APUSH Chapter 24 and 25 Quiz Flashcards


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1

When private railroad promoters asked the United States government for subsidies to build their railroads, they gave all of the following reasons for their request except that it was
a. too risky without government help.
b. too costly without government help.
c. too costly to move people in some areas without government help.
d. too unprofitable in some areas without government help.
e. impossible to serve military and postal needs without government help.

C

2

During the Gilded Age, most of the railroad barons
a. rejected government assistance.
b. built their railroads with government assistance.
c. relied exclusively on Chinese labor.
d. refused to get involved in politics.
e. focused on public service.

B

3

The national government helped to finance transcontinental railroad construction in the late nineteenth century by providing railroad corporations with
a. cash grants from new taxes.
b. land grants.
c. cash grants from higher tariffs.
d. reduced prices for iron and steel.
e. aid for construction of railroad stations.

B

4

Match each railroad company below with the correct entrepreneur.
A. James J. Hill 1. Central Pacific
B. Cornelius Vanderbilt 2. New York Central
C. Leland Stanford 3. Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe
4. Great Northern

a. A-4, B-2, C-1
b. A-3, B-4, C-2
c. A-2, B-1, C-3
d. A-4, B-3, C-1
e. A-1, B-3, C-4

A

5

The only transcontinental railroad built without government aid was the
a. New York Central.
b. Northern Pacific.
c. Union Pacific.
d. Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe.
e. Great Northern

E

6

One by-product of the development of the railroads was
a. a scattering of the U.S. population.
b. fewer big cities.
c. the movement of people to cities.
d. a reduction in immigration to the United States.
e. a loss of population in the East.

C

7

The greatest single factor helping to spur the amazing industrialization of the
post-Civil War years was
a. agriculture.
b. mining.
c. the steel industry.
d. electric power.
e. the railroad network.

E

8

The United States changed to standard time zones when
a. Congress passed a law establishing this system.
b. the major rail lines decreed the division of the continent into four time zones so that they could keep schedules and avoid wrecks.
c. factories demanded standard time schedules.
d. long-distance telephones required standard time coordination.
e. all of the above.

B

9

Agreements between railroad corporations to divide the business in a given area and share the profits were called
a. pools.
b. trusts.
c. rebates.
d. interlocking directorates.
e. holding companies.

A

10

Early railroad owners formed "pools" in order to
a. increase competition by establishing more companies.
b. water their stock.
c. divide business in a particular area and share profits.
d. choose the best workers.
e. avoid wasteful competition

C

11

Efforts to regulate the monopolizing practices of railroad corporations first came in the form of action by
a. Congress.
b. the Supreme Court.
c. private lawsuits.
d. President Cleveland.
e. state legislatures.

B

12

The first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public interest from business combinations was the
a. Federal Trade Commission.
b. Interstate Commerce Commission.
c. Consumer Affairs Commission.
d. Federal Anti-Trust Commission.
e. Federal Communications Commission.

B

13

One of the most significant aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act was that it
a. revolutionized the business system.
b. represented the first large-scale attempt by the federal government to regulate business.
c. actually did nothing to control the abuses of big business.
d. failed to prohibit some of the worst abuses of big business, such as pools and rebates.
e. invoked the Constitution's interstate commerce clause.

B

14

After the Civil War, the plentiful supply of unskilled labor in the United States
a. helped to build the nation into an industrial giant.
b. was not a significant force, because industrialization required skilled workers.
c. came almost exclusively from rural America.
d. increasingly found work in agriculture.
e. was almost entirely native born.

A

15

One of the methods by which post-Civil War business leaders increased their profits was
a. increased competition.
b. support for the idea of a centrally planned economy.
c. funding research on new technologies.
d. elimination of the tactic of vertical integration.
e. elimination of as much competition as possible.

A

16

Match each entrepreneur below with the form of business combination with which he is historically identified.
A. Andrew Carnegie 1. interlocking directorate
B. John D. Rockefeller 2. trust
C. J. Pierpont Morgan 3. vertical integration
4. pool

a. A-2, B-4, C-1
b. A-3, B-2, C-4
c. A-3, B-2, C-1
d. A-1, B-3, C-2
e. A-4, B-1, C-3

C

17

Match each entrepreneur below with the field of enterprise with which he is historically identified.
A. Andrew Carnegie 1. steel
B. John D. Rockefeller 2. oil
C. J. Pierpont Morgan 3. tobacco
D. James Duke 4. banking

a. A-1, B-3, C-2, D-4
b. A-2, B-4, C-3, D-1
c. A-3, B-1, C-4, D-2
d. A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3
e. A-4, B-2, C-1, D-3

D

18

The steel industry owed much to the inventive genius of
a. Jay Gould.
b. Henry Bessemer.
c. John P. Altgeld.
d. Thomas Edison.
e. Henry Clay Frick.

B

19

J.P. Morgan monitored his competition by placing officers of his bank on the boards of companies that he wanted to control. This method was known as a(n)
a. interlocking dictorate.
b. trust.
c. vertical integration.
d. pool.
e. holding company.

A

20

America's first billion-dollar corporation was
a. General Electric (GE).
b. Standard Oil.
c. American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T).
d. The Union Pacific Railroad.
e. United States Steel.

E

21

The first major product of the oil industry was
a. kerosene.
b. gasoline.
c. lighter fluid.
d. natural gas.
e. heating oil.

A

22

The oil industry became a huge business
a. with the building of electric generator plants.
b. when it was taken over by the government.
c. with the invention of the internal combustion engine.
d. when diesel engines were perfected.
e. when oil was discovered in Texas.

C

23

John D. Rockefeller used all of the following tactics to achieve success in the oil industry except
a. employing spies.
b. extorting rebates from railroads.
c. showing mercy to his competitors.
d. pursuing a policy of rule or ruin.
e. using high-pressure sales methods.

C

24

The gospel of wealth, which associated godliness with wealth,
a. relied on the sayings of Jesus.
b. inspired the wealthy to try to help the poor.
c. stimulated efforts to help minorities.
d. was opposed by most clergymen.
e. discouraged efforts to help the poor.

B

25

To help corporations, the courts ingeniously interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment, which was designed to protect the rights of ex-slaves, so as to
a. help freedmen to work in factories.
b. incorporate big businesses.
c. allow the captains of industry to avoid paying taxes.
d. avoid corporate regulation by the states.
e. protect the civil rights of business people.

D

26

The ___ Amendment was especially helpful to giant corporations when defending themselves against regulation by state governments.
a. Fifth
b. Fourteenth
c. Fifteenth
d. Sixteenth
e. Seventeenth

B

27

The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was at first primarily used to curb the power of
a. manufacturing corporations.
b. labor unions.
c. state legislatures.
d. railroad corporations.
e. banking syndicates.

D

28

During the age of industrialization, the South
a. took full advantage of the new economic trends.
b. received preferential treatment from the railroads.
c. turned away from agriculture.
d. held to its "Old South" ideology.
e. remained overwhelmingly rural and agricultural.

E

29

The South's major attraction for potential investors was
a. readily available raw materials.
b. a warm climate.
c. good transportation.
d. cheap labor.
e. ethnic diversity.

D

30

In the late nineteenth century, tax benefits and cheap, nonunion labor attracted manufacturing to the "new South."
a. textile
b. steel
c. machine tool
d. electrical appliance
e. farm equipment

A

31

Many Southerners saw employment in the textile mills as
a. high-wage positions.
b. unacceptable.
c. a poor alternative to farming.
d. institutions that broke up families.
e. salvation, since the jobs and wages were steady.

E

32

One of the greatest changes that industrialization brought about in the lives of workers was
a. their movement to the suburbs.
b. the need for them to adjust their lives to the time clock.
c. the opportunity to relearn the ideals of Thomas Jefferson.
d. the narrowing of class divisions.
e. the encounter with other races.

B

33

The group most affected by the new industrial age was
a. Native Americans.
b. African-Americans.
c. women.
d. southerners.
e. small town residents

C

34

To provide workers with job security, reformers wanted to introduce all of the following except
a. job protection.
b. wage protection.
c. establishment of a workers' political party.
d. temporary unemployment compensation.
e. safety and health codes.

C

35

The image of the "Gibson Girl" represented
a. a revival of the colonial feminine ideal.
b. a portrayal of the modern corporate business woman.
c. an exploitive image of a woman as a sex object.
d. an independent and athletic "new woman."
e. a sentimental image of a woman as mother.

D

36

Most women workers of the 1890s worked for
a. independence.
b. glamour.
c. economic necessity.
d. the service sector.
e. personal spending money.

C

37

Which one of the following is least like the other three?
a. closed shop
b. lockout
c. yellow dog contract
d. blacklist
e. company town

A

38

Generally, the Supreme Court in the late nineteenth century interpreted the Constitution in such a way as to favor
a. labor unions.
b. corporations.
c. state regulatory agencies.
d. individual entrepreneurs.
e. independent workers and craftsmen

B

39

Match each labor organization below with the correct description.
A. National Labor Union 1. the "one big union" that championed arbitration
B. Knights of Labor
C. American Federation of Labor
2. a social-reform union killed by the depression of the 1870s
3. an association of unions pursuing higher wages, shorter working hours, and better working conditions

a. A-3, B-1, C-2
b. A-3, B-2, C-1
c. A-1, B-2, C-3
d. A-1, B-3, C-2
e. A-2, B-1, C-3

E

40

In its efforts on behalf of workers, the National labor Union won
a. an eight-hour day for all workers.
b. government arbitration for industrial disputes.
c. equal pay for women.
d. an eight-hour day for government workers.
e. the right to collective bargaining.

A

41

One group barred from membership in the Knights of Labor was
a. African-Americans.
b. Chinese.
c. women.
d. Irish.
e. social reformers.

B

42

The Knights of Labor believed that conflict between capital and labor would disappear when
a. the government owned the means of production.
b. labor controlled the government.
c. workers accepted the concept of craft unions.
d. business would understand the principles of social justice.
e. labor would own and operate businesses and industries.

E

43

The Knights of Labor believed that republican traditions and institutions
could be preserved from corrupt monopolists
a. when Republicans were removed from office.
b. by strengthening the economic and political independence of the workers.
c. through the destruction of the American Federation of Labor.
d. by the development of strong craft unions.
e. by forming an independent political movement.

B

44

One of the major reasons the Knights of Labor failed was its
a. racial exclusiveness.
b. support of skilled workers.
c. failure to admit women to its ranks.
d. abandonment of the concept of independent producers.
e. lack of class consciousness.

E

45

The most effective and most enduring labor union of the post-Civil War period was the
a. National Labor Union.
b. Knights of Labor.
c. American Federation of Labor.
d. Knights of Columbus.
e. Congress of Industrial Organizations.

C

46

By 1900, American attitudes toward labor began to change as the public came to recognize the right of workers to bargain collectively and strike. Nevertheless,
a. labor unions continued to decline in membership.
b. the American Federation of Labor failed to take advantage of the situation.
c. the vast majority of employers continued to fight organized labor.
d. Congress declared the AFL illegal.
e. workers began to turn to the Socialist Party.

C

47

By 1900, organized labor in America
a. had temporarily ceased to exist.
b. had enrolled nearly half of the industrial labor force.
c. was accepted by the majority of employers as a permanent part of the new industrial economy.
d. had begun to develop a positive image with the public.
e. relied heavily on the National Labor Relations Board.

D

48

Some people who found fault with the captains of industry argued that these men
a. were basically socialists.
b. diminished the workers' quality of life.
c. tried to take the United States back to its old values.
d. failed to develop the industrial system quickly.
e. retarded technological advances.

B

49

Historians critical of the captains of industry and capitalism concede that
class-based protest has never been a powerful force in the United States because
a. most employers tried to treat their workers well.
b. few Europeans brought their political philosophies to the United States.
c. the captains of industry did not allow protest to take root.
d. many Americans inherited fortunes.
e. America has greater social mobility than Europe has

E

50

All of the following were important factors in post-Civil War industrial
expansion except
a. a large pool of unskilled labor.
b. an abundance of natural resources.
c. American ingenuity and inventiveness.
d. immigration restrictions.
e. a political climate favoring business.

D

51

What was the most important factor that drew rural people off farms and into the big cities during the period 1865-1900?
(a) An agricultural system that was suffering from poor production levels
(b) The lure of cultural excitement
(c) The availability of industrial jobs
(d) The advent of new housing structures such as dumbbell tenements
(e) The compact and dense nature of those urban communities

C

52

What occurrence directly spurred the abandonment of wood construction for brick and steel in the downtown districts of most American cities?
(a) The development of the electric elevator and skyscraper
(b) the collapse of numerous wooden tenements in New York City during the 1800s
(c) Cheaper brick-making and the replacement of iron by more durable steel for construction purposes
(d) The great Chicago fire of 1871
(e) The changing preference of architects such as Louis Sullivan toward designing steel and brick structures

D

53

All of the following characterized the new immigrants who came to the United States from 1880 to 1990 EXCEPT
(a) some New Immigrants emigrated ins response to violent religious persecutions organized by government officials and carried out by their countrymen
(b) they were subjected to discrimination and violence by nativist Americans because they practiced different religions and some were politically radical
(c) they were culturally different from previous immigrants to America
(d) they attempted to preserve their Old Country culture in America
(e) they made substantial efforts to convert Americans to Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or Judaism

A

54

What vital function did big-city political bosses and their machines perform in managing the social and economic demands of the new urban environment?
(a) They successfully lobbied state governments to pass political ethics reform legislation to clean up the electoral process in cities
(b) They successfully leveraged grant money from the federal government to meet the social and economic needs of urban immigrants
(c) In exchange for political support, they provided many urban immigrants with jobs and social services that permitted these New Immigrants to raise a family, earn a livelihood and escape abject poverty
(d) They successfully lobbied state governments to provide public funds to build an extensive social services network and public housing

C

55

All of the following characterized the settlement-house movement led by leaders like Jane Addams, Lillian Wald, and Florence Kelley EXCEPT that it
(a) was led mostly by middle-class, reform minded women and centered in poor immigrant neighborhoods of the city
(b) became a forerunner for the new profession of social work
(c) was motivated by the concern that the New Immigrants from eastern and southern Europe required basic education, child-rearing assistance, and learning American culture in order to assimilate successfully
(d) advocated on behalf of social reforms like antisweatshop and child-labor laws
(e) studiously avoided becoming involved in international efforts to advance worldwide peace and condemn war

E

56

In the 1890s, which group of women had nearly exclusive hold on available white-collar positions as secretaries, department store clerks, and telephone operators?
(a) Jewish women
(b) College-educated women
(c) African American women
(d) Native-born women
(e) Irish American women

D

57

Which of the following was NOT a reason that many labor unions favored government-imposed restrictions on immigration?
(a) Union leaders were fearful of some immigrants' embrace of socialism, communism, or anarchism
(b) Immigrants were used by companies as strikebreakers
(c) Immigrants were often willing to work for lower wages and in dangerous working conditions
(d) Immigrants were sometimes difficult to unionize because of language barriers
(e) Immigrants were not willing or able to work in factory environments

A

58

Which of the following represents the best example of liberal Protestantism's effort to accommodate religion to modern scientific theories such as Darwinism?
(a) Attempting to demonstrate the scientific superiority of the religious beliefs of Protestantism over those of Catholicism and Judaism
(b) Utilizing Darwinism as an intellectual argument against the effort by liberal Protestant women to become members of the clergy
(c) Attempting to prove that the prayerful dogma of Christian Scientists like Mary Baker Eddy was rooted in scientific fact
(d) Proclaiming that Darwinism was an updated, authentic, and grander revelation of the ways of God
(e) Linking liberal Protestantism to theories of racial superiority and imperialistic survival-of-the-fittest political dogma

D

59

Which were the two major sources of funding for the powerful new American research universities?
(a) Churches and numerous private individual donors
(b) State land grants and wealthy philanthropic industrialists
(c) Tuition paid by undergraduates and fees charged by those served by the universities
(d) The federal governemnt and local communities
(e) Income from successful patents and corporate research grants

B

60

What was the most important reason why Americans offered increasing support for the establishment of a free public education system?
(a) Because Americans accepted the idea that a free government and a republic cannot function effectively without educated citizens
(b) Because private schools began to fold as a result of difficult economic circumstances
(c) To utilize public schools to identify an intellectual elite
(d) The decline of the Chautauqua movement
(e) To combat the growing stregnth and influence of Catholic parochial schools

A

61

Which statement best reflects the different approaches of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois toward black education?
(a) W.E.B. Dubois advocated that African Americans concentrate on manual labor and technical education, while Booker T. Washington emphasized African American access to higher education
(b) Booker T. Washington emphasized education for political action, while W.E.B. Dubois believed that black education should focus on industrial and technical education
(c) W.E.B. Dubois advocated developing separate black colleges and universities, while Booker T. Washington believed that securing access to traditionally white colleges and universities was critical to African American progress
(d) W.E.B. Dubois believed that African Americans should develop a talented tenth, while Booker T. Washington emphasized manual labor

D

62

How did American newspaper publisher expand their circulation and attract public attention in the late nineteenth century?
(a) Crusading for social reforms
(b) Printing hard-hitting editorials about the plight of poor immigrants in the city
(c) Repudiating the tactics of Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst
(d) Focusing on coverage of local community issues and avoiding yellow journalism
(e) Printing sensationalist stories of corruption and scandal

E

63

What development prompted American novelists' turn from romanticism and transcendentalism to rugged social realism?

A ) The growing prominence of women writers
B) The influence of American literature

C) The materialism and conflicts of the new industrial society
D) A higher educational level of the readers
E) The heightened awareness of racial problems

C

64

By 1900, a new generation of woman suffrage advocates emphasized all of the following EXCEPT
(a) linking the vote to nontraditional female family roles such as assuming primary wage-earning responsibilities in the household
(b) following a stat-by-state political strategy to create political momentum on behalf of gaining unrestricted suffrage
(c) the need for women living in the cities to have political influence on boards of public health, police commissions, and school boards
(d) forming strong alliances with African Americans seeking voting rights
(e) the desirability of giving women the vote in order to extend their roles as mothers and homemakers to the public world

A