How much of the total volume of body fluid is intracellular fluid?
80% of the extracellular fluid is?
Which of the following makes up the largest single component of the human body?
Which of the following is produced when electrons are accepted by oxygen during cellular respiration?
Which of the following occurs when water loss is greater than water gain?
The response of the body to decreasing blood pressure will NOT include which of the following?
Which of the following is the main factor that determines water loss?
Which of the following is used to promote Na+ reabsorption by the kidneys?
Which of the following is used to promote water reabsorption by the kidneys?
none of these choices
A decline in angiotensin II levels does NOT result in
increased calcium reabsorption
The major hormone that regulates water loss is
Water intoxication results from
Dilute body fluids and a decrease in the osmolarity of interstitial fluids
Which of the following is a function of an electrolyte in the body?
All of these
In EXTRAcellular fluid, the most abundant CATION is
In EXTRAcellular fluid, the most abundant ANION is
In INTRAcellular fluid, the most abundant CATION is
IN INTRAcellular fluid, the most abundant ANION is
The Na+ level in blood is controlled by
Which of the following occurs between RBC and blood plasma as the blood level of carbon dioxide increases or decreases?
Which of the following is the most abundant mineral in the body?
PTH, calcitriol and calcitonin are
The main regulators of calcium in blood
Most of the phosphate in the body is present as
calcium phosphate salt
Buffer systems, exhaling carbon dioxide and excretion by the kidneys are all
Ways of controlling H+ levels in the body
Metabolic reactions can produce
Which of the following is a condition where blood pH is below 7.35?
In partial compensation
systemic arterial blood is still lower than 7.35
Inadequate exhalation of carbon dioxide can cause
Blood pH to drop
Which imbalance results when systemic arterial blood HCO3- levels drop significantly (below 22 mEq/liter)?
Which imbalance results when systemic arterial blood CO2 levels raise to abnormal values?
Which of the following is the most common cause of metabolic alkalosis?
The rate of fluid intake and outflow is how much higher in an infant than in an adult?
7 times higher
The breathing rate of an infant
causes greater water loss from the lungs
What part of the brain contains the thirst center?
Most buffer systems in the body consist of
A weak acid and the salt of that acid
Which protein is the main protein buffer in blood plasma?
Which of the following chemicals is considered to be a volatile acid?
Which cells of the kidneys are the most important for regulation of pH of body fluids?
Which of the following is the most plentiful buffer in the tubular fluid of the kidney collecting duct?
monohydrogen phosphate ion
Which of the following is NOT a mechanism that maintains pH of body fluids?
All of these are correct
Which of the following is a common cause of respiratory disease?
Hypoventilation due to emphysema
Which condition may result in respiratory alkalosis?
Infants experience more problems with acid-base homeostasis and fluid and electrolyte balance based on which of the following?
all of these are factors
Metabolic acidosis may develop following which situations?
A,B,C (severe gastrointestinal virus, diabetes ketoacidosis, renal dysfunction)
Weakness, irritability, tetany, delirium, convulsions and several other signs and symptoms from hypomagnesemia may be associated with an individual who is
A, B, C (alcoholic, malnourished, diabetic)
The body uses aldosterone to retain sodium. This hormone has the reverse effect on another mineral or compound. This mineral or compound is
Which cation and two anions are present in the highest quantities in the extracellular fluid?
sodium, chloride, bicarbonate