758)

12

(a) Which anatomical characteristic ensures that the flow of lymph through lymph node is slow?

(b) Why is this desirable?

a. The anatomical characteristic that ensures slow passage of lymph through a lymph node is the fact that there are fewer efferent vessels draining the node than afferent vessels feeding it. (p. 757)

b. This feature is desirable to allow time for the lymphocytes and macrophages to perform their protective functions. (p. 757)

13

There are no lymphatic arteries. Why isn’t this a problem?

Lymph is generated in the body tissues and only flows back toward the heart, so there is no need for arteries to carry lymph away from the heart. (p. 754)

14

Clinical Questions

Mrs. Jackson, a 59 year old woman, has undergone a left radical mastectomy (removal of left breast and left axillary lymph nodes and vessels). Her arm is severely swollen and painful, and she is unable to raise it to more than shoulder height.

(a). Explain her signs and symptoms.

(b) can she expect to have relief from these symptoms in time? How so?

(a). After Mrs. Jacksons radical mastectomy, an infection to set up causing inflammation.

(b.) Yes, she can expect relief in no time. Mrs. Jacksons arm need to be immobilized to hinder the flow of inflammatory material from that region (pg. 754 in Marieb).

15

Clinical Questions

A friend tells you that she has tender, swollen, “glands” along the left side of the front of her neck. You notice that she has a bandage on her left cheek that is not fully hiding a large infected cut there. Exactly what are her swollen, “glands”, and how did they become swollen?

The swollen glands are the lymph nodes in her neck, which is detecting the infection from the cut on the friend neck. The lymph nodes are becoming overwhelmed with trying to fight the infection and its causing them to become swollen and painful (pg. 757 in Marieb).

16

Clinical Questions

Once almost a rite of childhood, tonsillectomy (surgical removal of the tonsils) is now rarely performed. Similarly, while ruptured spleens were once routinely removed, they are now conserved whenever possible. Why should these lymphoid organs be preserved whenever possible?

These lymphoid organs are preserved because surgeons have discovered that if left alone, these organs can often repair itself (pg. 758 in Marieb).