Anatomy and Physiology 2 Wiley Chapter 27 Flashcards


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anatomy & physiology 2, anatomy & physiology ii, anatomy and physiology, anatomy
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1

How much of the total volume of body fluid is intracellular fluid?

2/3

2

80% of the extracellular fluid is?

interstitial fluid

3

Which of the following makes up the largest single component of the human body?

Water

4

Which of the following is produced when electrons are accepted by oxygen during cellular respiration?

metabolic water

5

Which of the following occurs when water loss is greater than water gain?

Dehydration

6

The response of the body to decreasing blood pressure will NOT include which of the following?

Dehydration

7

Which of the following is the main factor that determines water loss?

Urination

8

Which of the following is used to promote Na+ reabsorption by the kidneys?

Aldosterone

9

Which of the following is used to promote water reabsorption by the kidneys?

Antidiuretic hormone

10

Natriuresis

none of these choices

11

A decline in angiotensin II levels does NOT result in

increased calcium reabsorption

12

The major hormone that regulates water loss is

ADH

13

Water intoxication results from

Dilute body fluids and a decrease in the osmolarity of interstitial fluids

14

Which of the following is a function of an electrolyte in the body?

All of these

15

In EXTRAcellular fluid, the most abundant CATION is

Na+

16

In EXTRAcellular fluid, the most abundant ANION is

Cl-

17

In INTRAcellular fluid, the most abundant CATION is

K+

18

IN INTRAcellular fluid, the most abundant ANION is

HPO42-

19

The Na+ level in blood is controlled by

Aldosterone

20

Which of the following occurs between RBC and blood plasma as the blood level of carbon dioxide increases or decreases?

Chloride Shift

21

Which of the following is the most abundant mineral in the body?

Calcium

22

PTH, calcitriol and calcitonin are

The main regulators of calcium in blood

23

Most of the phosphate in the body is present as

calcium phosphate salt

24

Buffer systems, exhaling carbon dioxide and excretion by the kidneys are all

Ways of controlling H+ levels in the body

25

Metabolic reactions can produce

Nonvolatile acids

26

Which of the following is a condition where blood pH is below 7.35?

Acidosis

27

In partial compensation

systemic arterial blood is still lower than 7.35

28

Inadequate exhalation of carbon dioxide can cause

Blood pH to drop

29

Which imbalance results when systemic arterial blood HCO3- levels drop significantly (below 22 mEq/liter)?

metabolic acidosis

30

Which imbalance results when systemic arterial blood CO2 levels raise to abnormal values?

respiratory acidosis

31

Which of the following is the most common cause of metabolic alkalosis?

Vomiting

32

The rate of fluid intake and outflow is how much higher in an infant than in an adult?

7 times higher

33

The breathing rate of an infant

causes greater water loss from the lungs

34

What part of the brain contains the thirst center?

Hypothalamus

35

Most buffer systems in the body consist of

A weak acid and the salt of that acid

36

Which protein is the main protein buffer in blood plasma?

Albumin

37

Which of the following chemicals is considered to be a volatile acid?

H2CO3

38

Which cells of the kidneys are the most important for regulation of pH of body fluids?

intercalated cells

39

Which of the following is the most plentiful buffer in the tubular fluid of the kidney collecting duct?

monohydrogen phosphate ion

40

Which of the following is NOT a mechanism that maintains pH of body fluids?

All of these are correct

41

Which of the following is a common cause of respiratory disease?

Hypoventilation due to emphysema

42

Which condition may result in respiratory alkalosis?

cerebrovascular accident

43

Infants experience more problems with acid-base homeostasis and fluid and electrolyte balance based on which of the following?

all of these are factors

44

Metabolic acidosis may develop following which situations?

A,B,C (severe gastrointestinal virus, diabetes ketoacidosis, renal dysfunction)

45

Weakness, irritability, tetany, delirium, convulsions and several other signs and symptoms from hypomagnesemia may be associated with an individual who is

A, B, C (alcoholic, malnourished, diabetic)

46

The body uses aldosterone to retain sodium. This hormone has the reverse effect on another mineral or compound. This mineral or compound is

potassium

47

Which cation and two anions are present in the highest quantities in the extracellular fluid?

sodium, chloride, bicarbonate