ch. 9 Flashcards


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1

The following are steps used to make DNA fingerprints. What is the third step?

A) Collect DNA.
B) Digest with a restriction enzyme. C) Perform electrophoresis.
D) Lyse cells.
E) Add stain.

B

2

The reaction catalyzed by reverse transcriptase is

A) DNA mRNA.
B) mRNA cDNA.
C) mRNA protein.
D) DNA DNA.
E) tRNA mRNA.

B

3

Which of the following is an advantage of using E. coli to

make a human gene product?

A) Endotoxin may be in the product.

B) It does not secrete most proteins.

C) Its genes are well known.

D) It cannot process introns.

E) Endotoxin may be in the product and it does not secrete most proteins.

C

4

Which of the following is NOT an agricultural product made by DNA techniques?

A) frost retardant

B) Bacillus thuringiensis insecticide

C) nitrogenase (nitrogen fixation)

D) glyphosate-resistant crops

E) pectinase

E

5

If you have inserted a gene in the Ti plasmid, the next step in genetic engineering is

A) transformation of E. coli with Ti plasmid.

B) splicing T DNA into a plasmid.
C) transformation of an animal cell.
D) inserting the Ti plasmid into Agrobacterium.
E) inserting the Ti plasmid into a plant cell.

D

6

Biotechnology involves the
A) use of microorganisms to make desired products.

B) use of animal cells to make vaccines.

C) development of disease-resistant crop plants.

D) use of microorganisms to make desired products and the use of animal cells to make vaccines.

E) use of microorganisms to make desired products, the use of animal cells to make vaccines, and the development of disease- resistant crop plants.

E

7

Which of the following is NOT a desired characteristic of DNA vectors used in gene cloning procedures?

A) self-replication

B) large size

C) has a selectable marker

D) circular form of DNA or integrates into the host chromosome

E) may replicate in several species

B

8

An advantage of synthetic DNA over genomic or cDNA is the ability to

A) insert desired restriction sites into the DNA sequence. B) isolate unknown genes.

C) make DNA from cellular RNA and the enzyme reverse transcriptase.

A

9

An advantage of cDNA over genomic DNA is that it

A) lacks exons.

B) lacks introns.
C) contains selectable markers.
D) can form very large DNA segments. E) is very easy to isolate.

B

10

Which enzyme would cut this strand of DNA? GCATGGATCCCAATGC

A) Enzyme Recognition BamHI GGATCC

CCCTAGG
B) Enzyme Recognition

EcoRI GAATTC CTT AAG

C) Enzyme Recognition

HaeIII GGCC CCGG

D) Enzyme Recognition HindIII AAGCTT

TTCGAA
E) Enzyme Recognition

Pst ICTGCG GACGTC

A

11

Pieces of DNA stored in yeast cells are called a
A) library.
B) clone.
C) vector.
D) Southern blot.
E) PCR.

A

12

A population of cells carrying a desired plasmid is called a

A) library.
B) clone.

C) vector.

D) Southern blot.

E) PCR.

B

13

Self-replicating DNA used to transmit a gene from one organism to another is a

A) library.
B) clone.
C) vector.
D) Southern blot. E) PCR.

C

14

The Human Genome Project, which was completed in 2003, was focused on

A) identifying all of the genes in the human genome.

B) determining the nucleotide sequence of the entire human genome.

C) determining all of the proteins encoded by the human genome.

D) finding a cure for all human genetic disorders.

E) cloning all of the genes of the human genome.

B

15

A colleague has used computer modeling to design an improved enzyme. To produce this enzyme, the next step is to

A) look for a bacterium that makes the improved enzyme.
B) mutate bacteria until one makes the improved enzyme.
C) determine the nucleotide sequence for the improved enzyme. D) synthesize the gene for the improved enzyme.

C

16

You have a small gene that you wish replicated by PCR. After 3 replication cycles, how many double-stranded DNA molecules do you have?

A) 2
B) 4
C) 8
D) 16

C

17

Which of the following places the steps in the PCR procedure

in the correct order?
1) Incubate at 94C to denature DNA strands; 2) Incubate at 72C for DNA synthesis;
3) Incubate at 60C for primer hybridization. A) 1, 2, 3
B) 3, 2, 1
C) 1, 3, 2
D) 2; 1; 3
E) 3; 1; 2

C

18

Which of the following are used to silence specific genes and hold promise for treating cancer or viral diseases, such as hepatitis B?

  1. A) RNA interference (RNAi)
  2. B) complementary DNA (cDNA)
  3. C) reverse transcriptase PCR (rtPCR)
  4. D) tumor-inducing plasmids (Ti plasmids)
  5. E) DNA fingerprinting

A

19

Which of the following techniques is NOT used to introduce recombinant DNA into plants?

A) gene guns
B) protoplast fusion
C) Ti plasmids and Agrobacterium D) microinjection
E) electroporation

D

20

In Figure 9.5, the marker genes used for selecting recombinant DNA are

A) HindIII, BamHI, and EcoRI. B) ampR and lacZ.

C) ori.

D) ampR and ori.

E) lacZ and ori.

B

21

In Figure 9.5, the gene that allows the plasmid to be self- replicating is

A) HindIII. B) ampR.

C) ori.
D) EcoRI. E) lacZ.

C

22

A source of heat-stable DNA polymerase is

A) Agrobacterium tumefaciens. B) Thermus aquaticus.
C) Saccharomyces cerevisiae. D) Bacillus thuringiensis.

E) Pseudomonas.

B

23

The Pap test for cervical cancer involves microscopic examination of cervical cells for cancerous cells. A new, rapid diagnostic test to detect human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA before cancer develops is done without microscopic exam. The

steps involved in this FastHPV test are listed below. What is the second step?

A) Add an RNA probe for HPV DNA.
B) Lyse human cells.
C) Add enzyme-linked antibodies against DNA-RNA.
D) Add enzyme substrate.
E) The order is unimportant.

A

24

Gene silencing involves all of the following EXCEPT

A) small interfering RNAs.
B) production of double stranded RNAs.
C) small interfering RNA binding to a gene promoter. D) Dicer.
E) RNA-induced silencing complex.

C

25

You want to determine whether a person has a certain mutant gene. The process involves using a primer and a heat-stable DNA polymerase. This process is

A) translation.
B) restriction mapping. C) transformation.

D) PCR.

E) site-directed mutagenesis.

D

26

Which of the following are used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to track outbreaks of foodborne disease?

A) DNA fingerprints

B) restriction fragment length polymorphisms

C) reverse-transcriptase PCR (rtPCR)

D) DNA fingerprints and restriction fragment length polymorphisms

E) DNA fingerprints, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and reverse-transcriptase PCR(rtPCR)

E

27

Assume you have discovered a cell that produces a lipase that works in cold water for a laundry additive. You can increase the efficiency of this enzyme by changing one amino acid. This is done by

A) irradiating the cells.
B) site-directed mutagenesis. C) enrichment.

D) selective breeding.

E) selection.

B

28

The use of an antibiotic-resistance gene on a plasmid used in genetic engineering makes

A) replica plating possible.
B) direct selection possible.
C) the recombinant cell dangerous.

B

29

The following steps must be performed to make a bacterium produce human protein X.

1-Translation

2-Restriction enzyme

3-Prokaryotic transcription

4-DNA ligase

5-Transformation

6-Eukaryotic transcription

7-Reverse transcription

Which of the following places the steps in the correct order? A) 5, 2, 3, 4, 7, 6, 1
B) 1, 2, 3, 5, 4, 7, 6
C) 6, 7, 2, 3, 4, 5, 1

D) 6, 7, 2, 4, 5, 3, 1

E) 6, 2, 1, 3, 4, 5, 7

D

30

A restriction fragment is

A) a gene.

B) a segment of DNA.

C) a segment of mRNA.

D) a segment of tRNA.

E) cDNA.

B

31

Which of the following processes is NOT involved in making cDNA?

A) reverse transcription
B) RNA processing to remove introns C) transcription
D) translation

D

32

PCR can be used to identify an unknown bacterium because

A) the RNA primer is specific.
B) DNA polymerase will replicate DNA.
C) DNA can be electrophoresed.

D) all cells have DNA.
E) all cells have RNA.

A

33

The random shotgun method is used in A) amplification of unknown DNA.

B) transforming plant cells with recombinant DNA. C) genome sequencing.
D) RFLP analysis.
E) forensic microbiology.

C

34

Restriction enzymes are
A) bacterial enzymes that splice DNA.

B) bacterial enzymes that destroy phage DNA. C) animal enzymes that splice RNA.
D) viral enzymes that destroy host DNA.

B

35

The study of genetic material taken directly from the environment is

A) bioinformatics.

B) proteomics.
C) reverse genetics.

D) forensic microbiology.

E) metagenomics.

E

36

The term biotechnology refers exclusively to the use of genetically engineered organisms for the production of desired products.

false

37

In recombinant DNA technology, a vector is a self-replicating segment of DNA, such as a plasmid or viral genome.

true

38

The practice of breeding plants and animals for desirable traits, such as high crop yield, is called natural selection.

false

39

A shuttle vector is a plasmid that is used to move pieces of DNA among organisms, such as bacterial, fungal, and plant cells

true

40

Nearly all cells, including E. coli and yeast, naturally take up DNA from their surroundings without chemical treatment.

false

41

The disadvantage of genomic libraries over cDNA libraries is that genomic libraries contain gene introns.

true

42

One of the first commercial successes of recombinant DNA technology was the production of human insulin using genetically engineered E. coli.

true

43

Bioinformatics is the use of computer technology to compare and analyze genome sequence.

true

44

The Ti plasmid isolated from Agrobacterium can be used to insert DNA into any type of plant.

false

45

The Bt toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis has been introduced into some crop plants to make them resistant to insect destruction.

true

46

Assume you have discovered a cell that produces a lipase that works in cold water for a laundry additive. You can increase the efficiency of this enzyme by changing one amino acid. This is done by

A) irradiating the cells.

B) site-directed mutagenesis.

C) enrichment.

D) selective breeding.

E) selection.

B

47

The use of an antibiotic-resistance gene on a plasmid used in genetic engineering makes

A) replica plating possible.

B) direct selection possible.

C) the recombinant cell dangerous.

D) the recombinant cell unable to survive.

E) All of the answers are correct.

B

48

In the Southern blot technique, which of the following is NOT required?

A) transfer of DNA to nitrocellulose

B) addition of a labeled probe to identify the gene of interest

C) restriction enzyme digestion of DNA

D) electrophoresis to separate fragments

E) addition of heat-stable DNA polymerase to amplify DNA

E

49

You have a small gene that you wish replicated by PCR. After 3 replication cycles, how many double-stranded DNA molecules do you have?

A) 2

B)4

C) 8

D) 16

C

50

Random shotgun method is used in

A) genome sequencing

B) transforming plant cells

C) amplification of unknown DNA

A

51

A shuttle vector is a plasmid that is used to move pieces of DNA among organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and plant cells

True

52

Choose the best pair to complete the following sentence. While ________ is/are responsible for the diversity of life, ________ is/are responsible for shaping a population with organisms possessing characteristics that enhance survival.

A) vectors; rDNA.

B) microbes; DNA.

C) properties; vectors.

D) selection; mutations.

E) mutations; selection.

E

53

An advantage of using Saccharomyces cerevisiae over Escherichia coli to produce a human protein is that

A) it will be more likely to continuously secrete the protein.

B) it will be less likely to express the protein.

C) it has a genome only 4 times larger than E. coli.

D) its genome is well understood unlike E. coli.

E) it can be engineered to produce human proteins unlike E. coli.

A

54

t/f

The practice of breeding plants and animals for desirable traits, such as high crop yield, is called natural selectio

false

55

T/F

reverse transcriptase is an enzyme that makes a molecule of dna from an rna template

true

56

T/F

restriction enzymes cut specific sequences of dna

true

57

T/F

restriction enzymes cut both strands of a double stranded dna molecule

true

58

cDNa libraries are made from mRNA by reverse transcriptase

true

59

negative (indirect) selection detects mutant cells because they do not grow. In order to do this type of selection replica plating is often used

true

60

shuttle vectors can exist in several different species

true

61

segments of dna that can move from one region of dna to another are called transposons or jumping genes

true

62

pcr is the electrophoresis of restriction enzyme digests which can be used to compare dna

false

63

Suicide genes can be controlled by the fimbriae-gene operator. This would result in the death of

A) All cells.

B) Cells making flagella.

C) Cells making fimbriae.

D) Cells at 37°C.
E) Conjugating cells.

C

64

Subunit vaccines can be made by genetic modification of yeast cells. A side effect of these vaccines might be A) The disease.

B) A yeast infection.
C) Due to extraneous material.
D) Failure of the vaccine to provide immunity.

E) None of the above.

E

65

E. coli makes insulin because
A) It needs to regulate its cell-glucose level.

B) It's an ancient gene that now has no function.

C) The insulin gene was inserted into it.
D) It picked up the insulin gene from another cell.

E) No reason; it doesn't make insulin.

C

66

Which enzyme does NOT make sticky ends?

  1. A) Enzyme BamHI
  2. B) Enzyme EcoRI
  3. C) Enzyme HaeIII
  4. D) Enzyme HindIII
  5. E) Enzyme PstI

C

67

Which enzyme would cut this strand of DNA: GCATGGATCCCAATGC?

A) Enzyme BamHI

B) Enzyme EcoRI

C) Enzyme HaeIII

D) Enzyme HindIII

E) Enzyme PstI

A

68

In Figure 9.4, the resulting organism (a) is

A) Bacillus thuringiensis.

B) Pseudomonas fluorescens.
C) A tomato plant.
D) E. coli.
E) a plant × Pseudomonas hybrid.

C

69

In Figure 9.4, the resulting P. fluorescens has

A) A tomato gene.

B) An E. coli gene.
C) A Bacillus gene.
D) A tomato and a Bacillus gene.

E) No new gene.

C

70

In Figure 9.4, the purpose of this experiment is to

A) Put a gene into a plant.

B) Put an insecticide on plant leaves.

C) Put a gene in Bacillus.
D) Isolate Pseudomonas from a plant.

E) Make a better tomato.

B

71

In Figure 9.4, the vector is

A) A virus.

B) A plasmid.

C) A library.
D) RNA.
E) Pseudomonas.

B

72

In Figure 9.4, the process required in step 5 is

A) Transformation.

B) Southern blotting.

C) PCR.
D) Transcription.
E) Conjugation.

A

73

You want to determine whether a person has a certain mutant gene. The process involves using a primer and Taq. This process is

A) Translation.
B) Restriction mapping.

C) Transformation.

D) PCR.
E) Site-directed mutagenesis.

D

74

A specific gene can be inserted into a cell by all of the following EXCEPT

A) Protoplast fusion.

B) A gene gun.
C) Microinjection.

D) Electroporation.

E) Agrobacterium.

A

75

Which of the following processes CANNOT be used to insert foreign DNA into cells?

A) Transformation

B) Electroporation
C) Protoplast fusion
D) A gene gun
E) All of the above can be used to insert foreign DNA into cells.

E

76

Which of the following best describes the basis for separation of DNA fragments during gel electrophoresis?
a. the fragments with the highest percentage of G and C will migrate fastest
b. the fragments with the highest percentage of A and T will migrate fastest
c. the largest fragments will migrate fastest
d. the smallest fragments will migrate fastest
e. the DNA molecules with positive charge move faster

D

77

Cohesive or sticky ends for cloning are produced using?
a. restriction endonuclease
b. RNA polymerase
c. DNA ligase
d. reverse transcriptase
e. DNA polymerase

A

78

The polymerase chain reaction can be used for?
a. latent virus detection
b. paternity testing
c. DNA fingerprinting
d. all of the above
e. two of the above

D

79

The purpose of the Southern blotting techniques is to?
a. amplify fragments of DNA
b. cleave DNA into small fragments
c. construct a plasmid vector
d. remove introns prior to cloning
e. detect specific DNA fragments from a mixture of DNA molecules

E

80

Advantages of using E. coli to make a gene product?

A) easily grown

B) Genomic are well known

C) Both A and B

C

81

Advantages of using S. cerevisiae to make a gene product?

A) easily grown

B) have larger genome than bacteria

C) expresses eukaryotic genes easily

D) All of the above

D

82

Applications of DNA technology:

A) subunit vaccines

B) DNA vaccines

C) gene therapy

D) Human Insulin

E) all of the above

E

83

Forensic microbiology includes

A) Southern blotting

B) genome sequencing projects

C) DNA fingerprinting

C

84

plasmids differ from transposons in that plasmids:
A) become inserted into chromosomes
B) are self-replicated outside of the chromosome
C) move from chromosome to chromosome
D) carry genes for antibiotic resistance
E) none of the above

B