Lab 7: Overview of Skeleton Flashcards


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1

What is the:
Hard, calcified, and matrix containing many collagen fibers

Osseous connective tissue
aka bone

2

Osteocytes lie in

Lacunae

3

Bones are very well ____________

vascularized

4

The framework of the body is

skeleton

5

The skeleton is constructed of 2 of the most supportive tissues in the human body

cartilage and bone

6

The skeleton is predominately composed of
___________ : in embryo
___________ : in adults

hyaline cartilage

rigid bones

7

Cartilage persists only in __________ areas.

Isolated.
(external ears, bridge of nose, larynx, trachea, joints, and parts of the rib cage)

8

Bones are connected at the __________ or _________.

joints or articulation

9

skeleton is subdivided into 2 groups

axial and appendicular

10

How many bones are found in an adult body?

206 (WOAHHH!)

11

Skeletons are composed of 2 basic tissues that differ in texture:

Compact and Spongy

12

texture of compact bone

Smooth and homogeneous

13

What are spongy bones composed of?

small trabeculae (bars) of bones
and lots of open space

14

4 groups of bones:

long
short
irregular
flat

15

General characterstics of Long bone:
- much _________ than they are wide.
- consists of _______ with heads at either ____.
- composed predominantly of _________ bone.

- much LONGER than they are WIDE.
- consists of SHAFTS with HEADS at either ENDS.
- composed predominantly of COMPACT bone.

16

Short bones are typically _______ shaped.
Contain more _____ bone than compact bone.

- cube
- spongy

17

Flat bones are generally thin.
They have 2 wafer-like layers which is composed of:

2 layers of compact bones with a layer of spongy bone in between.

18

Although flat bone implies a flat surface, many bones are ________.

curved

19

Bones that do not fall into the long, short or flat category, fit into _________

irregular bones

20

special types of short bones formed in tendons are called ___________

sesamoid bone

21

tiny bones found between cranial bones are called ________ or wormian

sutural bones or wormian

22

the markings on the bone reveal:

- where the bones form ______ with other bones,
- where muscles, tendons, and ligaments were ______,
- where __________ and __________ passed

- where the bones form joints with other bones,
- where muscles, tendons, and ligaments were attached,
- where blood vessels and nerves passed

23

Anatomy of a long bone:

- Shaft is called - ___________

- diaphysis

24

- A fibrous membrane covering the bone surface -________

periosteum

25

- Fibers of the periosteum penetrating into the bone- ___________________________

Perforating (Sharpey's) fibers

26

Blood vessel and nerves travel through the ___________ and invade the bone

periosteum

27

- end of the long bone - _____________________

epiphysis

28

- A glassy hyaline cartilage that covers the epiphyseal surface in place of the periosteum - _________________

articular cartilage

29

Articular cartilage prevents _________ at joint surfaces.

friction

30

A thin area of hyaline cartilage that provides for longitudal growth of the bone during youth.

Epiphyseal plate

31

Once the bone has stopped growing, the plates are replaced with bone and appear as thin and barely discernible remnants-

Epiphyseal line

32

In adults, The central cavity or the medullary cavity of the shaft is a storage region for adipose tissue or _____________ marrow

yellow marrow

33

In infants, the central cavity or the medullary cavity of the shaft is involved in forming blood cells, so __________ marrow is found.

red marrow

34

In adults the red marrow is confined to the interior of ___________.

Epiphyses (occupies the spaces b/w the trabeculae of spongy bone)

35

Endosteum covers the -
__________ of spongy bones
lines the canals of _________ bone

trabeculae
canals of compact bone

36

Periosteum and Endosteum both contains ___________ and ____________.

Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts

37

An abnormally thin epiphyseal plate indicates growth ________

retardation

38

The hardness of the bone is due to the inorganic ___________ salts deposited in its ground substances

Inorganic calcium salts

39

Bones flexibity comes from the _________ elements f the matrix

organic elements of the matrix.
(collagen fibers)

40

Identify the microscopic structures of compact bone:

A canal that runs parallel to the long axis of the bone and carries blood vessels, nerves, and lymph vessels through the bony matrix

Central (Harversian) Canal

41

Identify the microscopic structures of compact bone:

- mature bone cells: ___________
- the mature bone cells are located in chambers called: ____________

osteocytes

lacunae

42

Identify the microscopic structures of compact bone:

Lacunae are arranged in concentric circles around the central canal

circumferential lamellae

43

Identify the microscopic structures of compact bone:

A central canal and all the concentric lamellae surrounding it are referred to as ______ or _________ system

Osteon or Haversian system

44

Identify the microscopic structures of compact bone:

Tiny canals radiating outward from a central canal to the lacunae of the first lamella and then from lamella to lamella.

Canalicli

45

Identify the microscopic structures of compact bone:

Canals that run into the compact bone and marrow cavity from the periosteum at right angle to the shaft

Perforating (Volkmann's) Canal

46

Location of Articular cartilage

covers the bone ends at movable joints

47

Location of Costal cartilage

found connecting the ribs to the sternum (breastbone)

48

Location of Laryngeal cartilage

largely constructs the larynx (voice box)

49

Location of Tracheal and Bronchial cartilages

reinforces other passageway of the respiratory system

50

Location of Nasal cartilages

supports the external nose

51

Location of Invertebral discs

seperates and cushions the vertebrae

52

Cartilage tissues contain NO ____________ or __________

nerves or blood vessels

53

Cartilage is surrounded by a covering of dense connective tissue called a _____________

perichondrium

54

Perichondrium resists __________________ and also plays a role in _______ and __________.

distortion (under pressure)
growth and development

55

3 types of Cartilage tissues

Hyaline
Elastic
Fibrocartilage

56

Cartilage tissue that looks like frosted glass.
Most abundant.
Provides sturdy support.

Hyaline cartilage

57

Cartilage tissue that is known as "hyaline cartilage with more elastic fibers."
More flexible than hyaline cartilage.
Cartilages of external ears and epiglottis.

Elastic cartilage

58

Fibrocartilage consists of rows of __________ alternating with rows of thick _________ ________.

rows of CHONDROCYTES and rows of thick COLLAGEN FIBERS

59

Fibrocartilage tissue looks like a hybrid of 2 types of tissues...

CARTILAGE and DENSE REGULAR CONN. TISSUE

60

Why are fibrocartilages used to contruct the invertebral discs and cartilages within the knee joints?

they have great tensile strength and withstand heavy compression

61
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62
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What color are the Axial bones represented in this picture?
What about Appendicular bones?

Axial- Green
Appendicular- Tan

63
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Identify the parts.

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64
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65
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66
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67
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Identify the parts of the long bone

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68
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A 3-D view of spongy bone and compact bone of the Epiphysis

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69
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70
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71
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72

Projections that are sites of muscle and ligament attachments.

tuberosity
crest
trochanter
line
tubercle
epicondyle
spine
process

73

Large rounded projection; may be roughened.

Tuberosity

74

Narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent

Crest

75

Very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process

Trochanter

76

Narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than crest

Line

77

Small rounded projection or process

Tubercle

78

Raised area, on or above a condyle

Epicondyle

79

Sharp, slender, often pointed projection

Spine

80

Projections that help to form joints

Head
Facet
Condyle
Ramus

81

Bony expansion carried on a narrow neck

Head

82

Smooth, nearly flat articular surface

Facet

83

Rounded articular projection

Condyle

84

Armlike bar of bone

Ramus

85

space within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane

Sinus

86

Depressions and openings allowing blood vessels and nerves to pass

Meatus
Fossa
Groove
Fissure
Foramen

87

canal- like passageway

Meatus

88

Shallow, basin- like depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface

fossa

89

furrow

groove

90

narrow, slitlike opening

Fissure

91

Round or oval opening through a bone

foramen

92

The 4 major anatomical classifications of bones are long, short, flat, and irregular.
Which category has the least amount of spongy bone relative to its total volume?

Long bone

93

Femur, Humerus, Tibia, Fibula,Radius, Ulna, Metacarpals, Metatarsals, and Phalanges are examples of ________ bone.

Long bone

94

carpals and tarsals are ____ bones.

Short

95

Scapula, Sternum, Cranium, Coxal, Pelvis, and Ribs are ________ bones

Flat

96

Vertebrae, sacrum, and mandible are ______ bones

Irregular

97

Periosteum is the attachement point of what.

tendons and ligaments thru tendons and ligaments

98

Route taken by nutrients through a bone starting with periosteum and ending with osteocytes

Periosteum -> Perforating canals -> central canals -> canaliculi -> Lancunae -> Osteocytes

99

organic matrix in bone gives bone...

flexibility and strength

100

inorganic material in bone gives bone...

hardness and compressional strength