History 1107 MidTerm Spring 2013 Flashcards
Columbus and other early explorers searched for a direct all-water route to Asia because they p. 19
hoped to gain easier access to highly valued Asian goods.
When Columbus landed in America, the chief reason that he thought he landed in "the Indies" was p.21
his firm belief that he had sailed far enough westward to reach them.
By the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), Spain had authority to exploit all of p. 22
South America except Columbia
The king who brought the Protestant Reformation to England by declaring himself head of the English Church in order to divorce his first wife was p.30
The earliest British colonies were initially financed by p.32
The Mayflower Compact was an early example of the idea that p. 35
a society should be based on a set of rules chosen by its members.
The eventual success of the Virginia settlement depended largely upon the p.33
cultivation of tobacco.
Rhode Island, distinguished for its religious freedom and rigid separation of church and states, was founded by p.38
____________________traders were most likely to see Indians as essential trading partners. p.41
The proprietor of the colony founded as a haven for Quakers was p.42-43
The "headright" was commonly used in the southern colonies and some of the middle colonies to p. 58
award tracts of land to new arrivals in the colonies.
In some colonies, landowners paid an annual tax called a ____________, as a way for European nations to derive income form their colonies. p.58
One inducement for the shift toward slave labor in the late 1600s was that p.60
fewer indentured servants were arriving at the same time that it became easier to import slaves.
_______________ servants agreed to work for a stated period in return for their transportation to America. p.58
Colonial regulations governing the behavior of blacks p. 63
gave blacks no civil rights and had severe punishments.
The main supporters of Virginia's royal governor, Sir William Berkeley, during Bacon's Rebellion were the p.61-62
well-established, powerful planters.
The Anglican Church was "established" in certain colonies, which meant that p.64
its ministers were supported by public funds.
Which of the following statements about Charleston in the early 1700s is true. p.63
It was unrivaled in its shipbuilding production
In the 1680s, James II tried to unify royal control of the northern colonies by creating the p. 82
Dominion of New England
James Oglethorpe received a charter to establish ____________, the final English colony, as a refuge for honest people imprisoned for debt. p. 65
In 1771, frontier Regulators from ____________________, protesting their lack of representation in their colonial assembly , were defeated in a pitched battle with government troops. p. 65
The "enumeration" principle in the Navigation Act of 1660 required that p.84
certain commodities like sugar, tobacco, and indigo could not be shipped outside the British Empire.
A fundamental goal of mercantilism was to p.83
acquire raw materials from the colonies and have the colonies import manufactured goods from the mother country.
The Great Awakening tended to emphasize p.86-87
an emotional and revivalistic style of religion.
A key contribution to American political thinking was the Enlightenment ideas of John Locke relating to p. 88
All of the first three colonial wars (King William's, Queen Anne's, and King George's) p.90
arose over essentially European issues and involved relatively little colonial participation.
In 1758 ___________ took over the British leadership of the French and Indian War, pouring soldiers and money into North America. p.93
Under the Treaty of Paris (1763) ending the French and Indian War. p.94
France lost all her possessions on the mainland of North America.
In governing their American empire after 1763, the new problems which faced the British was
greatly increased expenses of administering a far larger and more complex empire.
Americans were most alarmed by the Sugar Act of 1764 because it p.100
asserted Parliament's right to tax Americans for revenue purposes.
The purpose of the British army's march on Concord, Massachusetts, in April 1775 was to p.114
seize the war supplies stored there.
The author of the tract, Common Sense, which boldly called for complete independence and attacked not only King George III, but also the idea of monarchy itself, was p.117
) Battles in and around ________ in August and September of 1776 were ignominious defeats for Washington's forces and seemed to presage an easy British triumph in the war. p.120-121
New York City
In May 1775 shortly after it convened, the Second Continental Congress p.115
formed the Continental Army under the leadership of George Washington.
) In which of the following was there a mutual agreement that the signatories would aid each other in the war or the event of war with Great Britain, while also recognizing the United States as a sovereign and independent state? p.123
Treaty of Alliance between France and the United States
The British defeat at Yorktown resulted largely from the p.127
French fleet winning control of Chesapeake Bay and preventing Cornwallis from escaping from the peninsula by sea.
The union of American states under the Articles of Confederation was a p.130
league of friendship, in which the states were sovereign and the national government had only weak delegated powers.
The most significant change in the new state governments was the p.130
removal of outside control, making them more responsive to public opinion.
What happened to social reform when many states wrote constitutions during the Revolution? p.131
Many states seized the occasion to introduce important political and social reforms.
) Under the Articles of Confederation there was a failed attempt to raise revenue and pressure the British by a(n) p.144
) “A little rebellion” is “medicine necessary for the sound health of government.” This statement was made by p.145
Thomas Jefferson on Shays's Rebellion.
The text notes that during and after the Revolution, slavery p.132
died where it was not economically important.
The Great Compromise settled the issue of representation in Congress by allowing p.148
each state two Senators and a number of Representatives that depended on its population.
It was difficult to amend the Articles of Confederation because amendments had to be approved by p.145
unanimous consent of the states.
The procedure specified for ratifying the Constitution p.149
depended upon approval of the Constitution by special conventions in the various states.
The principle of the Three-Fifths Compromise was that p.148
three-fifths of the slaves would be counted in determining each state's representation and share of direct federal taxes.
Examining the debate over ratifying the Constitution, the text concludes that the p.152
) Federalists used their superior political organization and persuasive abilities to great advantage.
Which of the following committed the United States to be “friendly and impartial” in the wars that raged in Europe in the late 1800s? p.158
Washington's Proclamation of Neutrality, 1793
Much Anti-Federalist opposition to the Constitution disappeared when p.152
the Federalists promised amendments to guarantee the civil liberties of the people.
In his "Farewell Address," George Washington indicated his p.163
belief that political parties were harmful and divisive.
One of the main differences between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton was that Hamilton p.173
thought commercialization and centralization was best for the country.
In the election of 1800,p.172
Jefferson was finally chosen president by the House of Representatives.
In Marbury v. Madison, Chief Justice John Marshall cleverly established the power of the Supreme Court to p.176
invalidate federal laws held to be in conflict with the Constitution.
For Jefferson, one of the most important reasons for the Louisiana Purchase was that it p.177-178
secured access to the mouth of the Mississippi River.
One of the purposes of the Lewis and Clark expedition was to p.182
establish official relations with Native American tribes.
“The Pretension advanced by Mr. Madison that the American Flag should protect every Individual sailing under it is too extravagant to require any serious Refutation.” This statement by a British foreign secretary is about the American response to p.188
) Under ________, exports were totally prohibited and only foreign vessels were allowed to import goods to America.
the Embargo Act
) The "Burr Conspiracy" was an unsuccessful attempt p.183-186
to separate a part of the West from the United States.
) Congress repealed ________ in 1809 because it harmed American commerce rather than that of the British and French. p.190
the Embargo Act
One of the major reasons for American entry in the War of 1812 was the p.196
American belief that the British were inspiring Native American resistance to American expansion
) According to the _____________, trade with Great Britain and France was forbidden and could only resume by presidential proclamation when either power ceased violating the rights of Americans. p.190
Tecumseh's brother, Tenskwatawa (or "The Prophet") p.196-197
declared Native Americans should reject white ways, clothes, and liquor.
The War Hawks called for war against Great Britain because they p. 198
wanted to defend the national honor and save the republic from British domination.
The British changed their strategy against the United States in 1814 because p. 202
the war in Europe, which had diverted their attention earlier, was now over.
The Treaty of Ghent (1814) ending the War of 1812 p.203
simply reestablished the status quo ante bellum
The major U.S. city sacked and burned by the British in 1814 was p.202
The Transcontinental Treaty of 1819 p. 206
transferred Florida to the United States for $5 million and settled the southern boundary of the Louisiana territory to the Pacific.
The battle of New Orleans in 1815 resulted in the p.204-205
emergence of Andrew Jackson as a military hero.
The first American factory was developed by p.225
Samuel Slater to spin cotton thread.
Most workers in the earliest textile factories were p.228
women and children
Under the Waltham System, p.228-229
young farm women worked and lived under strictly supervised conditions
In the early nineteenth century, business became corporations by obtaining a charter p. 231
through a special act of a state legislature
As a result of the cotton gin p.233
cotton production soared and the Southern economy boomed
By far the most important indirect effect of industrialization occurred when the p. 232
South began to produce cotton to supply the new textile mills of New England and Great Britain.
the Republic of Liberia in western Africa p.234
was founded by the American Colonization Society was was the eventual home to 12,000 American blacks.