The ________ is a layer of tough fibers and fat cells that anchors the skin to the deeper tissues.
The rash described as "teardrops on rose petals" is characteristic of
Under some circumstances, ________ is beneficial, but under other conditions the bacteria become overabundant leading to inflammation of hair follicles.
A pigment produced by an opportunistic pathogen that contributes to tissue damage is
A small puncture wound on a woman's arm has become swollen, hot to the touch, and intensely painful. There is tissue necrosis but it is not "gassy," and under the microscope Gram-positive cocci in chains are present. Which of the following microbes is likely to be responsible?
Which of the following forms of leishmaniasis is typically fatal?
A child complains of intensely itchy "pimples" on the hands and wrists. The lesions are small inflamed streaks, but do not appear to contain pus. The child's condition may be the result of infection with
A man is suffering severe foot pain in the area of what looks like a large wart. He reports he has had the wart for some time, and the pain and swelling have developed slowly. A sample from the lesion shows that the pus contains large cells that stain a golden brown color. The man is likely suffering from
"Ringworm" is caused by
dermatophytes growing in the upper dead tissue layers of the skin.
A rash characterized by macules which swell, fill with fluid and then pus, then rupture and become crusty lesions, is characteristic of
A reddening of the skin of the face that intensifies when exposed to the sun is characteristic of
Some strains of Papillomavirus are oncogenic due to their ability to
integrate into the host cell DNA
Shingles, or herpes zoster, is a reactivation of the virus that causes
Smallpox was the first human disease to be
A petechial rash starting on the hands and feet and spreading to the torso is characteristic of
Necrotizing fasciitis is caused by
both Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus
One summer, bird watchers and zookeepers in a major city notice that more birds than usual are dying. At the same time reports of human encephalitis cases increase sharply. The cerebrospinal fluid of human patients is clear. Similar enveloped RNA virus particles are detected in samples from both birds and humans. Which of the following might be responsible for this outbreak?
A young man is experiencing fever and severe headaches, and is having difficulty staying awake. He reports having spent time in Africa on a missionary trip several months ago. Recently he spent time in a park where he went swimming in the lake and was bitten by a bat he attempted to catch. His cerebrospinal fluid is nearly clear, and contains long, slender, mobile cells. This description indicates infection with
A child is brought to the hospital with a high fever, nausea, and vomiting, and complaining of headache. The cerebrospinal fluid collected by spinal tap is cloudy and contains spherical cells which stain Gram-positive. These signs and symptoms are consistent with
Bacterial meningitis probably due to Streptococcus
A child is brought to the hospital with high fever and headache. During examination a stiff neck is noted. What sign indicates the child has viral meningitis instead of bacterial meningitis?
African sleeping sickness is fatal if not treated because the parasite
evades destruction by the immune system by changing surface antigens.
An intracellular parasite primarily transmitted as an STD is the agent of ________, which may cause enough damage to result in blindness.
The disease known as cryptococcal meningitis
results from exposure to bird droppings and begins as a lung infection
Which of the following statements concerning rabies is FALSE?
All mammals can serve as a reservoir for the diesease
Viral meningitis is also called "aseptic meningitis"
to indicate no bacteria are involved
Listeria monocytogenes pathogenesis is directly related to its ability to
live and reproduce inside its host's cells
The highly destructive form of Hansen's disease is the result of
poor immune response to Mycobacterium leprae
A baby arrives at an emergency room suffering from violent muscles spasms and difficulty breathing. The baby's body is so rigid a proper exam is difficult, but the staff note the baby is only a few weeks old and the umbilicus has not healed properly. The signs are consistent with which of the following diseases?
How does tetanospasmin affect motor control?
it blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters in the CNS
Which of the following is TRUE of foodborne botulism?
it is an intoxication disorder
Bacterial agents of meningitis which can survive phagocytosis include
both Neisseria meningitides and Streptococcus pneumoniae
Newborns exposed to the Gram-positive bacterium ________ during vaginal birth are at risk of developing neonatal meningitis.
Infection with Schistosoma species is acquired by
wading or swimming in fresh water.
Which of the following statements concerning Toxoplasma infection is CORRECT?
It is typically contracted by eating undercooked meat.
Plasmodium falciparum produces proteins that cause ________ in addition to the anemia due to erythrocyte destruction.
Depletion of clotting proteins from the serum leads to the uncontrollable hemorrhaging seen in ________ infections.
Which of the following is known to be teratogenic?
A large number of people in an African village become ill a couple of weeks after sharing a feast of stew made from the meat of jungle animals. They initially have fever, headache and fatigue, and develop petechiae. Most then experience bloody diarrhea and vomiting, and a few days later begin bleeding from the mouth and eyes. What is the most likely preliminary diagnosis?
ebola hemorrhagic fever
A young woman develops a fever after a recent trip to a Caribbean island. She also experiences severe headache and pain "in the bones." After a few days, she also develops a rash. Which of the following did she most likely contract?
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is the result of
a hyperimmune response to reinfection with dengue virus
Cycles of fever, chills, anemia and headache along with passage of dark colored urine are the symptoms of infection with
Epstein-Barr virus infections are typically asymptomatic in ________ because of incomplete development of adaptive immunity.
How does Borrelia burgdorferi evade the body's defenses?
it is capable of antigenic variation and has manganese-containing enzymes
Fever, difficulty breathing, extreme fatigue, and elevated heart rate are characteristic of
Blood returning from circulation through the body first enters the
Infection of the lymphatic vessels is known as
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is associated with
both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a complication resulting from the
release of lipid A from dying Gram-negative bacteria
A woman who breeds parrots develops a fever and cough, and begins to have difficulty breathing. Small Gram-negative bacteria are detected inside cells of a sputum sample. Which of the following diseases is she likely to have contracted?
A young man who works on a ranch and lives in the log bunkhouse experiences sudden fever with muscle aches. A few days later he begins to cough and have difficulty breathing, and goes to an urgent care clinic. His blood pressure is low. A blood sample reveals a low platelet count. A Gram stain of a sputum sample shows only a few small bacteria present. Which of the following is the most likely infecting agent?
Legionella pneumophila is an opportunistic pathogen that
survives in the environment as an intracellular parasite of a protozoan
Which of the following is a common cause of otitis media?
A nursing student develops a positive reaction to the tuberculin skin test. A history reveals possible exposure to patients with tuberculosis. A sputum sample is acid-fast negative. When asked for vaccination records, the student reports that childhood vaccination records were lost when the family emigrated from a Southeast Asian country. What is the best explanation for the test results?
The student has been exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis or was vaccinated with BCG vaccine
A new vaccine for the upcoming flu season is developed from an influenza isolate designated A/Shanghai/2/2013(H7N9). This nomenclature means the isolate is
a type A with antigens HA7 and NA9 isolated in Shanghai in February 2013
Why are nearly all AIDS patients at risk of developing Pneumocystis pneumonia?
Pneumocystis jiroveci is a common member of the respiratory microbiota in humans and opportunistic pathogen
Dust storms in arid regions of the Southwestern U.S. may lead to outbreaks of
Limiting exposure to rodents and their waste is an important means of preventing
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
Blastomycosis results from
inhalation of fungal spores.
Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis called MDR are resistant to
isoniazid and rifampin.
Neutrophils are inhibited from gathering at the site of infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis by what virulence factor of the pathogen?
A pneumonia caused by Gram-positive diplococci is known as
The microbe which causes primary atypical pneumonia is
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the common cold?
Cold viruses are frequently spread by contaminated fomites
Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning diphtheria?
The signs and symptoms of the disease are directly caused by a bacterial toxin.
Accessory organ infections are caused by
What member of the human intestinal microbiota occasionally causes life-threatening disease?
Care in the handling and disposal of diapers in day care centers may prevent the spread of which of the following?
A large number of people in a community experience diarrhea with fever. Public health authorities investigate and find that the people are passing dark urine, and some have yellowish skin. Furthermore, all of the affected individuals recently ate at a new restaurant in town known for its wide variety of fresh imported vegetables. Which of the following is the most likely causative agent?
hepatitis A virus
Which of the following is a common childhood parasite in the United States?
Human infestation with Taenia saginata results from ingesting ________ in undercooked intermediate host.
Where in a tapeworm would you expect to find fertilized eggs?
at the end of the strobila
Which of the following is a notable symptom of giardiasis?
foul-smelling "rotten egg" stool
Eating sashimi (uncooked fish) is a risk factor for infection with
Diagnosis of hepatitis B infection is made by the observation of which of the following in the patient's body fluids?
The primary treatment for viral gastroenteritis is
Which of the following conditions usually results in severe acute liver damage?
co-infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis delta viruses
Chronic infection with ________ may progress to hepatic cancer.
both HBV and HCV
Which of the following statements is TRUE with regard to oral herpes?
Lesions can be triggered by emotional stress or physiologic changes.
Staphylococcal food poisoning is called an intoxication disorder because
toxins produced by the bacteria growing in the food are ingested along with the food.
A young woman being treated for serious burns develops severe diarrhea accompanied by intense abdominal pain. She passes several watery, foul-smelling, bloody stools a day. A colonoscopy reveals patches of yellowish lesions in the large intestine. The probable causative agent is
Trichomonas vaginalis is usually transmitted during sexual intercourse because it
cannot live long outside the body.
A woman goes to her gynecologist and reports that she is experiencing pain during intercourse and frequently has an unusual vaginal discharge that is increased in quantity and sort of foamy. A vaginal smear shows normal appearing epithelial cells along with small leaf-shaped cells with prominent oval nuclei. What disease is the woman experiencing?
Condylomata acuminata are associated with infections of which of the following?
Some strains of the virus responsible for genital warts can cause the development of
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding genital herpes?
Acyclovir is effective in reducing the occurrence of lesions, but is not a cure.
Which of the following can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, characterized by fever and abdominal pain?
both Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae
What is the effect of TSST-1 exotoxin on the body?
It binds to receptors on T cells and activates them.
Which of the following statements is CORRECT regarding the incidence of STDs?
Viral STDs in the U.S. are considered epidemic.
The noninfective, obligately intracellular forms of chlamydia are called
Syphilis can be transmitted
both by sexual contact and from mother to fetus.
The disorder ________ is a complication of systemic infections with Streptococcus in which antigen-antibody complexes form in the blood and get trapped in the kidneys.
When bacteria invade the kidney, the result can be
Which of the following is commonly the source of leptospirosis?
infected human urine
During the spring calving season, a ranch hand begins to run a fever and feel nauseous and achy. After he develops a headache and vomiting, he goes to a clinic. A microscopic exam of a urine sample reveals long thin microbes which move very rapidly in a corkscrewing pattern. The man may have contracted
The majority of cases of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome are diagnosed in
Why does taking antibacterial medications put women at risk for candidiasis?
Antibacterials deplete the normal bacterial microbiota, resulting in a change of pH.
Which of the following may result from eating tuna sashimi (raw fish)?
Which of the following may result from eating shellfish?
A patient is brought to the emergency room in a comatose state. The family reports he had complained of nausea and a bad headache in the past couple of days. They also report they had engaged in their normal summer activities: picnicking, fishing and swimming at the lake near their home. His fever is high, and while in the ER, he has a seizure. Which of the following is likely to be responsible for his symptoms?
Which of the following sets of characteristics describes the highest level of threat potential from biological weapons?
a human pathogen easily produced as an aerosol and transmissible by respiratory aerosols