The dots on the map represent reported cases of a disease. this distribution is a
The condition known as microbial antagonism may be defined as
A) microorganisms that remain with a person throughout life
B) an unsuccessful microbial invasion due to the presence of preexisting microbes
C) a relationship between two organisms where one member harms the other
D) a relationship between two organisms where both members benefit
E) a relationship between two organisms where only one member benefits
an unsuccessful microbial invasion due to the presence of preexisting microbes.
An axenic environment is one
that is free of microbes
The condition called parasitism is characterized as a
relationship between two organisms where one member harms another.
Several days after a walk in the woods, Cheryl develops a localized rash. It is not painful and soon fades so she thinks nothing of it. Several months later she experiences increasing fatigue, low-grade fever, and pain in the joints. These symptoms persist for months before she seeks medical attention. This description is most consistent with a(n) ________ infection.
A new influenza strain appears and is spreading rapidly. What measures might be taken by public health agencies to stop the spread?
educate the public, promote vaccination, and treat those who are infected.
Organisms that are resident microbiota are best described as
microorganisms that remain with the person throughout their life.
The taxonomic approach to classifying disease is based on the
type of microbe that causes the disease
Microbes known as transient microbiota are
organisms that remain in the body for a short time
A true pathogen my also be described as
Which of the following combinations of pathogen and virulence factor is CORRECT?
streptococcus pyogenes and protein M
Treatment in high doses of antibiotics may lead to which type of health care associated infection?
Which of the following is the CORRECT sequence of a disease process?
The pattern of new cases reported in North America represented in this graph is consistent with ________ transmission.
incubation, prodromal period, illness, decline, convalescence
Two children attend the same daycare, but one child is at the
facility in the morning and the
other child attends the facility in the afternoon. Both children become ill with fifth disease within
one day of each other. How might the pathogen have infected both children?
Which of the following pairings of microbe and disease was disproven using Koch's postulates?
Haemophilus influenzae and the flu
What is the relationship between prevalence and incidence for an
acute disease like
saliva exchanged during a kiss
An example of direct contact transmission is
the incidence and prevalence are essentially equal
Which of the following types of epidemiology applies Koch's postulates to study a disease?
Ten months after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, there was a sharp
increase in the number of
cases of cholera. What was the most likely source of disease?
A strain of Neisseria gonorrhea has a mutation which has caused it to
lose the ability to
produce fimbriae and become less virulent as a consequence. What function has this pathogen
the ability to adhere to cells of the body
the incidence of tuberculosis in the year 2000 in the United States was 12.43/100,000 cases. this means
there were 12.43 new cases of tuberculosis for every 100,000 people in the us in the year 2000.
In early spring 2009, the CDC reported several dozen cases of novel H1N1 influenza (swine flu) in the united states. By the summer, the number of confirmed cases was reported as over 40,000. The pattern of novel H1N1 cases in the United States represents an ________ disease.
a person is exposed to desert air containing fungus spores and develops valley fever as a result. Valley fever is an example of a ______ disease.
Which of the following is considered a mechanical vector transmission?
cockroach transmission of shigella
Among the virulence factors produced by Staphylococcus aureus are hemolysin, coagulase, hyaluronidase, and enterotoxin. Which of these factors contribute to the ability of S. aureus to invade the body?
Bacterial contaminants grow in food in a closed container. The food is heated after the container is opened, but a person develops food poisoning after eating it. The bacteria were producing
Which of the following situations might cause normal microbiota to become opportunistic pathogens?
treatment of a cancer patient with radiation.
Which of the following situations is NOT a way in which a baby
microbes cross the placenta during pregnancy
A person licks a needle before injecting a drug into a vein. The person later develops a bacterial infection of the blood. This is an example of
a member of the microbiota gaining access to an unusual location in the body
subjective characteristics of a disease that only he patient can feel
Infection occurs when
pathogens enter and multiply in body tissue
Endogenous infectious agents arise from microbes that are
the patients own normal flora
all infectious diseases
are cause by microorganisms of their products
STORCH is an acronym that represents the most common
infections of the fetus and neonate
a student has their teeth cleaned. the hygienist nicks their gum tissue. the student develops endocarditis due to streptococcus. what kind of pattern of infections i this?
A veterinary hospital had an outbreak of salmonella infantis. Within the facility, how can salmonella be spread?
all choices are correct.
2. unwashed hands
3. contaminated objects
4. multiple animals using the same stalls without proper cleaning
Some diseases can be vertically transmitted. This is understood to mean the disease is transmitted:
from parent to offspring via milk, ovum, sperm, or placenta
Marion is going to the hospital for a triple bypass operation. She will have general anesthesia, intravenous catheter, surgical wounds, and a urinary catheter, which nosocomial infection is she at greatest risk for contracting?
Joe contracted Hepatitis A by eating contaminated doughnuts from a local bakery. The source of the disease is...........................and the reservoir is..................................
the doughnut, humans
All of the following are signs of infectious diseases, except
If the ID for gonorrhea is 1,000 cells and the ID for tuberculosis is 10 cells, which organism is more virulent?
which of the following is correct about skatole?
it is a mixture of amines and gases that gives feces it characteristic stench
when would Koch's Postulates be utilized?
To determine the cause of a new disease in a microbiology research lab
a statement of the kind of experimental evidence required to establish the causative relation of a given microorganism to a given disease. The conditions are: (1) the microorganism must be present in every case of the disease; (2) it must be isolated and cultivated in pure culture; (3) inoculation of such culture must produce the disease in susceptible animals; (4) it must be observed in, and recovered from, the experimentally diseased animal.
nosocomial (pertaining to or originating in a hospital.
) infections involve all the following, except
medical and surgical asepsis help lower their occurrence.
during what process is hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide produced to destroy bacteria and inhibit viral replication?
which of the following nonspecific mediators inhibits virus replication and cellular division while increasing some lymphocyte action?
all of the following are correct about lymph, except
it is transported through the body by the same pump as blood
i.e., the heart
Joan's inflamed and painful joints are likely due to which of the following chemicals?
Maria was scratched on her arm by her cat and the site is experiencing rubor. This means
Due to the way lymph drains from lymph nodes, cell and products of immunity continually:
enter the regular circulatory system
All of the following are types of granulocytes because they have prominent cytoplasmic granules when stained, except
Specificity and memory are associated with which body defense mechanism?
T cell and B cell responses
Which is mismatched?
Which is incorrect about inflammation?
pyrogens cause vasodilation and increased capillary permeability
All the following are events of early inflammation, except
macrophages appear first and begin phagocytosis
Which structures are found along lymphatic vessels but are heavily clustered in the armpit, groin, and neck?
The reticuloendothelial system
all of the choices are correct
1. provides a passageway within and between tissues and organs
2. is heavily populated with macrophages
3. is a support network of connective tissue fibers
4. originates in the cellular basal lamina
All of the following pertain to platelets except
they contain hemoglobin to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
Hematopoiesis is the
production of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets
First line of defense may be described as:
intact skin, mucous membranes, sebum, tears, and so forth
The leukocytes called natural killer lymphocytes:
are nonspecific leukocytes that secrete toxins onto the surface of virally infected cells.
Structures and products of pathogens that immune cells detect and respond to are called:
Which of the following statements is TRUE of eosinophils?:
they secrete toxins onto the surface of helminth parasites
Wandering macrophages recognize microorganisms by means of
both TLR's and NOD proteins
Which of the following leukocyte functions do macrophages carry out?
phagocytosis of pathogens and secretion of alpha interferons and leuktrienes
What feature of the skin creates a physical barrier to microbial invasion?
the outer layers are dead cells, tightly linked together, and are frequently shed.
The process shown in the figure will lead to
Fever is beneficial during a viral infection because the higher temperature
increases the effectiveness of interferons
Which complement protein is the key to activating the alternative pathway of complement activation?
Which of the following substances stimulates the phagocytic activity of phagocytes?
Which of the following statements regarding phagocyte recognition of pathogens is true?
TLRs in the phagocyte cytoplasmic membrane bind surface structures of microbes.
Which of the following iron-binding proteins is
NOT part of the body's iron storage and transport
In addition to phagocytosis, neutrophils can kill bacteria by producing
Neutrophils produce ________, which can be triggered by sugar molecules on the surface of microbes to damage the microbes.
Receptors known as NOD proteins detect molecules associated with microbes
in the cytoplasm.
Which of the following cells can use nonphagocytic means to kill bacteria?
both eosinophils and neutrophils
Which of the following statements concerning the alternative complement system is true?
Its activation is independent of antibodies.
Which of the following is the key difference in the roles of the classical and alternative pathways of the complement system?
the range of microbes that can be targeted
What is the function of NK cells?
they release interferons in response to detecting virus particles
Mucous membranes are quite thin and fragile. How can such delicate tissue provide defense against microbial invaders?
The mucus physically traps microbes, contains a variety of antimicrobial chemicals, and is shed constantly, along with the outermost layer of cells.
Which of the following is the best definition of "microbial antagonism"?
the presence of normal microbiota that protect the body by competing with pathogens in a variety of ways to prevent pathogens from invading the body
Which of the following contributes to protecting the eyes from microbial invasion?
Tears contain lysozyme and salt and mechanically flush particles from the eyes.
Protection from infection known as species resistance is a result of
both the absence of necessary receptors and lack of suitable environment in the body.